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This presentation is intended to put the recent U.S. movement toward Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) into perspective, assessing its effects on higher education in the U.S. and around the world. ...

This presentation is intended to put the recent U.S. movement toward Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) into perspective, assessing its effects on higher education in the U.S. and around the world. This presentation is informed in part by the University of California, Irvine’s (UCI) long-term involvement in the OpenCourseWare (OCW) and Open Educational Resources (OER) movements and its more recent experience in producing and offering seven MOOC courses through Coursera. This presentation goes beyond asking questions to making predictions that can guide institutional responses.

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  • This presentation is intended to put the recent U.S. movement toward Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) into perspective, assessing its effects on higher education in the U.S. and around the world. This presentation is informed in part by the University of California, Irvine’s (UCI) long-term involvement in the OpenCourseWare (OCW) and Open Educational Resources (OER) movements and its more recent experience in producing and offering seven MOOC courses through Coursera. This presentation goes beyond asking questions to making predictions that can guide institutional responses.
  • To download presentation, visit SlideShare at slideshare.net/garymatkin/oeb2012
  • The recent wide-scale publicity surrounding MOOCs emphasizes the power of two themes in higher education that are converging in the U.S. and around the world—the growing stock of OCW and OER and the drive to reduce the cost of high quality degree-based education.
  • These converging themes of increasing open education and the drive for low cost degrees have created some other themes that are now emerging and becoming more clear in their substance and their impact. First, the technology associated with online and Internet-based teaching and learning is developing at a rapid rate and gives promise of dramatically improving teaching and learning. An increase in pedagogic efficiency, particularly as it is expressed in providing students with more control over their learning environments, leads to a focus on how learning is assessed and how those assessments verify the achievement of specific competencies in students. Key to increased learner control is the notion of “adaptive learning” wherein student learning is assessed, diagnosed, and then customized for the individual student allowing the student to master the material at his/her own pace and in a variety of learning modes. As the store of open materials grow, the quality of this material increases, and faculty and institutions that recognize that quality will benefit from it as they incorporate it, at a low cost, into their own programs. Finally, the kind of student-to-instructor and student-to-student interaction available in classroom based education will find an analog in online education, with formal and informal learning communities created and sustained by mutual interest and common educational goals.
  • UNESCO and the OECD project that by 2025 almost one billion people who could benefit from higher education will not be able to with the current system of higher education.
  • It is this crisis that inspires the vision of those of us in the OCW and OER movements and now is spreading to policy makers, governments, NGOs, foundations, and the general public.
  • The growing supply of OER has created a mass with a gravitational pull—this huge asset cannot be ignored any longer. It is too big and has so many high quality learning pathways available for free that traditional higher education institutions have to take notice and begin to use it to reduce the cost of higher education.
  • OER and OCW have been growing rapidly since the 1990s beginning with the creation of several open “learning object” repositories. The movement was spurred in 2001 by MIT with its goal to create an open version of all of its courses. MIT led other institutions into the movement and initiated the creation of the OpenCourseWare Consortium. Soon after, open “utilities” such as YouTube and iTunesU offered easy paths to the expression of open education through video capture and other new technology. And, again in a drive to reduce the cost of education, the open textbook movement was created.
  • OER and OCW have been growing rapidly since the 1990s beginning with the creation of several open “learning object” repositories. The movement was spurred in 2001 by MIT with its goal to create an open version of all of its courses. MIT led other institutions into the movement and initiated the creation of the OpenCourseWare Consortium. Soon after, open “utilities” such as YouTube and iTunesU offered easy paths to the expression of open education through video capture and other new technology. And, again in a drive to reduce the cost of education, the open textbook movement was created.
  • The rise of MOOCs has been astoundingly rapid and influential.
  • MOOCs was started with Stanford in July 2011. Within one year, many of the top universities in the country and theworld were offering MOOCs through one or more start-up entities, and millions of students had signed up for the free courses.
  • A Stanford course in AI offered by two Stanford professors started things. These courses caught the attention of venture capitalists hoping to find another Facebook.
  • Venture capital seeded a number of start-ups with Coursera, Udacity and edX among the leaders.  
