IRRADIATION GRAFTING OF HYDROPHYLIC             MONOMER    ONTO CHITIN FOR ION EXCHANGE            APPLICATION            ...
INTRODUCTIONINDONESIA             DEVELOPING COUNTRY           INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT                           BESIDE PRO...
• The natural chelating marine polymer chitin, poly(N-acetyl-  D-glucosamine) and its deacetylated derivative chitosan is ...
Shell seafood waste such as shrimps shell and craps are                       abundantly in Inonesia           Shrimps she...
SHRIMPS SHELLNaOH, 1M           DEPROTEINATION        WASTE                                             Organic           ...
The adsorption behavior of chitin and its concerns with various degree of deacetylization. This high adsorption capacity w...
MODIFICATION OF CHITIN AND CHITOSAN BY IRRADIATION                    TECHNIQUE                               Irradiation ...
WHY RADIATION TECHNOLOGYIS IMPORTANT?HealthEnvironmentSafetyNew materials    Address all aspects of    Millennium Proj...
HIGH QUALITY MATERIALS        Crosslinking        Grafting        Degradation
Electron Beam MachineSpecificationsNo                       EPS-300 Type       GJ-2 Type1    Installation year        1984...
Panoramic Batch Irradiator, the Control PanelLatex Irradiator, the Control            Panel                               ...
IRRADIATION GRAFTINGGRAFTING MECHANISM  1. Initiation     Pembentukan radikal akibat radiasi               IRADIASI   a. C...
Reaction of graffting acrylic acid onto chitin        H                                          CH3           O          ...
EXPERIMENTALMaterial and ExperimentChitin extracted from prawn shell (Penaeus Monodon), it was got fromMuara Karang , Nort...
Grafting reaction  •   In the present experiment, the pre irradiation graft co polymerization      method was employed. In...
Measuring off adsorption of metal ions by chitin and its modifiedThe experiment was done with chitosan with degree of the ...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
FTIR Evidence of grafting : The increase in weight of the extracted grafted sample, as compare with that the original chit...
160                                                                             10 % Acrylamide                           ...
Effect of grafting temperature                                          100                                               ...
The ion exchange adsorption of metals ions                   by grafted chitin and its derivatives                  The ca...
 Using acryl amide give percentage of  grafting higher compare with acrylic  acid. The presence of monomer grafted onto ...
Dont worry, be happy    with nuclear
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Gatot trimulyadi- Radiation Grafting

619 views

Published on

Dr.Ir. Gatot Trimulyadi : The adsorption behavior of chitin and its concerns with various degree of deacetylization. This high adsorption capacity was ascribable primarily to its remarkable hydrophilicity in cooperation with the relatively high amino group content. It is indicate that the importance of hydrophlicity and suggest that, in order to develop adsorbents of high capacity, it is make indicate the importance of hydrophilicity essential to make chitin derivatives highly hydrophylic and yet insoluble in water.

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
619
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Gatot trimulyadi- Radiation Grafting

