Project characteristics Temporary: Every project has a definite beginning and a definite end. The end is reached when the project’s objectives have been achieved, or it becomes clear that the project objectives will not or cannot be met, or the need for the project no longer exists and the project is terminated. Many projects last for several years. However, the duration of a project is finite. Unique Products, Services, or Results : A project creates unique deliverables, which are products, services, or results. Projects can create: • A product or artifact that is produced, is quantifiable, and can be either an end item in itself or a component item • A capability to perform a service, such as business functions supporting production or distribution • A result, such as outcomes or documents Progressive elaboration: Any project is developed in steps, progressively. People: Projects are undertaken at all levels of the organization and they can involve a single person or many thousands. Also, projects can involve one or many organizational units, such as joint ventures and partnerships
Project and innovation Projects are designed to promote change and innovation. They provide opportunities to test possible innovations in a protected environment without taking the decision to change established practice until it can be shown that the new ideas work. Projects and Strategic Planning Projects are often utilized as a means of achieving an organization’s strategic plan, whether the project team is employed by the organization or is a contracted service provider. Projects are typically authorized as a result of one or more of the following strategic considerations: A market demand (e.g., a Publishing company authorizes a project to launch a new evening newspaper, in response to the absence of any evening publication on the market) An organizational need (e.g., a Media conglomerate authorizes a project to broadcast a new entertainment show in order to increase its revenues) A customer request (e.g., a Newspapers company launches a local edition of an existing title, to serve the Iasi community) A technological advance (e.g., a printing company starts to replace all its technique resources in order to increase its printing power) New trends (e.g., a Media conglomerate starts to develop attractive websites for each brand in the portfolio, as a response to the new media market trends – digitization, weblogging, Internet, etc).
Key stakeholders on every project include: Project manager Customer/user Performing organization Project team members Project management team Sponsor Steering Committee Influencers - people or groups that are not directly related to the acquisition or use of the project’s product, but due to an individual’s position in the customer organization or performing organization, can influence, positively or negatively, the course of the project.
Project management is accomplished through the application and integration of the project management processes of initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing. The project manager is the person responsible for accomplishing the project objectives Managing a project includes: Identifying requirements Establishing clear and achievable objectives Balancing the competing demands for quality, scope, time and cost Adapting the specifications, plans, and approach to the different concerns and expectations of the various stakeholders. Projects and project management are carried out in an environment broader than that of the project itself. The project management team must understand this broader context so it can select the life cycle phases, processes, tools and techniques that appropriately fit the project. One can think of a project as a process. The Figure above shows this process as a simplified block diagram, displaying the key steps of a project: Initiation Project planning or Preparation (Scope/Requirements/deliverables definition) Project Control and execution Project closing
There are two different lifecycles that work in conjunction with one another throughout the course of every project. The project lifecycle describes the processes and tasks that must be completed to produce a product or service The project management lifecycle (proposed by Cornell) defines how to manage a project. It will always be the same, regardless of the project lifecycle being employed. One of a Project Manager’s challenges is to understand how to align the specific project lifecycle with the project management lifecycle. All projects should progress through the same five project management process groups , as in Figure above: Project Initiation – a project is proposed (usually bay project sponsor) in order to create a product or develop a service that can solve a problem or address a need in the organization(s). Project Planning (High Level) - the sponsor, project manager, and key stakeholders are charged to develop the Project Initiation Plan. The Project Planning (Detail Level) builds on the work done in Project Planning (High Level), refining and augmenting Project Plan deliverables. Usually, additional members join the Project Team, and they assist the Project Manager in further elaborating the details of the Triple Constraints: Budget, Scope, and Schedule. Project Execution and Control is where most of the resources are applied/ expended on the project. In Project Closeout , the Project Team assesses the outcome of the project, along with the performance of the Project Team and the performing organization(s).
In the Project Initiation phase a project is proposed (usually bay project sponsor) in order to create a product or develop a service that can solve a problem or address a need in the organization(s). At this point Project Carter is created. The purpose of the Project Charter is to authorize the sponsor to assign a project manager and to apply resources with developing a Project Initiation Plan. The Project Charter consist of: business case or project need proposed solution and/or the product description identifying the customers of the project and why they will benefit from the project tying the project to the organization’s business and/or strategic plan providing a list of any known constraints and major alternatives considered including the budget, resource requirements, and governance for completing the Project Initiation Plan
In the Project Planning (High Level) phase the sponsor, project manager, and key stakeholders are charged to develop the Project Initiation Plan. The Project Initiation Plan begins to define the overall parameters of the project and includes: Project goals, objectives and scope High level work breakdown structure (WBS) / key deliverables A milestone schedule, governance Stakeholder accountabilities, benefits Costs, high level resource requirements Management approaches Communication plan Risk plan To develop the Project Initiation Plan: invite key stakeholders to a project planning session; sometimes this takes multiple sessions produce the Project Initiation Plan using input from planning session review the plan with sponsor to get his approval review the plan with team and key stakeholders get commitment to stakeholder roles and responsibilities
Project Planning (Detail Level) builds on the work done in Project Planning (High Level), refining and augmenting Project Plan deliverables. Usually, additional members join the Project Team, and they assist the Project Manager in further elaborating the details of the Triple Constraints: Budget, Scope, and Schedule. The team develops the detailed project schedule. To develop the Detail Plan: confirm detailed customer requirements decompose the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) to the level of detail you plan to use to manage the project determine activity sequencing plan for resources determine activity duration create budget from estimated costs develop quality plan create Baseline Project Plan and Schedule If the budget is different from the estimated budget in the Project Initiation Plan, then the project sponsor(s) have to approve the new budget. This will become the baseline plan, and any change of scope will require approvals as defined in the Project Plan from this point forward.
Project Execution and Control is where most of the resources are applied/ expended on the project. A significant number of team members will join the project at this phase. The primary task of the Project Manager during Project Execution and Control is to enable the Project Team to execute the tasks on the project schedule and develop the product or service the project is expected to deliver. The major control tasks are monitoring progress, quality, and costs; identifying and resolving problems; applying corrective actions; and managing scope changes and risks.
In Project Closeout , the Project Team assesses the outcome of the project, along with the performance of the Project Team and the performing organization(s). This is accomplished primarily through soliciting and evaluating feedback from Customers, Project Team members, Consumers, and other Stakeholders.
Projects are means of achieving an organization’s strategic plan
A market demand
An organizational need
A technological advance
New trends, etc
“ The need to be right all the time is the biggest bar to new ideas. It is better to have enough ideas for some of them to be wrong than to be always right by having no ideas” Edward de Bono
Projects stakeholders Project stakeholders are individuals and organizations that are actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be affected as a result of project execution or project completion. Project manager Project sponsor Project Management Team Project Team Project Stakeholders PROJECT