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Ict social issues Ict social issues Document Transcript

  • 高中六 資訊與通訊科技 中七 電腦應用資訊與通訊科技對社會的影響
  • 目錄1. 公平存取 Equity of Access.........................................................................................................3 1.1 互聯網上的資訊自由 Freedom of Information on the Internet...................................3 1.2 數碼隔閡 Digital Divide..................................................................................................4 1.3 性別平等 Gender Equity ................................................................................................7 1.4 協助殘疾人士使用電腦 Access for the disabled ......................................................82. 工作議題......................................................................................................................................9 2.1 遠程通勤 Telecommuting...............................................................................................9 2.2 虛擬組織 Virtual Organizations .................................................................................... 11 2.3 視像會議 Video Conferencing ...................................................................................... 113. 健康問題....................................................................................................................................13 3.1 與電腦相關的疾病........................................................................................................13 3.2 人體工程學 Ergonomics ...............................................................................................15 3.3 沉迷互聯網 Indulging in Internet Activities ............................................................174. 環境保護議題............................................................................................................................185. 知識產權....................................................................................................................................20 5.1 知識產權........................................................................................................................20 5.2 軟件的版權....................................................................................................................23 5.3 盜版問題........................................................................................................................27 5.4 侵犯版權的問題與日常生活的關係............................................................................29 P. 2
  • 1. 公平存取 Equity of Access1.1 互聯網上的資訊自由 Freedom of Information on the Internet好處:I. 互聯網上有各種資訊。 The Internet provides various kinds of information. 以前我們通常從書本中取得資訊,現在則可以從互聯網中取得。 Questions: 若想取得製作蛋榚的資訊,可以怎樣做?II. 互聯網上的資訊大多數是免費的 Most information on the Internet is free of chargeIII. 可以取得最新的資訊 Up-to-date information is always available on the Internet壞處:I. 大部分資訊都是未經審查的。 Too much uncensored information is found on the Internet. 這令我們從互聯網中得到 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 的資訊II. 上網會成癮 Accessing the Internet can be addictive有很多流動裝置能讓我們接達互聯網:Many mobile devices allow us to access the Internet: P. 3
