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The objective of this presentation is to first, set the background, including the most recent events, around MOOCs. Of course, MOOCs are just an extension of a much earlier and deeper movement toward …

The objective of this presentation is to first, set the background, including the most recent events, around MOOCs. Of course, MOOCs are just an extension of a much earlier and deeper movement toward open education, but they represent a very important milestone in the development of universal higher education, where everyone can learn anything, anytime, anywhere, for free. We will also make some predictions, based on solid evidence, about where MOOCs are going and what their effect will be. Then we will develop some institutional strategies that might make sense given the background and predilections.

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  • This is the second year that I have presented at the Educa OnlineBerlin conference. Although only a year has passed, there is a wealth of events and developments that surround MOOCs, so this represents an update on my last presentation and develops the theme of creating institutional strategies about MOOCs.
  • The objective of this presentation is to first, set the background, including the most recent events, around MOOCs. Of course, MOOCs are just an extension of a much earlier and deeper movement toward open education, but they represent a very important milestone in the development of universal higher education, where everyone can learn anything, anytime, anywhere, for free. We will also make some predictions, based on solid evidence, about where MOOCs are going and what their effect will be. Then we will develop some institutional strategies that might make sense given the background and predilections.
  • UCI has been involved in the OpenCourseWare movement since 2000 when we received the first of several grants from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. In November 2001 we opened our OCW website following some parts of the model set for the world by MIT. The UCI OCW (http://ocw.uci.edu) currently offers 82courses including graduate and undergraduate degree courses and professional level courses for continuing education. Unlike most institutional OCW sites, UCI’s site offers educational experiences designed to target deserving audiences. Our site also incorporates some features unique to UCI.
  • UCI has steadily enhanced its OCW site and now leads the world in the features it offers on this site. These features include better search function, better course pages, professors and courses can be listed by multiple schools and departments.
  • UCI’s excellence in its open offerings has been recognized externally through 8 national and international awards. UCI is frequently rated in the top ten OCW sites in the world.
  • Visits to our site have steadily increased. Our average visits per month now are about 40,000.
  • One example of our serving of deserving audiences is our educational resources provided to California teachers trying to pass the States CSET exams which qualify teachers to teach science and math in the high schools. Visits to the site peak just before the exam.
  • UCI is a charter member of the OCWC, an organization now numbering over 280 dues paying institutions which offer over 30,000 open courses. Gary Matkin served five years as the OCWC founding treasurer and Larry Cooperman, director of UCI’s open initiatives, is a current (second term) board member and currently the elected president of the organization.
  • UCI Introduces Open Chemistry.
  • Until now, students seeking help while studying chemistry had to first locate the source of the course (Coursera, YouTube, etc.) and then find the particular piece they wanted. When they went from piece to piece the information was not presented in a coherent fashion—the curriculum of MIT might well be different from the study of chemistry at Purdue. With UCI’s Open Chem project, students can now view the entire intellectual landscape (15 courses—over 700 hours of lectures) as defined by faculty members from one of the largest undergraduate chemistry departments in the world. They can easily find what the want to study and see and listen to the lecture, in high quality video capture, given by UCI’s top chemistry faculty.
  • Since we started posting the video lectures in October 2012 our lectures have received almost 500,000 visits and have been viewed for nearly 5 million minutes, an average of over 8 minutes per view.
  • UCIs first experience with MOOCs began in September 2012 when we joined Coursera as one of the first 33 universities to be involved with that organization. We offered our first Coursera courses in January 2013 and eventually enrolled over 250,000 students in those first six courses. One course, with over 90,000 enrollments was the first non-degree course offered by Coursera, a course in personal financial planning. Two of our first six courses (Algebra and Pre-Calculus) were among the five selected by Coursera and ACE for ACE credit. UCI continues to offer MOOCs on Coursera and is or has offered seven more courses (a total of 13) which have, to date enrolled 500,000. In addition, in an innovative experiment to link the scholarship of our faculty to popular culture, UCI partnered with the AMC network and Instructure (owner of the Canvas LMS) to produce a MOOC based on the popular television show, The Walking Dead. We will have over 66,000 enrollments in that course before the end of the season.