  • Coursera is a social entrepreneurship company that partners with the top universities in the world to offer courses online for anyone to take, for free. Coursera envisions a future where the top universities are educating not only thousands of students, but millions. Its technology enables professors to teach tens or hundreds of thousands of students.
  • By mid September 2012, Coursera had agreements with 33 top universities from around the world, including 7 universities outside of the U.S.
  • The possible “monetization” schemes as listed in the Coursera contract with its university partners are listed here. Of these nine possibilities only the first two are in immediate prospect.
  • Not listed in the Coursera contract but clearly under consideration and in prospect are these possible ways of making money.
  • An early indication about why students are taking Coursera courses came from a survey of the first UCI sign ups. UCI’s 7 Coursera courses produced about 11,000 survey results.
  • Slightly more than 1/2 of students state they selected their classes because they expect it to be enjoyable; nearly the same number also state the course they selected relates to their current or future career plans.
  • Udacity believes that university-level education can be both high quality and low cost. Using the economics of the Internet, we've connected some of the greatest teachers to hundreds of thousands of students in almost every country on Earth. Udacity was founded by three roboticists who believed much of the educational value of their university classes could be offered online for very low cost. A few weeks later, over 160,000 students in more than 190 countries enrolled in our first class, "Introduction to Artificial Intelligence." The class was twice profiled by the New York Times and also by other news media.
  • Like Coursera, Udacity sees certification as a path to “monetization.”
  • EdX is a not-for-profit enterprise of its founding partners Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology that features learning designed specifically for interactive study via the web. Based on a long history of collaboration and their shared educational missions, the founders are creating a new online-learning experience with online courses that reflect their disciplinary breadth. Along with offering online courses, the institutions will use edX to research how students learn and how technology can transform learning–both on-campus and worldwide. Anant Agarwal, former Director of MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, serves as the first president of edX. EdX's goals combine the desire to reach out to students of all ages, means, and nations, and to deliver these teachings from a faculty who reflect the diversity of its audience. EdX is based in Cambridge, Massachusetts and is governed by MIT and Harvard.Unlike the other start-up entities, edX has a plan by which the participating partners will offer learning assessments and the recognition of learning achievements with certificates from MITX, StanfordX, HarvardX and so on. The linking of these high level “brands” with learning assessments of a non-traditional kind is a major step toward the linking of open education with degree credit.
  • The linking of open education with transcripted academic credit took a major leap forward with the November 19, 2012 Coursera/ACEannouncementthat ACE was considering supplying learning assessments (tests) for students who had taken a free Coursera course and wanted degree credit for learning achievement. For the first time a national academic credit “bank” would accept credits toward degrees which could be accepted by any institution in the U.S. (and overseas).
  • To be successful in this rapidly changing environment, higher education institutions have to create the institutional will and the resources needed to be responsible contributors to open education and the lowering of the cost of education. Here is a list of the elements comprising institutional will.
  • To download presentation, please visit SlideShare at http://www.slideshare.net/garymaktin/oeb2012
  • MOOCs have added one more institutional benefit for producing high quality OCW, but the benefits of openness have been evident for many years. These benefits form an imperative in which all major universities must both produce and use OCW and OER to remain competitive.