  • 1.2 數碼隔閡 Digital Divide形容能與不能有效地使用資訊及通訊科技的人士之間的差異。Describe the growing gap between those people who can access and make effective use of ICT andthose who cannot.例:現在很多青少年都能使用電腦上網,但他們的父母卻不懂如何上網,他們之間使有數碼隔閡。產生數碼隔閡的原因:(i) 收入差距 Income gap(ii) 教育程度 Education Level(iii) 種族 Race(iv) 地理位置 Geographical Areas(v) 語言 Language全球數碼隔閡是指各國之間接達資訊科技的差距。解決方法:(i) 政府在公共圖書館、運動場和學校等公眾場所提供免費上網服務。 The government provides free Internet access in public places such as public libraries, sports centres and schools.(ii) 資助部分機構,開辦專為失業人士、家庭主婦、長者、新來港定居人士和低收入家庭而 設的資訊及通訊科技訓練課程。 Sponsored a number of institutes to organize ICT training courses for unemployed people, housewives, the elderly, new immigrants and low-income household.(iii) 在「數碼 21」資訊科技策略中,政府在 2007 年成立專責小組, 負責制定更多的數碼共 融策略及措施,以消除數碼隔閡。 In the ‘Digital 21’ campaign, the HKSAR Government established a digital inclusion task force in 2007 to pool efforts to bridge the digital divide.(iv) 一些慈善團體亦發起舊電腦回收活動,將收集回來的舊電腦翻新,再贈予無法負擔購買 新電腦的人士。 Some charity groups have organized campaigns to collect and mend old computers and donate them to those people who cannot afford to buy a new one. P. 4
  • [Past paper]在香港 「數碼隔膜」是指有些人經常接觸 IT,有些人卻沒有。下列哪些可縮窄「數碼隔膜」?The ‘digital divide’ in Hong Kong means that some people have frequent access to IT while somedo not. Which of the following can help close the ‘digital divide’? (1) 在政府網頁內提供更多電子服務。 Provide more electronic services on the Government’s websites. (2) 在公共圖書館提供更多 IT 設施。Provide more IT facilities in public libraries. (3) 免費為市民提供更多電腦課程。Provide more free computer training courses (4) 免費為每名香港市民提供電郵地址。 Provide a free ernail account for each Hong Kong citizen.A. 只有(1)和(2)B. 只有(2)和(3)C. 只有(3)和(4)D. 只有(1)和(4)[Past paper]為了適應全球一體化,很多城市如香港等均正在發展成為一個知識型社會,但同時亦出現了「數碼鴻溝」 。為了收窄此數碼鴻溝,政府和市民可做些什麼呢?To adapt to globalisation, many places - like Hong Kong - are developing into knowledge-basedsocieties. However, a ‘digital divide’ still exists. What can govemments and citizens do in order tohelp bridge this digital divide?香港特別行政區第一任行政長官在任內的第三份施政報告中提出,要將香港打造成「世界級的知識型城市」。發展知識型社會,意味着人們必須持續終身學習,不斷自我增值。互聯網提供大量方便存取的知識,有助於建立可持續發展的社會。降低數碼隔閡有助建立知識型社會。 P. 5
  • [Past paper CIT 2009]下列哪一項行動不是用作發展香港成為知識形社會?Which ofthe following is not an action to develop Hong Kong into a knowledge-based society?A. 為市民提供寬頻連接。 Provide boradband connectivity for citizens.B. 開徵棄置電腦的稅項。 Put a tax on computers to be disposed of.C. 支援在商業上使用資訊及通訊科技的公司。 Support companies to use information communication technology in business.D. 讓學生可利用資訊及通訊科技設施來輔助學習。 Allow students to access information and communication technology facilities to support learning.[2008 CIT]某銀行想對年長顧客推介網上銀行服務。它應如何加強其網上銀行系統?A bank wants to promote the online banking services to its elderly customers. How should thebank enhance its online banking system? P. 6
