It is Not Easy Being (or Defining) Green Presentation by Gary Crossley to the IAWP 97 th  Educational Conference  Monday, ...
Outline <ul><li>Defining Green </li></ul><ul><li>State Work -- Green Jobs & Other Mythical Creatures/TX </li></ul><ul><li>...
It is Not Easy Being Green <ul><li>Green Buzz </li></ul><ul><li>Defining Green </li></ul><ul><li>New Green Careers </li></...
Green Buzz – Is it the Holy Grail? <ul><li>Green Emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Early Findings (OR, WA, CT, TX, MI) </li></ul>...
It is Not So Easy Defining Green <ul><li>Bureau of Labor Statistics issued a Federal Register notice a few months ago invi...
WIC Green Jobs Study Group <ul><li>State LMI, BLS, ETA joint study group, commissioned by Workforce Information Council </...
Understanding the Green Economy <ul><li>What is California LMI Doing/Planning? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborating  to exp...
 
CA’s Working Definition of Green Jobs <ul><li>Green jobs produce (“ supply ”) goods or services that result in: </li></ul>...
California’s Survey Results <ul><ul><li>Nearly 15,200 employers responded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8.6 percent of employ...
BLS Green Jobs Initiative <ul><li>Goals are to provide information on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of green jobs and tren...
Defining green jobs <ul><li>No widely accepted definition available </li></ul><ul><li>Definition should be objective and e...
Defining Green Jobs <ul><li>BLS background work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviewed the literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E...
BLS green jobs definition <ul><li>Broadly defined, green jobs are jobs involved in economic activities that help protect o...
BLS green jobs definition <ul><li>Categories of green economic activity </li></ul>Renewable energy Recycling and waste red...
BLS green jobs definition <ul><li>Green economic activities result in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of green goods and...
<ul><li>Two approaches to definition and measurement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Output approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Output approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BLS defined four types of green goods and services </li></ul></ul>BLS green ...
<ul><li>1. Direct green goods and services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A good or service produced specifically for an environmen...
<ul><li>2. Indirect green goods and services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When produced, consumed, or scrapped, better for enviro...
<ul><li>2. Indirect green goods and services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goods con...
<ul><li>2. Indirect green goods and services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards for green-ness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>2. Indirect green goods and services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electricity pro...
<ul><li>3. Specialized inputs to production of a direct or indirect green good or service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples <...
<ul><li>4. Distribution of green goods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services that specialize in distribution of green goods, incl...
BLS Green Jobs Definition <ul><li>Definition is based on economic activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not consider job asp...
<ul><li>Do not have sufficient information to use a ‘net impact on the environment’ concept to classify goods and services...
Measuring green jobs: output approach <ul><li>BLS identified industries where green goods and services are classified </li...
Measuring green jobs: output approach <ul><li>Green goods and services industry survey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample establ...
Measuring green jobs: output approach <ul><li>Publication goal and example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For all NAICS codes where...
Measuring green jobs: output approach <ul><li>Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain...
Measuring green jobs: process approach <ul><li>Businesses may implement green production processes for any type of good or...
Measuring green jobs: process approach <ul><li>Special employer survey to measure jobs related to environmentally-friendly...
Feedback on definition <ul><li>Federal Register Notice soliciting public comment on green jobs definition </li></ul><ul><u...
Feedback on definition <ul><li>Federal Register Notice responses </li></ul>Respondent Category Number Percent Distribution...
Feedback on definition <ul><li>Three topics of special interest to BLS for comment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composition of th...
What happens next? <ul><li>Finalize green jobs definition  </li></ul><ul><li>Output approach data collection </li></ul><ul...
What happens next? <ul><li>Process approach data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial development underway; field test...
New Green Careers <ul><li>See New O*Net Green Economy </li></ul><ul><li>www.online.onetcenter.org </li></ul><ul><li>Existi...
Greening of the World of Work   <ul><ul><li>Investigated the implications for the O*NET System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
Green Economy   <ul><ul><li>“ Green Economy” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>economic activity related to reducing the use ...
