Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
The OCWC's Next Frontier - Learning Ecosystems by Gary Matkin, UCI
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

The OCWC's Next Frontier - Learning Ecosystems by Gary Matkin, UCI

903

Published on

After three years the OCW movement has achieved “lift off” with over 200 higher education institutions and affiliate OCWC members, resulting in the availability of over 8000 open courses. However, …

After three years the OCW movement has achieved “lift off” with over 200 higher education institutions and affiliate OCWC members, resulting in the availability of over 8000 open courses. However, the greatest disappointment in the movement has been the slow response to the actual use of this open material, particularly use that could benefit national systems of higher education in developing countries or under-resourced institutions. This presentation suggests reasons for this slow uptake, offers observations about the underlying dynamics in the wide-scale and impactful use of OCW, and proposes the systematic development of “learning ecosystems”— infrastructures designed to leverage OCW.

Published in: Education, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
903
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
14
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • A few institutions have directly planned to use OCW to develop courses, including our host today.Knowledge Hub (KHUB) is a public, multilingual hub that allows you to discover selected Open Educational Resources (OERs) using metadata built by experts, faceted searching and social networking tools to help teachers and students find the best resources for their educational needs.This project was presented and approved in the GULF (Global Universities Leaders Forum) in DAVOS in January 2008 by the President of the Tecnológico de Monterrey University, Dr. Rafael Rangel Sostmann. Knowledge Hub (KHUB) has been developed by the Tecnológico de Monterrey University with the objective to create a Public Multilingual Hub to index the Open educational Resources (OER) from the Universities members of the OCWC and other Open and free Courseware instances.Knowledge Hub (KHUB) is an idea conceived by the necessity to ease the search of materials that have a potential effectiveness in teaching and learning. The professors and members participating in KHUB have a framework of evaluation criteria according their expertise on their major disciplines. The criteria to index a resource in KHUB is principally based on: Quality of Content PotentialEffectiveness as a Teaching and Learning Tool Ease and Free Use
  • LARRY COOPERMAN:And several projects have clearly targeted institutions as users by creating utilities and services directed at helping institutions use OER or OCW such as our friends at Rice University through Connexions.Connexions is an environment for collaboratively developing, freely sharing, and rapidly publishing scholarly content on the Web. Our Content Commons contains educational materials for everyone — from children to college students to professionals — organized in small modules that are easily connected into larger collections or courses. All content is free to use and reuse under the Creative Commons\"attribution\" license. Connexions currently has 484 collections with over 9,600 modules.
  • LARRY COOPERMAN:But these institutionally-directed activities have so far been relatively small. What we call “OCW-in” really has not “lifted off.”At least some reasons for this slow up-take are clear. First, we know that to be effective, OCW, usually produced for one audience (say, MIT undergraduates) must be “localized” and sometimes translated for another audience (say, undergraduates in an Ethiopian university). This translation and localization requires a local capacity, (including technology, trained human resources, and funding) capable of identifying and transforming OCW for local use. Second, this local capacity must be linked to the institutional infrastructure to satisfy the needs of the local audience, utilizing local delivery systems and resources to support the expanded use of the material. It is clear that the simple existence of free and open material is necessary but not sufficient for wide scale adoption and use.
  • LARRY COOPERMAN
  • LARRY COOPERMAN
  • Even the expanded use of OCW by institutions is not the outer limit of the promise of OCW. Right from the beginning of the OCW movement has been the hope that OCW could begin to address some of the huge shortfalls in education around the world.