  • 1.3 性別平等 Gender Equity 不同性別的人都應享有平等使用科技的權利。 但普遍來說男性比女性較常接觸資訊科技。原因:(i) 女生傾向認為電腦是工具而,相信男生當電腦為玩具並以電腦技巧代替社交技巧,女生 卻不願意作這樣的交換。 Girls tend to see computer as tools, whereas boys use them as toys, substituting computer skills for social skills. Girls’ reluctance stems from an unwillingness to make that trade off.(ii) 軟件開發商一般會將男生定為預設用戶,這亦令女生更抗拒電腦。 Software developers usually design their programs with boys in mind and this reinforces girls’ negative attitudes towards computers.解決方法:(i) 吸引更多女性投身電腦科學和相關的科技範疇 包括鼓勵她們修讀合適的資訊科技課程。 , Attract more women and girls into computer science and related technical fields. This includes encouraging their participation in appropriate IT courses.(ii) 讓女性習慣科技文化,強調她們與科技之間的關係,並不會受她們最終的職業、社交或 家庭所影響。 Make women and girls more comfortable in the culture of technology, emphasizing relationships with technology regardless of eventual occupational, social or family goals.(iii) 軟件開發商在設計程序時,應設計適合兩性使用的界面。 Get software developers to design programs with interfaces that cater equally to both genders. P. 7
  • 1.4 協助殘疾人士使用電腦 Access for the disabled一些機構開發了不同的硬件和軟件,以協助殘疾人士使用電腦。Windows 內的一些設定亦可讓殘疾人士使用電腦:[Past paper]小強預備編寫網上遊戲軟件。他希望設計這個遊戲時,為視力有障礙的用戶加入一附設功能。試為此功能提出一項建議。Peter is going to write online game software. He wants to design this game with an additionalfunction to cater for users with impaired vision. Give a suggestion for the function. P. 8
  • 2. 工作議題資訊科技可讓員工在辦公室以外的地方工作。2.1 遠程通勤 Telecommuting遠程適勤是一種讓僱員在公司標準辦公室以外工作的安排,僱員仍然可以使用資訊及通訊科技與辦公室聯繫。需要什麼科技才可實現遠程通勤?硬件:軟件:技術:哪些工作可採用遠程通勤? 「遠程通勤」是一種讓僱員在工作地點和時間上享有更大彈性的工作安排 而「小型及家居辦公室(SOHO)」是指那些擁有 10 名僱員以內的小型公司。 P. 9
  • 遠程通勤的優點和缺點: 優點 缺點僱員 1. 毋須往來公司,節省金錢和時間。 1. 遠程工作者的工作時間通常偏長。 No need to travel to and from work. There is a tendency for the This saves money and time. telecommuter to work very long hours. 2. 他們可以自由選擇工作時間 以便安 , 排公餘時間陪伴家人 2. 遠程工作者時常單獨工作,有困難時 The employees can work at hours of 可能難以找同事幫忙。 their own choice and can therefore The telecommuter always works alone spend more spare time with their and may find it difficult to get help family. from other colleagues when needed. 3. 遠程工作者可能需要自備工作設備。 The telecommuter may have to prove equipment himself. 4. 無法取代與同事親自會面。 No substitute for meeting colleagues in person.僱主 1. 僱員有滿足感有助提高士氣和生產 1. 要防範機密資料外洩等保安問題。 力。 There is a security risk as confidential The employees are more content and company information may be morale is higher. This will increase distributed outside the company. productivity. 2. 僱主可能難以處理僱員的自律性問 2. 毋須提供辦公室空間和其他資源。 題,而生產力多取決於僱員是否勤 No need to provide office space and 快。 other resources. Employers may find it difficult to cope with the discipline problems of 3. 身處遠方的人也可以被招聘為員工。 employees. Productivity highly People living in remote areas can also depends on whether the employees are be recuited as employees. hardworking.遠程工作者和上司會定期安排工作的時間,包括雙方特定的通訊時間。遠程工作者比一般辦公室工作者有更彈性的工作時間。遠程工作者應定期向上司匯報項目或工作進度,以及在遠程通勤時遇到的困難。 P. 10