Green Economy Sectors   <ul><ul><ul><li>Research, Design, and Consulting Services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manu...
Green Economy Sectors   (cont.) <ul><ul><ul><li>Governmental and Regulatory Administration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul...
O*NET Green Methodology <ul><li>Sector focused </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive literature and web review conducted by trained ...
Greening of Occupations   <ul><ul><li>The extent to which green economy activities and technologies increase the demand fo...
Greening of Occupations (cont.) <ul><li>Green Increased Demand Occupations:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase in the employ...
New/Emerging O*NET Evaluation <ul><li>Each potential occupation is evaluated in terms of specific criteria: </li></ul><ul>...
O*NET Green Results <ul><li>Green Increased Demand Occupations:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>64 O*NET-SOC occupations </li></ul...
O*NET Green Results (cont.) <ul><li>Green New & Emerging Occupations:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>91 total N & E Occupations <...
O*NET Green Results (cont.)
Affect of the New Green Economy on O*NET Occupations Occupation Information Occupation Type New & Emerging Enhanced Skill ...
Current Activities <ul><li>Green Job Titles </li></ul><ul><li>Green Task Development </li></ul><ul><li>Green Tools & Techn...
Green Job Titles <ul><li>Harvest green titles from the green report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>839 titles identified for 135 oc...
Green Task Project  <ul><li>Develop new task lists for Green N & E Occupations </li></ul><ul><li>Augment the current task ...
Green Task Results to Date <ul><li>Completed initial review of 72 occupations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>47 New & Emerging </li...
Modified Green Task Example <ul><li>Soil and Water Conservationists  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ORIGINAL :  Participate on work...
New Green Task Example <ul><li>Soil and Water Conservationists  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NEW :  Gather information from geogr...
Green Tools & Technology <ul><li>Green N & E occupations prioritized within tools and technology data collection </li></ul...
Green Data Collection <ul><li>Increased Demand and Enhanced Skill Occupations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All updated at least o...
Green Book of References <ul><li>Currently 250+ References </li></ul><ul><li>Updated Quarterly </li></ul><ul><li>Primary R...
Future Activities <ul><li>Green Detailed Work Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the DWAs for N & E and Enhanced Sk...
Future Activities (cont.) <ul><li>New KSA identification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have new, green Knowledge, Skill, and Abili...
http://greenjobs.workforce3one.org/
Charleston Goes Green <ul><li>Green Initiatives Before Going Green Was Cool </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation of Buildings an...
Clemson Wind Turbine Testing Facility <ul><li>Clemson and local officials put up a collaborative proposal to the Dept. of ...
Clemson Wind Turbine Testing Facility <ul><li>About 125 construction jobs over next year </li></ul><ul><li>In initial oper...
Green Resources <ul><li>Green Jobs Report from the WIC,  www.workforceinfocouncil.org   </li></ul><ul><li>California’s Gre...
 
California Industries  With the Most Green Jobs
California’s Top Green Jobs
Business Practice Skill Needs
Preparation of Current Green Workers – OJT!
Presentation Summary <ul><li>Kermit was Right – It is Not Easy Being Green! </li></ul><ul><li>Resources – BLS, ETA, ONET, ...
Questions? <ul><li>Gary Crossley </li></ul><ul><li>LovetoWork.org, LLC </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li...
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This was a presentation at the IAWP meeting on June 28, 2010 by Gary Crossley of LovetoWork.org, LLC on Green Jobs.

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  • We are working toward providing three types of information: How many green jobs are there and how this changes over time Where these jobs are found by industry, occupation and geography What these jobs pay. Beginning in FY2010, the BLS budget includes $7.8 Million for BLS to gather new data on green jobs.