  1. 1. IRRADIATION GRAFTING OF HYDROPHYLIC MONOMER ONTO CHITIN FOR ION EXCHANGE APPLICATION Gatot Trimulyadi Rekso Center for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology Jl . Lebakbulus raya No 49, Jakarta 12240, INDONESIA Fax 62 21 7691607, E-Mail : Gatot2811@yahoo.com
  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONINDONESIA DEVELOPING COUNTRY INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT BESIDE PRODUCT ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMLIQIID WASTE WITH THE HEAVY METAL CONTENT IN THE LARGE SCALE OF PRODUCTION CAN BE HAZARDOUS TO ENVIRONMENTAL ION EXCHANGE ADSORBENT  CHEAP  SIMPLE  USEFFULL IN WASTE TREATMENT
  3. 3. • The natural chelating marine polymer chitin, poly(N-acetyl- D-glucosamine) and its deacetylated derivative chitosan is useful for removing heavy metal ion waste from discharge water .• Chitin , the most abundant naturally is undoubtedly one of the most promising and attracting resources present in quantity. Among some interesting properties of chitin , chelating ability arising from its characteristic structure is especially noteworthy. Many researchers have explored the feasibility of this approach. Kurita.K et.,all, conducted experiments with a number of heavy metals
  4. 4. Shell seafood waste such as shrimps shell and craps are abundantly in Inonesia Shrimps shell Craps shell The remarkable rapid and successful expansion of shrimps processing industry in Indonesia suggests the possibility of utilizing shrimps- processing waste as raw material for the manufacture of many valuable products such as chitin and chitosan for industrial and health care productIndonesian shrimps production in 2006 had been projected 350.000 tons
  5. 5. SHRIMPS SHELLNaOH, 1M DEPROTEINATION WASTE Organic Fertilizer WASTEHCl, 1M DEMINERALIZATION CHITIN Chitosan
  6. 6. The adsorption behavior of chitin and its concerns with various degree of deacetylization. This high adsorption capacity was ascribable primarily toits remarkable hydrophilicity in cooperation with the relatively high amino group content. It is indicate that the importance of hydrophlicity and suggest that, in order to develop adsorbents of high capacity, it is make indicate the importance of hydrophilicity essential to make chitin derivatives highly hydrophylic and yet insoluble in water.In this present study, the purpose of the experiments is to study graft-copolyimerization reactions as well as to study the absorption properties as ion exchange of grafted chitin. Hydrophilic monomers such as acrylic acid will be employed forthese experiments. The functional group of graft –copolymers is expected to be useful in the attaching test of metal ions.
  7. 7. MODIFICATION OF CHITIN AND CHITOSAN BY IRRADIATION TECHNIQUE Irradiation Degradation Degradation ・ Solid state Polysaccharides Polysaccharides Dilute aq. solution Chitin/Chitosan, Chitin/Chitosan, Pencangkokan/ grafting and their derivatives and their derivatives Irradiation Applications In Agriculture, Industry, Food, Medicine, Cosmetic Paste-like Crosslinking Crosslinking Fields condition Carboxymethylchitin Carboxymethylchitosa
  8. 8. WHY RADIATION TECHNOLOGYIS IMPORTANT?HealthEnvironmentSafetyNew materials Address all aspects of Millennium Project !!!
  9. 9. HIGH QUALITY MATERIALS Crosslinking Grafting Degradation
  10. 10. Electron Beam MachineSpecificationsNo EPS-300 Type GJ-2 Type1 Installation year 1984 19942 Origin Nissin High Shanghai Xian- Voltage, Japan Feng Electrical Manufacturing Work, China Type Cockroft- Dynamitron3 Walton4 Max tension 300 kV 2000 kV5 Max energy 300 keV 2000 keV6 Max flow 50 mA 10 mA Sample Konveyor Konveyor7 transportation
  11. 11. Panoramic Batch Irradiator, the Control PanelLatex Irradiator, the Control Panel Gammacell-220 Gamma Chamber-4000A
  12. 12. IRRADIATION GRAFTINGGRAFTING MECHANISM 1. Initiation Pembentukan radikal akibat radiasi IRADIASI a. Chit Chit• + H• b. Chit• + M Chit-H + M• 2. Propagation M• + nM M• n+1 3. Terminanation Chit • + M• m grafted Mm • + M• n+1 Homopolymer
  13. 13. Reaction of graffting acrylic acid onto chitin H CH3 O CH3 C O H O CH2 C O H O H O NH CH2 H O H O NH O HO O O NH CH2 O HO O HO NH CH2 O C O HO C O CH3 CH3 n Iradiasi Pemanasan . H CH3 O CH3 C O O CH2 C O H O HO NH CH2 H O H O NH O HO O O NH C O CH3 . O CH2 O HO NH C O O .O CH2 O CH3 n O CH2 CH C OH O CH C OH H CH3 CH2 O O CH3 C O CH2 C O H O HO NH CH2 H O HO NH O HO O O NH CH2 O HO O NH CH2 O C O O O C O CH3 CH3 CH2 CH2 O O CH C CH C OH n OH
  14. 14. EXPERIMENTALMaterial and ExperimentChitin extracted from prawn shell (Penaeus Monodon), it was got fromMuara Karang , North Jakarta. The were initially washed by water and thendried at 800 C overnight and conditioned at room temperature for 24 hr.Acrylic acid monomer, and white crystalline powder, obtained from EMerck, and other chemicals of reagent grade were used withoutpurification.Radiation SourceGamma radiation source of Co-60, IRKA batch irradiator , with irradiationdose rate about 9,0 kGy/hr was employed in these experiments. Thisradiation source is located at Pasar Jumat, Center for Application ofIsotopes and Radiation Technology, Jakarta, Indonesia.