  • 2.2 虛擬組織 Virtual Organizations「虛擬組織」將同一機構內來自不同地區的人連在一起,透過電腦網絡相緊在同一個「地方」工作。「虛擬組織」的例子有衛星辦公室和遠程計算中心。2.3 視像會議 Video Conferencing視像會議利用科技讓在不同地點的人士進行會議, 他們可以像在同一個辦公室那樣互相協作。除進行會議外,視像會議還可用於提供技術支援、進行工作面試等其他用途。視像會議一般採用什麼通訊協定(Protocol)? P. 11
  • 有什麼因素影響視像會議的通訊質素? P. 12
  • 3. 健康問題長時間使用電腦可引起嚴重的健康問題。3.1 與電腦相關的疾病重複動作造成的損傷(Repetitive strain injury, RSI):因長時間重複身體動作引致例子:預防措施: P. 13
  • 電腦視覺綜合症(Computer Vision Syndrome, CVS):其主要原因是長期接觸屏幕放出的電磁輻射(EMR)。最常見的 CVS 徵狀包括眼睛乾澀、眼睛過敏、視野模糊和頭痛等。預防措施: P. 14
  • 3.2 人體工程學 Ergonomics 人體工程學是一門將效率、安全和舒適融入在工作環境設計上的科學。換句話說,人體 工程學研究人體與工具之間在結構上的關係。 Ergonomics is the science of integrating efficiency, safety and comfort into the workspace design. In other words, it is the study of the physical relationship between people and their tools. 人體工程學幫助人們正確地使用電腦, 以免出現肌肉疲勞、眼睛疲勞和重複動作造成的 損傷等問題。 Ergonomics seeks to help people use computers correctly to avoid physical problems such as fatigue, eyestrain and RSI.[Past paper 2010 CIT]下列哪些物件具備良好的人體工程學設計?Which of the following items have a good ergonomic design? (1) 具備三個按鈕的滑鼠 A mouse featuring a three-button design (2) 具可調校扶手的椅子 A chair with adjustable armrests (3) 具備指紋閱讀器的鍵盤 A keyboard with a finger print reader (4) 具備抗眩光屏幕的顯示器 A monitor with anti-glare screenA. 只有(1)和(2)B. 只有(1)和(3)C. 只有(2)和(4)D. 只有(1)、(3)和(4)[Past paper 2009 CIT]在使用滑鼠時,下列哪一項是不能有效地避免人體工學及壓力的問題?Which of the following cannot effectively prevent ergonomic and stress issues related to using amouse?A. 使用無線滑鼠。 Use a wireless mouse.B. 如有需要,使用「左手方式」的滑鼠。 Use a ‘left-handed’ when necessary.C. 保持手部放鬆及不要屈曲手腕。 Keey your hand relaxed and do not bend your wrist.D. 輕輕地按動滑鼠。 Click the mouse using a light touch P. 15
  • 預防 RSI,應養成正确的使用電腦姿勢:1. 坐立時,身體必須挺直,雙腳必須踏在地板上或腳墊上。2. 手肘保持 90 度彎曲,調校椅子和檯面的相對位置,令前臂保持水平。3. 把滑鼠和鍵盤放置在同一高度。4. 使用滑鼠或鍵盤時,同時使用腕墊,避免手腕彎曲。5. 調整顯示器的高度,令屏幕頂部略低於眼睛的水平線,而屏幕與眼睛之間應有大概一臂的距離。6. 定期進行休息。7. 經常起立、伸展肢體及做一些簡單的運動。工作間的設計應:1. 使用高度可作全面調校的椅子。2. 調整室內燈光,避免光線直接進入眼睛。3. 使用文件座,讓文件放置在眼睛水平線附近的高度。4. 將鍵盤和滑鼠放近自己身前,使鍵盤的斜度與手腕保持一直線。5. 常用的物品可放於就近工作站的地方,方便取用。 P. 16
  • 3.3 沉迷互聯網 Indulging in Internet Activities有些互聯網活動(如網上遊戲、網上聊天和瀏覽網頁)會使人上癮,沉迷這些活動會引致下列的問題。1. 過分依賴互聯網會影響正常社交生活。網絡成癮症的患者會花大量時間在電腦上,因而 減少日常生活與人接觸的時間。 Excessive use of Internet will impair real life relationships. Internet addicts spend more time in solitary seclusion and spend less time with real people in their daily lives.2. 網絡成癮症的患者由於上網時間長,可能須繳付較高的網上服務費用。若他們有強迫性 消費的傾向,就很可能出現財政困難。例如他們可能會經常進行網上購物,導致要繳付 高額的信用卡附加費。如果他們參與網上賭博,後果更不堪設想。 Financial problems may occurs as the significant amount of time spent online will incur charges from service provider. Other financial problems may arise due to compulsive online spending or shopping. Internet addicts may choose to shop online frequently, resulting in high credit card charges for purchases. Also taking part in online gambling will cause even more serious problems. P. 17
