Carbon monoxide poisoning, monitoring, control

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Carbon monoxide poisoning, monitoring, control

  1. 1. By Vinod Gogoriya Intelligent Gas Alarm India Pvt Ltd www.gasalarm.co.in , www.automationindia.in (c) Intelligent Gas Alarm India Pvt Ltd
  2. 2. Carbon monoxide in news: <ul><li>Gladstone Wal-Mart evacuated for carbon monoxide </li></ul><ul><li>Local authorities stress CO detectors after carbon monoxide kills one, poisons seven </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon monoxide sends man to hospital after he was exposed to elevated levels of carbon monoxide in his garage </li></ul><ul><li>Mum's tribute to son killed by deadly gas </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon monoxide clears school </li></ul><ul><li>People found unconcious because of mysterious gas </li></ul><ul><li>(source: various sources from internet, google news etc) </li></ul>(c) Intelligent Gas Alarm India Pvt Ltd
  3. 3. What is Carbon monoxide ?? <ul><li>Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless gas produced during combustion or incomplete combustion. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e HC (hydrocarbon or any fuel) or CH (carbohydrates or any biological substance eg. Skin, wood etc) </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>O2 (oxygen) </li></ul><ul><li>= CO2 (full combustion of carbon) + CO (partial combustion) + H2O </li></ul><ul><li>CO molecule is still unsatisfied and looking for oxygen atom (in air, blood oxygen) to form stable CO2 molecule. </li></ul>(c) Intelligent Gas Alarm India Pvt Ltd
  4. 4. What is Carbon monoxide ?? (cont…) <ul><li>When CO molecule enter human body through breath, it binds with hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying molecule in human blood). </li></ul><ul><li>As COHb levels increase, less hemoglobin is available for the transport of oxygen. Thereby leading to drastic decrease in blood oxygen and hence, body cells and tissue start dying. </li></ul><ul><li>Brain cells are affected most due to inhalation of CO as these cells draws maximum of blood oxygen. This leads to unconsciousness, coma or death. </li></ul>(c) Intelligent Gas Alarm India Pvt Ltd
  5. 5. Where is carbon monoxide found? <ul><li>Kitchen, restaurants, hookas, sheesha </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicles (IC Engines) (even cars with catalytic converters can produce substantial amounts of carbon monoxide if an idling car is left in an enclosed space such as a closed garage) </li></ul><ul><li>Fire (home, industrial) </li></ul><ul><li>Furnaces, foundries </li></ul><ul><li>Underground mines </li></ul><ul><li>Indoor and underground parking garages </li></ul><ul><li>Any place where fire, heating, combustion, burning taking place </li></ul>(c) Intelligent Gas Alarm India Pvt Ltd
  6. 6. Where is carbon monoxide found? (c) Intelligent Gas Alarm India Pvt Ltd Courtesy: www.wikipedia.org Concentration Source 0.1 ppm Natural atmosphere level 0.5 to 5 ppm Average level in homes 5 to 15 ppm Near properly adjusted gas stoves in homes 100 to 200 ppm Exhaust from automobiles in the Mexico City central area 5,000 ppm Exhaust from a home wood fire 7,000 ppm Undiluted warm car exhaust without a catalytic converter
  7. 7. What Standards says?? <ul><li>OSHA (USA) specifies </li></ul><ul><li>TWA (time weighted average) for CO: 25ppm </li></ul><ul><li>(ie. A person can be exposed to TWA concentration for 8 hrs in a day and 40 hrs in a week, after which he should be taken to fresh air and given rest to avoid any health problems. </li></ul><ul><li>STEL (Short term exposure limit) for CO: 35ppm </li></ul><ul><li>(ie. A person can be exposed to STEL concentration for maximum 15 mins, before any health problems arises) </li></ul><ul><li>The NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA – 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Specifies the following parameters for Ventilation: </li></ul><ul><li> CO level- within 29mg/cu.m (25 ppm) with </li></ul><ul><li> Peak level not to exceed 137 mg/cu.m.(125 ppm) </li></ul><ul><li>As per ASHRAE Max Level for CO </li></ul><ul><li>8 hrs exposure – 25ppm </li></ul><ul><li>1 Hour exposure- 35 ppm </li></ul>(c) Intelligent Gas Alarm India Pvt Ltd