  • MOOCs brought together two forces. The first was the huge store of open education that has become available over the last ten years. The second was the intense public pressure to bring down the cost of higher education. When two Stanford professors offered the first publicly recognized MOOC in July, 2011, it caught the public’s attention. The high quality of the course and the fact that it came from Stanford joined the two forces with the idea that open education could bring down the cost of higher education.
  • Over the last 13 years the supply of open educational materials has expanded to such a mass that it had to be taken into account by higher education.
  • Another growing and powerful force on higher education is the increased cost of higher education and its consequences: high student debt. 
  • The addition of quality into the equation found by the large mass of OER and the pressure for lower cost education focused attention on MOOCs. The perception of quality came from two sources. First, the quality of the first MOOC was very high. Second, the earliest providers of MOOCs were top ranked universities.
  • MOOCs and the discussion around MOOCs have certain dynamics. Theearly involvement in MOOCs symbolized a university’s willingness to adopt new technology. This symbolism resonated particularly with governing boards, usually composed of business people, who generally view faculty and all university administrators as resistant to change.The huge discussion around MOOCs proceeded through the usual initial hype and now seems to be going through the trough of disillusionment. But whatever the direction of the discussionand however strong the anti-MOOC forces are, MOOCs and MOOC providers continue to proliferate.  MOOCs are generally criticized for being what they are not and the metrics used to value them are inappropriate (completion rates).
  • The big step ahead in making the connection between OER and low cost higher education is making the connection between open content and academic credit. Many of the parts of this puzzle are on the table. There are many open “channels” for open course and curricula. These channels include YouTube, iTunesU, Coursera, Udacity, edX, and individual institutional OCW sites. There are the beginnings of ways in which these open educational resources can be used by students to gain credit. The first step is to create learning assessments that can be administered to students in order to verify that they have mastered the subject. Allied with the assessment issue is the student authentication issue—how can institutions verify that there is no cheating on the assessments. The first connections were made between individual institutions and particular sets of open material. For instance, Excelsior University is willing to provide assessments and authentication processes for open courses offered by the Saylor Foundation. Similar arrangements were made between Coursera and Antioch College and Coursera and the University of Washington. In November 2013 ACE and Coursera announced a joint experiment whereby ACE would give academic credit for five Coursera courses (2 of which are UCI courses). Thus for the first time a national “credit bank” is available for students seeking credit.
  • MOOCs do threaten some aspects of the status quo, but ultimately will not supplant traditional instruction. They can be very high quality learning pathways lacking only instructor input and attention. They are an important form of open education and MOOC “channels” should be added to OER sources. They symbolize, still, the kind of adaptability required of institutions which wish to keeppace with the learning revolution. And, as we will see soon, they do offer opportunities for massive research.
  • The average size of MOOCs will naturally decrease as this proliferates. MOOCs are open only to individual viewing and use. Unlike other OER,MOOCs generally cannot be downloaded, used, reused, or adopted for uses in university settings. By definition they are not full instructor-led online courses. Although this look into online courses and, as people seek credit for them, began to take on aspects of online courses.  MOOCs properly are teaching tools not substitutes for teaching.
  • MOOCs will shift from degree-based courses to curricula (groups of courses) designed for non-degree seeking audiences. They will form the basis for learning communities organized in a way to popular informal book clubs.
  • In crafting an institutional strategy around MOOCs there are a number of benefits that those institutions involved have already discovered. Here is a list of them. So far, however, the financial justification in hard dollars is illusive and unlikely to be realized in the near future. But the power of MOOCs generally reside in the fact that they are at the cutting edge of a number of opportunities for intuitionsto extend their reach and influence. It will be a challenge to translatethese “soft” benefits into “hard” dollars in terms of the investments that must be made in MOOCs.