oeb2012 oeb2012 Presentation Transcript

  • Making Sense of Free, Massive Education: Disruptive, Natural Evolution, Savior GARY W. MATKIN, PH.D., DEANCONTINUING EDUCATION, DISTANCE LEARNING AND SUMMER SESSION UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, IRVINE ONLINE EDUCA BERLIN PART OF “MOOCS EXAMINED” PANEL NOVEMBER 29, 2012
  • FOR MORE INFORMATION slideshare.net/garymatkin/oeb2012 To contact Gary Matkin, emailkstam@uci.edu or call (949) 824 -5525
  • Summary of Converging Themes The growing supply of OCW and OER The world-wide drive to lower the cost of higher education while maintaining quality
  • Summary of Emerging Themes Improving teaching and learning through online delivery Concentration on competency-based assessments The rise of “adaptive learning” The creation of viable and sustained learning communities
  • By 2025, 98 million graduates ofsecondary education WILL NOT beable to attend college
  • Imagine a World in Which everyone could learn anything anywhere anytime for free
  • The Growth and Development of Open Education Channels1. Early Repositories 3. Utilities  Merlot  YouTube  Connexions  iTunes  Subject-matter based 4. Open Textbooks2. OpenCourseWare  MIT  OCWC  UCI
  • The Growth and Development of Open Education Channels Open Repositories  Merlot: 38,000 learning objects  Connexions: 17,000 learning objects, 2 million visits per month OpenCourseWare  MIT: 2,100 courses, 1 million visits per month  OCW Consortium: 25,000 courses, 250 + institutional members  UC Irvine OCW: 90 courses, 300 video lectures, 1,700 learning objects
  • The Growth and Development of Open Education Channels Utilities  YouTube EDU: 700,000 video lectures  iTunes U: 500,000 video lectures Open Text Books
  • MOOCsSTANFORD STARTSTHE BALL ROLLING
  • March 2011 Stanford’s Sebastian Thrun attends Ted talk by Salmon KahnJuly 2011 Thrun and Norwig announce the Stanford AI courseOctober 2011 New York Times front page article on the AI course enrollmentsDecember Udacity and MITx launched2011January 2012 Kohler and Ng of Stanford launch Coursera with $16 million in VC fundsMay 2012 MIT and Harvard announce edX with $60 million in start up fundingJuly 2012 Coursera has 16 universities and 100 coursesAugust 2012 Coursera hits 1 million studentsSeptember Coursera expands to 33 institutions offering 200 courses2012November Coursera announces its partnership with ACE2012
  • The Response
  •  Coursera was launched on April 18, 2012 Coursera has raised over $16 million in funding 33 University Partners, 1.7 million followers, 200 courses No solid business plan developed Uses cohort model Wants to present the “world‟s best courses” Admits only elite universities: “top 50”
  • Coursera Partners Stanford University  University of Maryland, College Park University of Michigan  University of Melbourne University of Pennsylvania  University of Pittsburgh Princeton University  Vanderbilt University Berklee College of Music  Wesleyan University  California Institute of Technology Brown University  Duke University Columbia University  École Polytechnique Fédérale de Emory University Lausanne Hebrew University of Jerusalem  Georgia Institute of Technology The Hong Kong University of  Johns Hopkins University Science and Technology  Rice University Mount Sinai School of Medicine  University of California, San Francisco Ohio State University  University of Edinburgh The University of British  University of Illinois at Urbana- Columbia Champaign University of California, Irvine  University of Toronto University of Florida  University of Virginia University of London  University of Washington International Programmes
  • How Does Coursera Plan to Make Money in the Future? Certifications Offering "Secure Assessments” Employee Recruiting Employee or University Screening Tutoring or Manual Grading Corporate/University Enterprise Model Sponsorships Selling Courses to Community Colleges Charging Tuition
  • The Unstated Monetization Models Advertising Selling student data/personal information Selling ancillary materials
  • UCI’s Coursera Student Survey Data UCI‟s report is based on 11,194 survey responses received during the period 9/19/12 – 10/5/12 During this same period, nearly 34,000 enrollments were generated across 7 courses Indications:  Nearly 6 in 10 students registering for UCI classes on Coursera are from outside the United States
  • I selected this course because it was developed by the University of… Im curious about what its like to take an online course This class relates to my current employment or careerI want to earn a credential to add to Slightly more than 1/2 of students my resume/CV state they selected their classes This subject is relevant to my because they expect it to be academic field of studyThis enjoyable; nearly the same number class relates to my future career plans also state the course they selected I think this course will be fun and relates to their current or future enjoyable career plans 0% 20% 40% 60%
  •  Launched April 2o12 800,000 students in 16 Open Courses Not a cohort model, Start Class at any Time, Self-Paced Courses Categorized by Beginning, Intermediate, Advanced Upon completing a course, students receive a certificate of completion indicating their level of achievement, signed by the instructors, at no cost. 50,000 certificates of completion issued as of October 2012 Not yet institutionally-sponsored