  • 4. 環境保護議題電腦及資訊科技的使用會對環境造成破壞。 硬件的製造過程涉及使用許多材料和能源。 所有電子設備都需要電源的推動。 打印時需要耗用紙張 由於某些電腦設備含有有毒的化學元素,像鉛(Lead)和汞(Mercury),將電腦設備作堆填 棄置會對陸地和水造成污染。所以我們應實行以下措施,以減少對環境的影響: 選購支持環保的電腦設備,例如選購以「潔淨」的環保材料來製造的設備。 使用有電源管理功能的電腦。 打印前,再三檢查文件,避免因錯誤而造成紙張浪費 充份利用紙張,例如雙面打印或以紙張未用的一面作算草 使用電子形式傳送文件,取代硬複本。 實行「3R」環保措施:減少棄置(Reduce)、循環再用(Reuse)、循環再造(Recycle)[Past paper 2008 ICT]用戶啟動電腦了一段時間,顯示器的屏幕便轉黑。為什麼?A user leaves a computer on for a while and the monitor display turns black. Why?A. 顯示器進入省電模式。The monitor is under the energy saving mode.B. 關掉了螢幕保護裝置。The screen saver is turned off.C. 操作系統正在更新中。The operating system is being updated.D. 電腦正在備份系統。The computer is performing system backup. P. 18
  • [Past paper 2008 ICT]棄置舊電腦可能會破壞環境。下列哪一項(些)行動是恰當的?As waste computers may harm the environment, which of the following action(s) is/areappropriate? (1) 從舊電腦中回收有用的部件和物料以供再用或循環再造。 Remove useable components and materials from waste computers for reuse and recycling. (2) 不要為趕時髦,追求新款而購買新電腦。 Do not buy a new computer simply because you want to own the latest model. (3) 維修舊電腦,轉贈予有需要的人士。 Repair and donate waste computers to the needy.A. 只有(1)B. 只有(1)和(2)C. 只有(2)和(3)D. (1)、(2)和(3)[Past paper 2010 CIT]「綠化電腦」是指使用電腦資源時對環境造成最小影響,它直接與下列哪些行動有關?‘Green computing’ refers to the use of computing resources which have minimal impact on theenvironment. Which of the following actions directly relate to ‘Green computing’? (1) 使用印表機 Use of printer (2) 使用防毒軟件 Use of antivirus software (3) 棄置硬碟 Disposal of hard disk (4) 觀看顯示器的角度 Viewing angle of monitorA. 只有(1)、(2)和(4)B. 只有(2)、(3)和(4)C. 只有(1)和(2)D. 只有(1)和(3) P. 19
  • 5. 知識產權5.1 知識產權知識產權(IPR)是賦予發明者、作家、藝術家、設計師以及其他專才的權利,以保護他們創新的發明和作品。保護知識產權即是保護我們的創意免被他人盜用,所以十分重要。Intellectual property rights (IPRs) are the rights granted to inventors, writers, artists and othertalents to protect their inventions and products. IPRs are important because they discourage otherfrom infringing our rights over the work created by us.知識產權包括: 商標:一個用以識別不同商戶的產品和服務的標誌。 Trademark: A sign which distinguishes a product or service from that provided by other traders. 專利:專門賦予發明者或專利擁有人的法律權利。這可防止他人在未得到專利擁有人的 同意下使用專利產品。 Patent: An exclusive legal right granted to the inventor or the patent owner for an invention. This prohibits other from making use of a patented product without the consent of the patent owner. 外觀設計:指可以註冊以防止他人抄襲的外觀和設計。 Design: The appearance and design of products that can be registered to protect the products from being copied by others. 版權:賦予作品原創者的權利。 Copyright: The right given to the owner of an original work.有關版權: 版權是一項賦予作品原創者的權利,以保護原創文學、戲劇、音樂和藝術作品。 Copyright is the right given to the owner of an original work. This right protects original literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works. 已發表的作品、聲音記錄、電影和廣播亦受版權保護。 Published editions of works, sound recordings, films and broadcasts are also protected by copyright. P. 20