  • A survey of incoming graduate and undergraduate students at UCI indicates that 12% of both categories had viewed some form of UCI open material before arriving at UCI. While still a relatively small percentage, we expect this to grow, and we think that students increasingly will look for such information.
  • Universities have always had an obligation to share the knowledge base they have developed and are constantly adding to. MOOCs and OER offer a very easily accessible way for universities to fulfill this obligation. To share in a way that teaches people about the material rather than just providing them the material is the ultimate in this aspect of public service. But there is a more immediate and focused aspect of public service that can be achieved effectively and cost efficiently through MOOCs and OER. That is to provide learning experiences for audiences targeted because of their special needs and their lack of resources for formal education. For instance, K-12 teachers need upgrading constantly in their fields and are a natural such target population. Parents of obese children from low income families or diabetes patients from all walks of life are other such examples.  


  • 1. THE EVOLUTION OF MOOCS: SHOULD WE STILL BE INTERESTED? Gar y W. M atkin, Ph.D. Dean, Continuing Education, Distance Learning and Summer Session Univer sity of California, Ir vine Educa Online Berlin, December 201 3 slideshare.net/garymatkin/oeb2013
  • 2. PRESENTATION OBJECTIVES Create background for setting an institutional strategy Predict where MOOCs are going Develop some alternative institutional strategies as models
  • 4. OPEN EDUCATION AT UC IRVINE Opened UCI OCW in November 2006 Currently offers 82 open courses, over 800 video lectures Over 70,000 viewers on YouTube channel per month Serves deserving audiences Incorporates unique features Open Chemistry MOOCs (Coursera, Canvas)
  • 5. OPEN EDUCATION AT UC IRVINE: OCW INVOLVEMENT  Better course pages  Courses can be organized by weeks, topics, or any other schema a user can think of  Files can be attached anywhere  Authors can easily attach PowerPoints or PDFs directly on a lecture or course page  Conferences have their own listings  Easier to find and can be organized by specific panels  Professors and courses can be listed under multiple schools and departments  Enhanced search functions
  • 6. OPEN EDUCATION AT UC IRVINE: AWARDS  September 2013: NUTN 2013 Distance Education Innovation Awards in Open Education  October 2012: Internet Marketing Association Impact Award  April 2012: OCWC OpenCourseWare Leadership Excellence (ACE) Award  December 2011: OPAL Awards for Institutions  October 2011: Internet Marketing Association Best Website Overall Content  September 2011: The NUTN Distance Education Innovation Award  August 2011: Education-Portal.com OCW People’s Choice Award for Michael Dennin, Professor of Physics and Astronomy, Science to Superheroes Course  June 2011: OCW Consortium Award for OpenCourseWare Excellence recognizing John Crooks, lecturer, Introduction to Pitch Systems course
  • 7. OPEN EDUCATION AT UC IRVINE: OCW INVOLVEMENT VISITS to UCI OCW WEBSITE 450,000 404,905 400,000 350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 2010 2011 2012 2013
  • 9. OPEN EDUCATION AT UC IRVINE: OCWC FUNDING AND SUPPORT Charter member First West Coast member Gary Matkin, founding treasurer Larry Cooperman, current elected president
  • 11. OPEN EDUCATION AT UC IRVINE: OPEN CHEMISTRY 15 Full 4-Quarter Unit Undergraduate courses 700 hours of video lecture Two camera, high definition, edited content First full undergraduate major available in one place
  • 12. OPEN EDUCATION AT UC IRVINE: OPEN CHEMISTRY  UC Irvine’s presence in the open courseware arena through YouTube is solid and growing
  • 13. OPEN EDUCATION AT UC IRVINE: MOOCS One of first 33 universities to join Coursera First six Coursera courses offered in January of 2013 (250,000 enrollments) First to offer non-degree courses Two UCI/Coursera courses chosen for ACE credit Now a total of 13 courses offered (500,000 enrollments) The Walking Dead experiment Certificate Program in Virtual Teaching