  • The Udacity Model: Plans for Monetizing Plans to monetize its “students‟ skills” Udacity will help with job placement by selling student leads to recruiters Final exams are proctored for a fee Further plans for certification options would include a "secured online examination" as a less expensive alternative to the in-person proctored exams
  •  Founded May 2012 Harvard and MIT are founding partners with $60 million in backing Currently offers HarvardX, MITx and BerkeleyX classes online for free Beginning in Summer 2013, edX will also offer UTx (University of Texas) classes online for free The UT System is making a $5 million investment in the edX platform More than 150,000 students from over 160 countries registered for Circuits and Electronics
  • More About edX Certificates of completion will be issued by edX under the name of the underlying "X University" from where the course originated, i.e. HarvardX, MITx or BerkeleyX The certificates for courses completed in Fall 2012 will be free There are plans to charge a modest fee for certificates in the future
  • Coursera and ACE Coursera‟s Partnership with ACE will allow the evaluation/assessment of learning and credit recommendations for about five of its courses Learners can receive an ACE transcript These credits can, at the discretion of the accepting institution, be accepted toward a degree Over 2,000 of the nation‟s some 4,600 colleges and universities already accept ACE-generated credits For the first time, a nationally recognized academic credit “bank” is available to students of OCW
  • Predictions About Effects of MOOCs on Higher Education: The MACRO Level MOOCs will: 1. Help higher education institutions, especially the elite institutions, embrace online education in all its forms, including in classroom-based instruction 2. Rapidly advance the creation and use of open educational resources (OER) 3. Increase the use of transfer credits in the achieving of degrees 4. Help lower the cost of higher education
  • Predictions About Effects of MOOCs on Higher Education: The MACRO Level MOOCs will: 5. Be an important factor in the use of new instructional technology by all institutions to improve teaching and learning 6. Promote peer to peer interactions and the learning associated with them and speed the development of viable online learning communities 7. Speed the value, legitimacy, and use of degree- alternative certifications in both personal and employment-related learning projects 8. Promote the use of competency-based assessments for degree and non-degree education
  • Predictions About Effects of MOOCs on Higher Education: The MICRO Level MOOCs will: 1. Continue to proliferate as will the “channels” and the number of institutions engaged in them, to become a permanent feature of the higher education landscape 2. Content will be the most significant driver of MOOC enrollments (what do I want to know?) 3. Elite universities will engage in MOOCs for reputational and revenue generating reasons 4. Second and third tier institutions will engage in MOOCs to reduce costs and improve quality
  • Predictions About Effects of MOOCs on Higher Education: The MICRO Level MOOCs will: 5. The average enrollment size of MOOCs will decline as MOOCs proliferate 6. MOOC channels, and institutional contributors will specialize along subject matter lines 7. All LMS technologies will incorporate functions and utilities to serve MOOCs 8. MOOC technology, channels, and institutions will continue to add service features for the learner, some of which will be free and some of which will require the payment of a fee
  • Predictions About Effects of MOOCs on Higher Education: The MICRO Level MOOCs will: 9. The „monetization” strategies of MOOC channels will soon become obvious and will feature learning assessment, advertising, data selling, and associated services (tutoring, the sale of supplemental learning materials, the tying of learning assessments to degrees and employment opportunities) 10. Universities will receive enough revenue to cause them to continue to supply content 11. All universities will become more flexible in accepting non-traditional learning assessments for transfer credit
  • Elements for Successfully ImplementingOnline and Open Education on Your Campus Flexible staff willing to make changes An inventory/history of open content Technical infrastructure People and skill sets Institutional credibility Administrative structure Money to invest OER and OCW National and International contacts Technical capacity Responsible resource allocation planning
  • FOR MORE INFORMATIONhttp://www.slideshare.net/garymatkin/oeb2012 To contact Gary Matkin, emailkstam@uci.edu or call (949) 824 -5525
  • The Institutional Case for OCW Serve current students (supports teaching and learning) Attract new students Support faculty in both course authoring and delivery Facilitate accountability and aid continuous improvement Advance institutional recognition and reputation Support the public service role of institutions Disseminate the results of research and thereby attract research funding Serve as a repository for a wide range of digital assets Serve learning communities of all types Enhance international service and reputation Serves as a mechanism for fundraising Serves as the basis for revenue generation (MOOCs)