  •  電腦程序同樣受到版權保護,只有版權擁有人才有權複製、出售和分發有版權保護的軟 件。 Computer programs are protected on the same basis as literary works. Only the copyright owner can legally reproduce, sell and distribute the copyright software. 以遠程通訊網絡傳送軟件或在公眾場所展示作品一般都涉及複製的過程, 所以事先必須 得到版權擁有人的同意。 Transmitting software over a telecommunication line or displaying a work in public ususally involves duplication and thus requires the consent of the copyright owner. 在創作完成後,原創者便自動享有作品的版權並受法律的保護。 Once a work is created, the copyright is automatically granted to the owner. 如果要從互聯網下載版權作品或分發這些作品,必須先得到版權擁有人的准許,否則就 是侵犯了該作品的版權。 If you want to distribute or download copyright material on the Internet, you should obtain permission from the owner of the material. Otherwise, you will infringe the copyright of the work.[Past paper 2010 CIT]某 IT 公司僱用了志強,為政府某部門編寫程式。志強並不是該程式的版權擁有者,這可能原因是什麼?An IT company hires John to write a program for a government department. John is not thecopyright owner of the program. What is the possible reason for this?A. 政府已向該公司支付了合約款項。 The Government has paid the company for the contract.B. 志強是由該資訊科技公司而非政府僱用的。 John is hired by the IT company, not the Government.C. 志強的僱傭合約中指明有關版權是由公司所擁有的。 John’s appointment contract specifies that the company owns the copyright.D. 該程式是志強在上班以外時間得到朋友協助下編寫而成的。 John writes the program outside office hours with the help of his friends. P. 21
  • [Past paper 2009 CIT]李小姐利用視像攝影機將學校週年音樂會的情況攝錄成視像檔 concert.avi。隨後,她把一些不相關的片段剪除。在上載此視像檔至學校網站前,她再作出一些處理工作,以方便瀏覽。Ms Lee records the Annual School Concert using a video camera into a video file,concert.avi. Then she edits the file by cutting the irrelevant video clips. Before uploading thevideo onto the school website, she further processes the file to facilitate browsing.在學校網站首頁中,有一句有關版權事宜的句子-「© 保留版權」 。試舉出此句子為相關視像檔所帶來的其中兩種含意。On the first page of the school website, there is a copyright statement. ‘© All rights reserved’.Give two possible implications of this statement for the video files.香港的版權條例: 於 1997 年 6 月 27 日正式生效,以防止人們在未經授權的情況下複製或使用電腦程序。 Came into effect on 27th June, 1997, which prohibits unauthorized duplication and use of computer programs. 但複製軟件作後備用途則獲得豁免。Duplicating software for backup purpose is exempted. 電腦程序、相關的使用于冊和書籍在版權條例下亦一併視為文學作品,受到版權條例的 保護。 Computer software, manuals and related books are treated and protected as literary works under the ordinance. 現時,版權擁有人可以經民事訴訟控告侵權者。 Copyright owners can take a civil lawsuit against any person who infringes their copyright. 版權擁有人還可向法院申請禁制令,避免繼續被侵權並向有關人士索償。 An owner may seek an injunction to prevent further infringements and may be able to claim damages. P. 22
  • [Past paper 2007 CIT]下列哪項不道德的行為可能已觸犯了版權條例?Which of the following unethical behaviours may violate the Copyright Ordinance?A. 錄下電視節目,並將它掛上網站。Record a TV program and post it onto a website.B. 於某網站上載顧客個人資料。Upload customers’ personal information onto a website.C. 將附有電腦病毒的電子郵件寄往數百個電郵戶口。 Send an e-mail with a virus to hundreds of e-mail accounts.D. 盜入他人的個人銀行戶口。Hack into a personal bank account.5.2 軟件的版權軟件可分為專有軟件和開放源碼軟件兩類。專有軟件不包含軟件源碼,用戶不能修改軟件。可以防止同業根據自家軟件的源碼開發同類軟件。Proprietary software does not include source code. Users cannot modify the software. Thedevelopers hope to prevent other developers from developing similar software based on the sourcecode of their software.