  • The need around the world for expanded education is manifest but in no way can conventional, traditionally delivered higher education meet the demand.Enrollments in developing countries areburgeoning with over 140 million postsecondary students globally. For example, China and India have doubled enrollments over the past 10 years. China has the largest higher education system in the world, with over 25 million students. But there are many developing countries with APRs less than 10% and have a big hill to climb. Malaysia plans to raise its APR of 39% to 50% by 2010. The government of Trinidad and Tobago aims for an APR of 60% by 2015 (up from 11.9% in 2007). In India, where each 1% increase in APR means one million more students plans to go from 10% to 15% by 2012. -Change Magazine, March/April 2009
  • There is what Sir John Daniel calls the “iron triangle” of interrelated elements in which quality is inversely associated with access and cost. Technology at least offers a hope of breaking this relationship. -Change Magazine, March/April 2009
  • For developing countries, the only way this triangle will be broken is through some form of national policy embracing OCW.
  • In Vietnam the government has adopted an OCW strategy as central to gaining its goals.
  • After three years the Open Courseware (OCW) movement has achieved “lift off” with over 200 higher education institutions and affiliate OCWC members, resulting in the availability of over 8,200 open courses.
  • Over the last three years, with government support, Vietnam has shown significant progress.
  • Now, with this experience, Vietnam is stepping back a bit it assess its planning. The initial assumptions upon which the plan was based required some adjustments. Cleary, simply making MIT OCW available was not of sufficient use to address the problems Vietnam faced. Here are the main reasons students in Vietnam could not really benefit from the MIT material.
  • Note this issue. This is a reference to the fact that across national systems there are differences in academic cultures. In the case of Vietnam, the judgment is thatto become competitive in a global economy, some major reforms need to be implemented, that the behavior and attitudes of both students and instructors need to be altered in significant ways. OCW is seed, by some, to be one of the cornerstones of that reform.
  • After this promising beginning Vietnam faces some challenges.
  • What this leads to is the notion of creating a national learning ecosystem in which technology, communities, government, pedagogy (and pedagogical reform) and strategic financing combine to address the movement to mass higher education. We will call this integrated, national approach the “learning ecosystem.”
  • Building on the case of Vietnam and a brief examination of other developing countries, we see a number of critical elements that must come together for the learning ecosystem system to work.
  • LARRY COOPERMAN
  • LARRY COOPERMAN
  • However, the greatest disappointment in the movement has been the slow response to the actual use of this open material, particularly use that could benefit national systems of higher education in developing countries or under-resourced institutions. This presentation willsuggest reasons for this slow uptake, offers observations about the underlying dynamics in the wide-scale and impactful use of OCW, and proposes the systematic development of “learning ecosystems”— infrastructures designed to leverage OCW.There are some initiatives that specifically aim OCW at institutional use. One is the National Repository of Online Courses (NROC), a growing library of high-quality online course content for students and faculty in higher education, high school and Advanced Placement. This non-profit project, supported by The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, is an Open Educational Resource (OER) and facilitates collaboration among a community of content developers to serve students and teachers worldwide. Courses in the NROC library are contributed by developers from leading academic institutions across the United States. All courses are assessed to ensure they meet high standards of scholarship, instructional value, and presentational impact. NROC works with scholars and contributes resources to improve course quality and to provide ongoing maintenance. NROC courses are designed to cover the breadth and depth of topics based on generally accepted national curricula and can also be customized within a course management system. NROC content is distributed free-of-charge to students and teachers at public websites including HippoCampus. Institutions wishing to use NROC content are invited to join a fee-based membership organization, the NROC Network. Organizations serving disadvantaged students can become members of the NROC Network at no cost.
  • It is through these institutional sponsored initiatives that users motivated to gain access to the material.-Information supplied by NROC.
  • Transcript