  15. 15. Grafting reaction • In the present experiment, the pre irradiation graft co polymerization method was employed. In this method a sample of chitin powder of about 500 mg , was put into a glass tube, then irradiated in air atmosphere at room temperature. • A monomer acrylic acid solution was deairated by bubbling with nitrogen gas, then introduced into the pre irradiated sample and the graft polymerization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at certain temperature . The grafted chitin obtained was washed toughly with aquadest and soaked overnight in aquadest, then subjected to sox let extraction with methanol for 8 hours to extract homopolymer. The grafted chitin then was dried in vacuum until they reached a constant weight at 500 C. • The percentage of graft yield was calculated from the difference in weight ; o Graft yield = ( Wg - Wo ) / Wo x 100 % • Where Wo and Wg are the weight before and after grafting.
  16. 16. Measuring off adsorption of metal ions by chitin and its modifiedThe experiment was done with chitosan with degree of the deacetylizationof 78,5 % and modified chitin were Chitin-g-Aac. Measuring the rate ofadsorption about 100 mg of powder material (chitin,chitosan and it’smodifications) equilibrated with 100 ml 0f solutions ( HgSO4 , CuSO4.5 H2O,K2Cr2O7) 0,1 M, at pH 4,0 and stirred for 60 min. The metal ion uptakeconcentrated after equilibrating were determined by using AAS and forHg(II) using CV-AAS.
  17. 17. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  18. 18. FTIR Evidence of grafting : The increase in weight of the extracted grafted sample, as compare with that the original chitin and their FTIR spectra , was used as evidence of grafting. The FTIR spectra of chitin and grafted chitin are shown in Fig 1. It can be seen that a band around at 1660 cm –1 arises from carbonyl absorption of chitin and anew band appear at 3400 cm -1 which correspond to the hydroxyl absorption of grafted chitin with acrylic acid and at 3500 cm -1 is asymmetric stretching of NH2 for grafted chitin with acrylamide.
  19. 19. 160 10 % Acrylamide 140 Degree of grafting (% ) 20 % Acrylamide 120 30 % Acrylamide 100 40 % Acrylamide 80 60 40 20 0 0 60 120 180 240 300 Reaction time (min) • The effect of acrylic acid and acrylamide monomer concentration on the percentage of grafting with reaction period of 1 hr, 2 hr, 3 hr and 4 hr are presented on Figure above.It can be seen that the percentage of grafting is independent of the monomerconcentration
  20. 20. Effect of grafting temperature 100 200 Temp 50 C React. Temp 50 C P e rc e n ta g e o f g ra ftin g (% ) 80 Temp 60 C Degree of grafting (%) 160 React. Temp 60 C Temp 70 C React. Temp 70 C 60 120 Temp 80 C React. Temp 80 C 40 80 20 40 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 60 120 180 240 300 Time of reaction (hr) Reaction time (min) • It is oblivious that the degree of grafting is largely by the reaction temperature. The higher temperature the higher of degree of grafting obtained. • The reason is that the increase in temperature improves the monomer diffusibility as well as the mobility of the monomer. • It is recommended that the optimum reaction for this grafting system is 70 0 C more than that the increasing of degree of grafting is not so much, there is a nearly constant value.
  21. 21. The ion exchange adsorption of metals ions by grafted chitin and its derivatives The capacity of adsorption ( mg / g) Materials Hg(II) Cr(VI) Cu(II) • These results clearly show that chitin modified as chitin grafted acrylic acid have higher capacity of adsorption for ion metal such Hg, Cr, and Cu.Chitin 92,6 30,6 24,4Chitosan 174,5 48,4 44,2 • The highest one is for metal ion Hg. The chitin modified have an excellent adsorption capacity due to theChitin-g-Aac 294,3 109,5 180,1 advantageous location of -COOH, -OH and –NH2 group inChitin-g-Aam 257.3 94,8 154.6 the molecule of chitosan to form complex formation andChitosan-g-Aac 488,9 318,5 362,8 functional group of monomer act as ion exchger for ions metal.Chitosan-g-AAm 464,2 325,8 398,2
  22. 22.  Using acryl amide give percentage of grafting higher compare with acrylic acid. The presence of monomer grafted onto chitin is demonstrated by FTIR spectrum with the appearing of carbonyl functional group. The optimal condition of monomer acrylic acid or acryl amide concentration was 30 %, temperature 700 C and reaction period of 3 hours. Chitin grafted with acrylic acid give a higher capacity of adsorption of metal ion Cr, Cu and Hg compare grafted with acryl amide. The high rate of adsorption is for metal ion Hg it was found 488,9 mg/g for chitosan-g-Aac and 464,2 mg/g for Chitosan-g-Aam.
  23. 23. Dont worry, be happy with nuclear

×