用戶可下載開放源碼軟件的程式碼,並可自由使用、修改、再分發軟件。Users can download the source codes of open source software and use, modify and distribute freely.小強預備編寫網上遊戲軟件。他最終決定將此軟件定為「開放源碼」(Open Source)軟件。試舉出兩項「開放源碼」軟件的主要特點。Peter is going to write online game software. Finally, he decides to post the software as ‘OpenSource’ software. Give two main characteristics of ‘Open Source’ software. P. 23
  • 若你購買了一套正版軟件,通常只能在同一時間於一台電腦使用該軟件。軟件許可證是規定用戶可以使用某種軟件的法律契約。單用戶許可證:允許在同一時間於一台電腦使用軟件,若兩個或以上的用戶同時使用同一套軟件則屬違法。多用戶許可證(或稱為站戶許可證) :允許多個用戶在特定的地方(如辦公室和學校)安裝及使用一套軟件。軟件可按其限制和分發方式分為商業軟件、共享軟件、免費軟件和公用軟件。每種軟件都有其專屬的許可證協議、優點和風險。商業軟件 Commercial Software分發方式  透過經銷商。Method of Through resellersdistribution  從軟件開發商的網站或獲授權的網上商店下載。 Downloaded from software publisher’s website or authorized online stores.價格  相對較高,因所提供的用戶支援較多。Cost Relative more expensive as more user support is provided.試用期  有些設有試用期,一般不多於兩個月。Trial period Some have a trial period which is normally not more than 2 months.  有些只提供有限功能的試用版。 Some only provide a demo version which has limited functions.許可證  設有不同的軟件許可證供有不同需要的用戶選購(如單用戶/多用戶許Licence 可證) Different types of licence are offered to suit different user’ needs (single/multi-user) P. 24
  • 共享軟件 Shareware分發方式  透過互聯網分發。Method of Distributed through the Internet.distribution  隨書本或雜誌附送。 Accompanied with books or magazines.  允許用戶將軟件分發給他人。 Users are allowed to transfer the software to others.價格  相對較低,因為多由小型軟件開發商或個人開發。Cost Relative cheaper as shareware is usually developed by smaller developers or independent writers.  試用期過後,用戶必須付款購買軟件,才可繼續使用。 Required to pay after the trial period.試用期  多設有試用期。Trial period Usually have a trial period.  有些讓用戶不限時間或次數使用,但軟件上會展示隨機的廣告。 Some allow you to use indefinitely, but random advertisements on the screen are displayed.許可證  與商業軟件類似Licence Similar to commercial software免費軟件 Freeware分發方式  透過互聯網分發。Method of Distributed through the Internet.distribution價格  免費(只作個人用途)Cost Free to use for personal purpose  複製、再研發、修改或分發時可能需要付款 May not be free to be copied, studied, modified or redistributed試用期  沒有試用期限。Trial period No trial period.許可證  持版權的軟件,並附有軟件許可方式,對用戶有所限制Licence Copyright software carries a restricted licence.  在指定條件下免費使用 Free to use under certain conditions P. 25
  • 公用軟件 Public domain software分發方式  透過互聯網分發。Method of Distributed through the Internet.distribution  多附有軟件源碼 Usually distributed with source code價格  免費Cost Free試用期  沒有試用期限。Trial period No trial period.許可證  有開放源碼軟件許可方式的軟件多附有軟件源碼供再研發、修改和改進Licence 軟件 The source code is usually available as an open source under an open source licence for studying, changing and improving the software.[Past paper]小強預備編寫網上遊戲軟件。若他決定將此軟件定為共享軟件,公眾人士是否可隨意複製此軟件呢?試簡略解釋。Peter is going to write online game software. If he decides to post the software as shareware, willthe public be allowed to freely copy the software? Explain your answer briefly.[Past paper 2007 CIT]開放源碼軟件與免費軟件的分別是什麼?What is the difference between open source software and freeware?A. 開放源碼軟件不是免費。Open source software is not free.B. 開放源碼軟件的源碼不是免費。The source code of open source software is not free.C. 開放源碼軟件的源碼可被修改及重新散佈。 The source code of open source software can be modified and redistributed.D. 開放源碼軟件只能在某指定短時間內試用。 Open source software can only be used within a certain short period oftime for trial. P. 26
