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Manual de ingenieria civil

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Manual de ingenieria civil

1. 1. CIVIL ENGINEERINGGEOTECHNICAL Q = KH(Nf /Nd) (for flow nets, Q per unit width),Definitions where K = coefficient permeability,c = cohesion H = total hydraulic head (potential),cc = coefficient of curvature or gradation Nf = number of flow tubes, and = (D30)2/[(D60)(D10)], where Nd = number of potential drops.D10, D30, D60 = particle diameter corresponding to 10%, 30%, and 60% finer on grain-size curve. γ = total unit weight of soil = W/Vcu = uniformity coefficient = D60 /D10 γd = dry unit weight of soil = Ws /Ve = void ratio = Vv /Vs, where = Gγw /(1 + e) = γ /(1 + w), whereVv = volume of voids, and Gw = SeVs = volume of the solids. γs = unit weight of solid = Ws / VsK = coefficient of permeability = hydraulic conductivity n = porosity = Vv /V = e/(1 + e) = Q/(iA) (from Darcys equation), where τ = general shear strength = c + σtan φ, whereQ = discharge rate φ = angle of internal friction,i = hydraulic gradient = dH/dx, σ = normal stress = P/A,H = hydraulic head, P = force, andA = cross-sectional area. A = area.qu = unconfined compressive strength = 2c Ka = coefficient of active earth pressurew = water content (%) = (Ww /Ws) ×100, whereWw = weight of water, and = tan2(45 – φ/2)Ws = weight of solids. Kp = coefficient of passive earth pressure = tan2(45 + φ/2)Cc = compression index = ∆e/∆log p Pa = active resultant force = 0.5γH 2Ka, where = (e1 – e2)/(log p2 – log p1), where H = height of wall.e1 and e2 = void ratio, andp1 and p2 = pressure. qult = bearing capacity equation = cNc + γDf Nq + 0.5γBNγ , whereDr = relative density (%) Nc, Nq, and Nγ = bearing capacity factors = [(emax – e)/(emax – emin)] ×100 B = width of strip footing, and = [(1/γmin – 1/γd) /(1/γmin – 1/γmax)] × 100, where Df = depth of footing below surface.emax and emin = maximum and minimum void ratio, andγmax and γmin = maximum and minimum unit dry weight. FS = factor of safety (slope stability) cL + Wcosα tanφ = , whereGs = specific gravity = Ws /(Vsγw), where W sinαγw = unit weight of water (62.4 lb/ft3 or 1,000 kg/m3). L = length of slip plane,∆H = settlement = H [Cc /(1 + ei)] log [(pi + ∆p)/pi] α = slope of slip plane, = H∆e/(1 + ei), where φ = angle of friction, andH = thickness of soil layer W = total weight of soil above slip plane.∆e = change in void ratio, and Cv = coefficient of consolidation = TH 2/t, wherep = pressure. T = time factor,PI = plasticity index = LL – PL, where t = consolidation time.LL = liquid limit, and Hdr = length of drainage pathPL = plasticity limit. n = number of drainage layers Cc = compression index for normally consolidated clayS = degree of saturation (%) = (Vw /Vv) × 100, whereVw = volume of water, = 0.009 (LL – 10)Vv = volume of voids. σ′ = effective stress = σ – u, where σ = normal stress, and u = pore water pressure. 93
2. 2. CIVIL ENGINEERING (continued)UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM (ASTM D-2487) Group Major Divisions Typical Names Laboratory Classification Criteria Symbols D 60 (More than half of coarse fraction is larger than No. Depending on percentage of fines (fraction smaller than No. 200 sieve size), coarse-grained soils are Clean gravels (Little or no cu = greater than 4; D10 Well-graded gravels, gravel-sand GW mixtures, little or no fines (D ) 2 fines) cc = 30 between 1 and 3 D 10 × D 60 Determine percentages of sand and gravel from grain-size curve. 4 sieve size) (More than half of material is larger than No. 200 sieve size) Gravels Poorly-graded gravels, gravel-sand GP Not meeting all gradiation requirements for GW mixtures, little or no fines d Gravels with fines GMa Above "A" line amount of fines) Silty gravels, gravel-sand-silt mixtures Atterberg limits below "A" (Appreciable u with PI between 4 line or PI less than 4 and 7 are classified as follows: Coarse-grained soils borderline cases 5 to 12 percent: Borderline cases requiring dual symbolsb Clayey gravels, gravel-sand-clay requiring use of GC Atterberg limits above "A" mixtures dual symbols line with PI greater than 7 D 60 (More than half of coarse fraction is smaller Clean sands (Little or no cu = greater than 6; More than 12 percent: GM, GC, SM, SC D10 Well-graded sands, gravelly sands, little Less than 5 percent: GW, GP, SW, SP SW or no fines (D )2 fines) than No. 4 sieve size) cc = 30 between 1 and 3 D 10 × D 60 Sands Poorly graded sand, gravelly sands, little SP Not meeting all gradation requirements for SW or no fines d Limits plotting in Atterberg limits below "A" (Appreciable SMa Silty sands, sand-silt mixtures hatched zone with Sands with amount of u line or PI less than 4 fines) PI between 4 and 7 fines are borderline Atterberg limits above "A" cases requiring use SC Clayey sands, sand-clay mixtures line with PI greater than 7 of dual symbols Inorganic silts and very fine sands, rock ML flour, silty or clayey fine sands, or (Liquid limit less Silts and clays clayey silts with slight plasticity (More than half material is smaller than No. 200 sieve) than 50) Inorganic clays of low to medium CL plasticity, gravelly clays, sandy clays, silty clays, lean clays Organic silts and organic silty clays of OL low plasticity Inorganic silts, micaceous or Fine-grained soils greater than 50) MH diatomaceous fine sandy or silty soils, Silts and clays (Liquid limit elastic silts Inorganic clays of high plasticity, fat CH clays Organic clays of medium to high OH plasticity, organic silts Highly organic Peat and other highly organic soils soils Pta Division of GM and SM groups into subdivisions of d and u are for roads and airfields only. Subdivision is based on Atterberg limits; suffix d used when LL is 28 or less and the PI is 6 or less; the suffix u used when LL is greater than 28.b Borderline classification, used for soils possessing characteristics of two groups, are designated by combinations of group symbols. For example GW-GC, well-graded gravel-sand mixture with clay binder. 94