    • 1. OCW Global Conference 2009 MONTERREY, MEXICO BY GARY W. MATKIN DEAN, CONTINUING EDUCATION LARRY COOPERMAN DIRECTOR, UC IRVINE OCW
    • 2.  200 institutional members in the OCWC  Over 8,200 courses posted  Over 130 Million Creative Commons licenses issued
    • 3. Empowering Minds Visitors by Role Other 5% Educators 15% Self learners 50% Students 30% 3 Unlocking Knowledge, Empowering Minds
    • 4. Empowering Minds Traffic by Region 18.1% 41.8% 21.0% 4.9% 8.4% 1.4% Visits Since Visits Region 10/1/03 % 4.4% North America 19,586,175 41.8 East Asia/Pacific 9,818,810 21.0 Europe/Central 8,470,908 18.1 Asia South Asia 3,917,728 8.4 MENA 2,297,341 4.9 Latin America/ 2,076,902 4.4 Caribbean Sub-Sah. Africa 661,193 1.4 TOTAL VISITS 46,829,057 5 Unlocking Knowledge, Empowering Minds
    • 5. Empowering Minds Traffic by Region 18.1% 41.8% 21.0% 4.9% 8.4% 1.4% Visits Since Visits Region 10/1/03 % 4.4% North America 19,586,175 41.8 East Asia/Pacific 9,818,810 21.0 Europe/Central 8,470,908 18.1 Asia South Asia 3,917,728 8.4 MENA 2,297,341 4.9 Latin America/ 2,076,902 4.4 Caribbean Sub-Sah. Africa 661,193 1.4 Mirror sites — Approx. 209 around the globe TOTAL VISITS 46,829,057 6 Unlocking Knowledge, Empowering Minds
    • 6. Empowering Minds Traffic by Country – Feb 09 Country Visits Country Visits 1 United States 537,249 11 France 17,301 2 India 112,261 12 Turkey 15,823 3 China 95,417 13 Italy 12,130 4 South Korea 59,246 14 Japan 11,703 5 Canada 39,063 15 Australia 11,369 6 United Kingdom 35,506 16 Spain 10,896 7 Iran 29,685 17 Egypt 10,079 8 Brazil 24,341 18 Mexico 9,764 9 Germany 21,851 19 Singapore 9,045 10 Pakistan 17,755 20 Romania 9,040 7 Unlocking Knowledge, Empowering Minds
    • 7. NATIONAL REPOSITORY OF ONLINE COURSES  Supported by Hewlett Foundation  The focus of NROC is general education subjects: such as algebra, biology, and U.S. History  Courses include presentational materials, problem sets, assessments, and all necessary teaching materials
    • 8. NROC Usage Stats Network Membership and Licenses Year Students Teachers 2006 – 2007 5,676 80 2007 – 2008 68,083+ 1,709+ 2008 – 2009 293,314 5,455 Estimated 2009- 2010 Projected 1,818,611 15,736
    • 9.  To be effective, OCW must be “localized” and sometimes translated for another audience – Translation and localization requires local capacity, including technology, trained human resources, funding  Local capacity must be linked to the institutional infrastructure to satisfy the needs of the local audience – Must utilize local delivery systems and resources to support the expanded use of the material  It is clear that the simple existence of free and open material is necessary but not sufficient for wide scale adoption and use
    • 10.  OCW-in has not lifted off  Production side – Uneven production of metadata for search – Development for producer’s context  Search side – Crawlers (Google Advanced Search) don’t have mechanism for rankings – MIT’s offerings sometimes crowd out others – Aggregrators don’t crawl, so are reliant on producer-side feeds – Knowledge of where and how to search still essential for obtaining and using results of search
    • 11.  OCW-in has not lifted off  Consumption side ▪ File formats present use difficulties ▪ Efficiency requires tight alignment of searcher (librarian) and integrator (professor, instructor). ▪ Need to demonstrate ROI to institutionalize consumption of OCW/OER (better, faster, etc.)
    • 12. Formation of Learning Ecosystems
    • 13. ENROLLMENTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES BURGEONING  China and India have doubled enrollments over the past 10 years.  There are many developing countries with APRs less than 10%  Malaysia plans to raise its APR of 39% to 50% by 2010  Trinidad and Tobago aims for an APR of 60% by 2015 (up from 11.9% in 2007)  In India, where each 1% increase in APR means one million more students plans to go from 10% to 15% by 2012
    • 14. COST
    • 15. So, how do we break through the Iron Triangle?  With the formation of national policy to embrace OCW on the institutional level in developing countries
    • 16.  In Vietnam, the government has adopted an OCW strategy that is central to accomplishing it higher education goals
    • 17.  Improving teaching methods  Updating curricula  Standardizing of teaching materials
    • 18.  Developed sample course materials  Built a robust infrastructure  Adopted Rice Connexions software  Developed 24 sample courses  Created an alliance of 28 leading institutions  Developed 1100 learning modules and 217 courses from existing OCW
    • 19.  Students in Vietnam could not use MIT OCW – Different educational backgrounds of Vietnam students – English skills not good enough – Teaching and learning methods of Vietnamese faculty and students are different – Syllabi and reference materials were not available
    • 20.  Teaching and learning methods of Vietnamese faculty and students are different
    • 21.  Content Development and evaluation  Community building  System Maintenance and development  Integration of all elements into a force for needed change
    • 22. The Learning Ecosystem
    • 23.  An external sponsor or “introducer” (and, usually, patron) of the OCW, willing to be flexible and respectful of the local situation  An internal institutional sponsor of OCW, usually sanctioned, if not supported by, government  Established and working connections between the institutional sponsor and a broad array of potential users – Frequently expressed in the form of regional or national consortia of higher education institutions
    • 24.  The development of at least one center for actually localizing, translating OCW and with the capability of producing original material for entry into the world-wide corpus of OCW – Technology, trained staff, space, equipment  A preliminary set of pilot projects selected for their high impact and ability to demonstrate “proof of concept” to the region
    • 25.  Curriculum capabilities  Can rely on subject matter experts for gap analysis and coherency – integration of materials from various sources and contexts  Uses instructional design methodology  Technical capabilities  Can flexibly export/import courseware  Handles or transfers common formats
    • 26.  Localization capabilities  Adapts to region/country/locale – Style of instruction – Applications to locale  Translation capabilities  Online course production capabilities  Adapts to online environment  Focus on needs of online learner – Understands social learning as complement to content
    • 27. Gary W. Matkin, Ph.D. Dean, Continuing Education http://unex.uci.edu/garymatkin/ gmatkin@uci.edu Larry J. Cooperman Director, UC Irvine Open CourseWare ljcooper@uci.edu http://ocw.uci.edu/

    ×