  • 5.3 盜版問題抄襲是指未經許可,擅自複製他人的作品,侵犯他人的知識產權。抄襲持版權的物品可稱為侵犯版權。盜版是指非法複製未經授權、持版權的軟件的行為,該複製品就是盜版軟件。在電腦系統上安裝盜版軟件是違法的行為。下列是一些侵犯軟件版權的例子。 違反軟件許可證所列明的條款。例如,許可證中限制用戶只可將軟件安裝於一台電腦上 及製作一個複本作備份之用。你同時於兩台電腦上安裝並使用同一套軟件,你便觸犯了 版權法。 在沒有移除電腦上的商業軟件的情況下,你將該軟件給予或售予他人。 在試用期完結後且沒有付款購買共享軟件的情況下,繼續使用該軟件。 複製使用站戶許可證的軟件,並在家中使用。網上盜版的常見途徑: 經由盜版軟件網站下載 檔案分享網站(Youtube, RapidShare, MediaFire, …) 點對點檔案分享服務(eDonkey, eMule, BitTorrent, …)減少侵犯知識產權罪案的方法包括:(i) 在安裝軟件前要求用戶先行閱讀並接受許可證協議。許可證協議會告知用戶他們應有的 使用權利和所受的限制。 P. 27
  • (ii) 部分軟件安裝程序會要求用戶註冊軟件。(iii) 要求用戶輸入光碟鑰匙(CD Key)(亦稱為產品序列號 Product Key 或產品識別碼),以及 啟動軟件,以確保單一用戶註冊並使用同一套軟件(iv) 機器依賴性:軟件安裝程序會自動記錄用戶的電腦認證碼,再在用戶執行網上註冊時將 電腦認證碼發送到軟件開發商的伺服器上。如果任何人嘗試在其他電腦安裝同一套軟 件,軟件安裝程序會自動核對該電腦的電腦認證碼與軟件開發商伺服器上的資料,若發 現電腦認證碼不符,軟件安裝程序會立即終止安裝程序。 P. 28
  • (v) 硬件鑰匙(Hardware key)(亦稱為硬件保護鎖 dongle)用作連接電腦以鑑定軟件。當電腦 沒有連接上硬件鑰匙時,軟件只會以限制模式執行,或甚至拒絕執行。(vi) 使用數碼水印技術(vii) 使用數碼簽署5.4 侵犯版權的問題與日常生活的關係同學於做功課或專題研習時應注意以下侵權行為: 不要直接複製網頁的原始 HTML 碼,應學習如何撰寫 在未得圖像擁有者准許的情況下,不應將他人的作品放到自己的個人網站上公開展示。 應該學習創作自己的圖像或使用沒有版權的圖像。 在網頁上註明引用的文章、書籍、電影和其他資源的來源。。在沒有鳴謝的情況下使用 多於一段以上的引文,可被視為侵犯版權。若引用他人的作品而未註明其來源,就是抄 襲的行為(Plagiarizm)。[Past paper]小明採用了圖形軟件,在顯示器(VDU)的屏幕上設計了一幅圖畫,如圖 1 所示。Paul uses graphics software to create a picture on the screen of his visual display unit (VDU) asshown in Figure l. 圖1 圖2 圖3小麗是小明的朋友,她利用這套軟件編輯圖 1 的圖畫,並造成如圖 3 的輸出。Cindy, Paul’s friend, uses the software to edit the picture in Figure 1 and produces the outputshown in Figure 3.小麗將圖 1 和圖 3 兩幅圖畫上載於她的網站。究竟她會否違反版權條例呢?試簡略解釋。Cindy uploads both the pictures in Figure 1 and Figure 3 onto her web site. Will she violatecopyright law? Explain briefly. P. 29
  • [Past paper 2009 CIT]在學校內尊重知識產權,應執行下列哪一項(些)行動?In order to respect for Intellectual Property Rights in school, which of the following actionsshould be done? (1) 安裝最新的操作系統修補檔案。 Update the latest OS patch. (2) 全日 24 小時利用視像攝影機攝錄電腦室內進行的活動。 Use video cameras to record the activities in computer rooms 24 hours a day (3) 卸除過期的共享軟件。 Uninstall expired shareware.A. 只有(2)B. 只有(3)C. 只有(1)和(2)D. 只有(1)和(3)[Past paper 2008 CIT]小麗瀏覽某學校網站內一些受版權保護的素材。下列哪一項行動可能侵犯了版權?Mary browses some copyrighted materials on a school web site. Which of the following actionsmay violate the copyright?A. 她下載一些相片,並刊登在她的網誌內。 She downloads some photos and posts them to her blog.B. 她閱讀一些字,然後編寫及刊登一篇與該學校歷史有關的文章。 She reads the text and writes and publishes an article about the school history.C. 她聽了在網上播放的校歌後,立即唱出。 She Iistens to the school song played on the web and sings it immediately.D. 她觀看了一段視像,然後在網上評論它。 She watches a video clip and writes comments on the web. P. 30