.Diving equipment.

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.Diving equipment.

  1. 1. 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 1
  2. 2. BOVE AND DAVIS’ DIVING MEDICINE-CHAPTER 3 Copyright 2004, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 2
  3. 3. -MASKS -FIN -SNORKELS -BREATHING APPARATUS -PERSONAL FLOTATION DEVICES -HYDRODYNAMIC DRAG -THERMAL PROTECTION -DIVE COMPUTERS 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 3
  4. 4. -Air pocket over the eye -Visual distortion -VF restriction -Pressure - Volume changes with attendant discomfort - irritation from chemical or bacteriologic sources. 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 4
  5. 5. 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com -Visual distortion is the result of variations in the distance from the mask lens to the eye. -Air has an index of refraction of 1.0, whereas the index of refraction of water is 1.333 -Objects to be closer and larger 5
  6. 6. MASKS 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 6
  7. 7. 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 7
  8. 8. -Hypoallergenic silicone skirts and straps are more comfortable, cause less irritation of the skin and eyes, and are significantly longerlasting than natural rubber products. -Black algae and other organisms can grow easily. 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 8
  9. 9. -Lenses with the appropriate corrections can be placed in masks quite easily and offer an alternative to contact lenses and eyeglasses 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 9
  10. 10. Fluid Dynamics of Swimming 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 10
  11. 11. 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com -Provide a greater resistive surface to improve propulsion. -The split-fin technology has achieved great popularity, and tests have shown them to be more efficient with less noticeable leg strain. 11 -
  12. 12. 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com The longer, narrower fins tended to be slightly more efficient than the shorter, wider fins and that fins with vents, regardless of their direction, were not superior to those without vents. - The split-blade over the solid-blade fins 12
  13. 13. A wider, slower kick is more efficient than the rapid, shallow kick often used by novice divers. -Flutter kick -Sculling-type kick - Different functional muscle groups(to prevent fatigue) 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 13
  14. 14. 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com -Snorkel tubes, used for easier breathing while swimming on the surface, have evolved from simple tubes that are open at both ends to devices that offer purge valves, swivel mouthpieces, advanced materials, and mouthpieces of improved design 14
  15. 15. -Long snorkels increase physiologic dead space and can lead to CO2 retention and hypercarbia. Excessively long snorkels should be avoided. 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 15
  16. 16. The snorkel mouthpiece should be able to rotate on the snorkel tube so that the lip flange of the mouthpiece can be placed parallel to the teeth and gums. Blisters of the oral mucosa and T.M joint problems can result from poor alignment. 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 16
  17. 17. -The scuba, or self-contained underwater breathing apparatus, used by recreational, scientific, commercial, and military divers. -Permits divers to move independently under water 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 17
  18. 18. 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com -Constructed of steel or aluminum, but stainless steel and titanium are also used. -Inspected annually by a trained inspector -Hydrostatic test procedure that is required every 5 y -Volume:50-120 ft*3 -Do not breathe the cylinder pressure < 200 psi except in 18 an emergency
  19. 19. Advantage:dec pre-res gasabeh.com work Disadvantage:ignor dec pre of tunk gasabeh47@gmail.com 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ -Inhalation and exhalation resistance of less than 3 inches (7.5 cm) of water -First stage of the regulator, where its pressure is reduced to an intermediate pressure of 130 to 150 psi. -Sconed stage of the regulator, where its pressure is reduced to the pressure of the surrounding environment and the diver’s lungs 19
  20. 20. Advantage:dec weight-not bubbleDisadvantage:hi expens-traini-low fswgasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ o2 toxi -Closed-circuit breathing apparatus consists of a mouthpiece and hoses connected to a breathing bag, a carbon dioxide–absorbent canister, and a highpressure breathing gas supply. -Sensor-controlled rebreather devices are typically set to hold the oxygen partial pressure between 0.5 -0.7 20 atm.
  21. 21. gasabeh.com is not a life jacket gasabeh47@gmail.com 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ - The buoyancy compensator is used as a tool whose primary function is to maintain the diver in a nearneutral state at any depth while maintaining a desired position, usually face down. -To accomplish this, the device should concentrate much of the flotation near the center of mass of the body. 21
  22. 22. PERSONAL FLOTATION DEVICES Life jacket buoyancy control device: -an automatic inflation -risk of confusion gasabeh.com load-bearing jacket gasabeh47@gmail.com 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ 22
  23. 23. -One liter of air displaces 1.03 kg of seawater (2.3 lb); thus, a buoyancy bladder exerts 2.3 lb of lifting force for every liter of water displaced. -Smaller buoyancy compensators have a capacity of approximately 10 L, whereas larger devices often have a capacity of 20 L or more. 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 23
  24. 24. Fluid Dynamics of Swimming 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 24
  25. 25. 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 25
  26. 26. - Drag develops in three basic ways during diving: by frontal resistance, by skin friction,and by turbulent or eddy resistance. Drag is the sum of these three types of resistance. 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 26
  27. 27. HYDRODYNAMIC DRAG 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27
  28. 28. - When a diver enters water with a heat conduction capacity 25 times that of air, heat is conducted from the body and adaptive changes occur to protect the body from a fall in core temperature. 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 28
  29. 29. - The most common protective garment is the wet suit , which uses a layer of air-impregnated neoprene rubber as the insulating boundary to trap water next to the diver’s skin as an insulating layer. A well fitted wet suit holds the water in place so that heat is not exchanged by water displacement. 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 29
  30. 30. - Dry suits have become more popular in recent years because of improvements in fit and mobility. Comfortable insulating undergarments, effective valve mechanisms, and better seals have also been added. gasabeh.com ROM-boyancy gasabeh47@gmail.com control 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ 30
  31. 31. 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com -These dive computers monitor pressure and time; they then provide information that can guide the diver through a proper decompression. -Computers are not riskFree.-Because there are no “safe” tables or “safe” dive computers,every diver must accept some risk when diving for sport or occupation. 31
  32. 32. -Dive computers cannot guarantee that their use will preventdecompression sickness. Properly used, these devices should reduce the risk under normal circumstances. 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 32
  33. 33. Thanks for your attention 10/‫31/ژانويه‬ gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 33

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