  8. 8. Still Why to monitor CO level?? <ul><li>Having no colour, smell or taste means that it is very hard to detect carbon monoxide by human </li></ul><ul><li>Each year, over 50 people die in the UK as a direct result of exposure to Carbon Monoxide Gas (CO). Many more people die through strokes and respiratory illness made worse by inhaling low levels of CO over prolonged periods. Still, more are left with permanent damage and invalidity. </li></ul><ul><li>As CO does not cause any biological, chemical change in body, many of deaths are reported as of other reasons(though caused by CO inhalation) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon monoxide is an odourless, colourless, tasteless gas. You can't tell if it is there. It can build up quickly to deadly levels in confined spaces, sheds, tanks, and small or closed rooms. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon monoxide can also build up in large spaces like parking garages and industrial sheds if the ventilation is poor. </li></ul>(c) Intelligent Gas Alarm India Pvt Ltd
  9. 9. Levels CO poisoning: (c) Intelligent Gas Alarm India Pvt Ltd Courtesy: www.wikipedia.org Concentration Symptoms 35 ppm (0.0035%) Headache and dizziness within six to eight hours of constant exposure 100 ppm (0.01%) Slight headache in two to three hours 200 ppm (0.02%) Slight headache within two to three hours; loss of judgment 400 ppm (0.04%) Frontal headache within one to two hours 800 ppm (0.08%) Dizziness, nausea, and convulsions within 45 min; insensible within 2 hours 1,600 ppm (0.16%) Headache, tachycardia, dizziness, and nausea within 20 min; death in less than 2 hours 3,200 ppm (0.32%) Headache, dizziness and nausea in five to ten minutes. Death within 30 minutes. 6,400 ppm (0.64%) Headache and dizziness in one to two minutes. Convulsions, respiratory arrest, and death in less than 20 minutes. 12,800 ppm (1.28%) Unconsciousness after 2-3 breaths. Death in less than three minutes.
  10. 10. How to detect and monitor?? <ul><li>Electronic Carbon monoxide sensor detector should be installed at probable leakage or required spot/location </li></ul><ul><li>Available sensor technology (for human comfort) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-conductor (solid state) based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electro-chemical (Galvanic cell) based </li></ul></ul>(c) Intelligent Gas Alarm India Pvt Ltd
  11. 11. How to choose between technology? (c) Intelligent Gas Alarm India Pvt Ltd Parameter Electro-chemical Semiconductor Response Time Very low usually less than 30 sec Very high around 300 secs Cross sensitivity ( with other gases ) Very low High (thereby gives false alarms) Repeatability High Low (because of high response time) Accuracy High (± 3ppm) Low (± 15ppm) Life Around 5 years Around 5 years Power consumption Low High Temperature effect Low High
  12. 12. Installation and integration: <ul><li>As relative density of carbon monoxide ≈ 1, CO sensors are recommended to be installed at nose level height ie. 5-7 feet from floor </li></ul>(c) Intelligent Gas Alarm India Pvt Ltd CO sensor continues signal to controller Controller trips relays to turn on/off jet fans based on pre-set limits
  13. 13. Features of MSR CO Sensor: <ul><li>Electro-chemical (Gel based) sensor cell </li></ul><ul><li>0-300 ppm measuring range </li></ul><ul><li>4-20mA analog signal, 2 wire (loop current) </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse polarity, short circuit protected </li></ul><ul><li>Over flooding protected </li></ul><ul><li>Plug-in based sensor cell (for easy replacement) </li></ul><ul><li>IP44 protected enclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy: ± 3ppm </li></ul><ul><li>Response time < 50 sec </li></ul><ul><li>Life > 5 years </li></ul>(c) Intelligent Gas Alarm India Pvt Ltd
  14. 14. Contact Us: <ul><li>Intelligent Gas Alarm India Pvt Ltd </li></ul><ul><li>69, Ramgali 7, Raja Park </li></ul><ul><li>Jaipur 302004 </li></ul><ul><li>Ph: +91-141-4033769, 99833 45452 </li></ul><ul><li>Web: www.gasalarm.co.in , www.automationindia.in </li></ul><ul><li>Email: contact@gasalarm.co.in </li></ul>(c) Intelligent Gas Alarm India Pvt Ltd
  15. 15. <ul><li>Stay Safe, stay healthy </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you!!! </li></ul>(c) Intelligent Gas Alarm India Pvt Ltd

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