  • 14. UC Irvine is wellrepresented in the world of MOOCs with six new courses this fall quarter, 2013, and seven having already finished earlier this year Enrollment data as of 11/11/13
  • 15. SETTING THE CONTEXT FOR A MOOC STRATEGY Governing Boards OER  MOOCS Stanford Low Cost Higher Education University Legislatures Fed. Gov’t 
  • 16. THE SUPPLY OF OER IS HUGE AND GROWING OCWC OER YOU TUBE iTUNESu • 280 Members • Over 30,000 Courses • Over 700,000 videos on Education channel • Over 500,000 courses/learning materials
  • 17. PUBLIC DEMAND FOR LOWER COST EDUCATION IS INCREASING Average tuition in higher education increased 27% over the last 5 years Graduates leave college with an average debt of $27,000 U.S. student debt is approaching $1 trillion, exceeding credit card debt
  • 18. QUALIT Y, OPEN & LOW COST Quality as expressed in course design and presentation Quality as expressed by top universities involvement (innovation)
  • 19. DYNAMICS Involvement in MOOCs became a symbol of being “in the game”  UVA  Jump on the train Initial hype, concern, vs. trough of disillusionment, but steady proliferation of organizations and MOOCs Inappropriate metrics, criticizing MOOCs for what they are not or what they might be Credit
  • 20. THE CONNECTION BETWEEN OER AND CREDIT DISCOVER • UCI OCW • YouTube EDU • iTunesU • Coursera • edX • Merlot • Connexions CHOOSE LEARN ADOPT •Open Course Module •Full Open Course •Full Open Curriculum LEARN KNOW DO • Preview • Supplement • Assess Learning • Certify Learning • Gain Academic Credit • Get Job
  • 21. WHAT MOOCS ARE Threats to status quo High quality learning pathways An important form of open education Symbols of the learning revolution Opportunities for massive research
  • 22. WHAT MOOCS ARE NOT Not Not Not Not so massive in future so open online courses threats to teaching
  • 23. WHAT MOOCS WILL BE A standard part of higher and continuing education The basis for low cost sharing of content Focused on non-degree seeking, targeted audiences Clearing houses for innovation and learning research “Hubs” for learning communities
  • 24. ELEMENTS OF AN INSTITUTIONAL STRATEGY Consistency with institutional goals Institutional exposure, positioning Serves current students Attracts students Readiness for learning revolution Opportunities for public service Opportunities for research Not an element: Net income generation
  • 25. INSTITUTIONAL EXPOSURE, POSITIONING Why is it important?  Innovation  International competition Examples  MOOC enrollments  Awards  TWD Coverage
  • 26. SERVING STUDENTS In the last 30 days, Open Chem on YouTube has received 73,000 views with 611,000 minutes watched. This year we expect a million views with an average of 8.5 minutes viewed
  • 28. READINESS FOR THE LEARNING REVOLUTION The most impactful use of MOOC content is in the form of institutionally sponsored courses, where many more students can be served MOOCs will provide a marketplace for both content and learning innovation that is capable of improving the economic and social well being of the world
  • 29. OPPORTUNITIES FOR PUBLIC SERVICE Sharing knowledge base in highly user friendly way Focusing on deserving audience which do not have the resources for formal education
  • 30. STRATEGY RECAP Offer MOOCs because they: 1. Gain positive attention 2. Attract and serve students 3. Create a position for innovation readiness 4. Symbolize innovation 5. Provide opportunities for research on learning and improvement 6. Fulfill public service roles 7. Can serve deserving audiences (alumni, lay public) 8. Inform course authorship and design 9. Put instruction on the "train"
  • 31. STRATEGY RECAP Don’t offer MOOCs because they: 1. Might generate income (although in time, they might)
  • 32. QUESTIONS Gary W. Matkin, gmatkin@uci.edu Download presentation at slideshare.net/garymatkin/oeb2013