  • BLS needs a definition that Is objective This means the definition is not based on a particular policy position, or , to the extent possible, on judgment calls Empirically measurable: i.e., we can actually use it collect and tabulate data We must ask respondents for information they actually have Respondents must be able to understand and accurately answer survey questions. Uses standard classifications so the results will be comparable to other data from BLS and other sources. This means using the NAICS and SOC
  • In developing our definition, we did a lot of background work. We read a lot of literature to get ourselves informed. We looked at what others were doing regarding definition and measurement approaches, including the work of our friends at O*NET We also looked at international work, and were especially influenced by Statistics Canada’s environmental survey, and Eurostat’s environmental statistics handbook. We consulted with some stakeholders, including federal agencies, industry associations, and our state partners. To facilitate BLS and States learning from one another, the WIC set up the Green Jobs Study Group. The Study Group report looks at definitions, existing surveys and studies, lessons learned, and action plan for the States.
  • At its broadest level, BLS defines green jobs ….
  • We have identified seven categories of green economic activity. These help put some boundaries around what is “green”. Each of these is elaborated on in the Federal Register Notice, and we asked for comment on them.
  • We have adopted a two-pronged approach to measurement: the output approach and the process approach. The Graphic illustrates the concept. Think of this as what happens in any business establishment.
  • The output approach is similar in many ways to the usual way BLS tabulates employment by industry, since establishments are classified by industry on the basis of the products or services they produce, that is, their outputs. NAICS occasionally also takes the production process into account, such as in the electric utilities industry. The process approach, however, is different from our usual way of looking at employment. And there is no taxonomy of production processes.
  • Economic activity results in the production and sale of goods and services. Green economic activity results in the production of green goods and services. So what goods and services are green? Identifying these goods and services is one of the difficult challenges we have faced. The result of our effort is a definition of 4 types of green goods and services: Direct Indirect – the most complex one Specialized inputs Distribution of green goods, defined as a green service IMPORTANT: The definition of green goods and services applies only in the output measurement approach. The process approach applies to all industries.
  • Produced specifically for an environmental purpose. Test question: would this product or service be produced if it did not have an environmental purpose?
  • Indirect is the most complicated of the four types of green goods and services. The key is the environmental impact in comparison with other goods used for the same purpose.
  • Indirect is the most complicated of the four types of green goods and services. The key is the environmental impact in comparison with other goods used for the same purpose.
  • We need an objective way to determine whether the good has a better impact on the environment than other goods use for the same purpose. We plan to use standards , where available, to make this call.
  • Specialized inputs is the third category. This is an attempt to capture the supply chain, where it is identifiable and specific.
  • Distribution is the fourth type of green good or service. We have included services that specialize in distribution of green goods. This is a topic we specifically asked for comments on.
  • We have developed a definition that is based on economic activity and its impact on the environment. This means we have not included job aspects that are sometimes mentioned in the context of green jobs. Part of the reason for excluding these things is to reduce complexity. The other is for objectivity. We did not think it appropriate for BLS to make judgments about, for example, how high a wage is high enough to include: Wages and benefits(although we will collect wage data by occupation) Union membership Career ladders or advancement Safety and health conditions of the work We believe our definition is broad enough and will let us present data in enough detail that users can adjust it for their needs. For example, they can analyze it along with other data to understand career advancement.
  • Some other limitations or things we need to work on: “Net impact” – some refer to this is the life cycle of a good or service. An example is solar panels. We have included this as a clearly identifiable green good. They are produced specifically for the purpose of generating energy from renewable sources, one of our “green” economic activities. But producing solar panels involves use of toxic chemicals, a negative environmental impact. Does this offset their positive environmental impact? There are probably hundreds or even thousands of other examples. BLS does not have the expertise to make these judgments.
  • Let me turn now to our measurement plans. As mentioned earlier, we have two measurement activities planned: one for the output approach, one for the process approach. In the output approach, we have identified industries where green goods and services are classified – the list was published for comment along with the Federal Register Notice. We will survey a sample of establishments in these industries. We will also get their occupational staffing pattern, using the regular OES collection process.
  • For data collection, we will survey a sample of establishments in these industries to find out if the establishment does produce the good or service, and if yes, what share of their revenue is from these outputs. We will use the share of revenue as a proxy for the share of employment – a topic we asked for comment on. This approach is based on two things. Statistics Canada attempted a similar survey and asked for share of employment, which was unsuccessful – high item non-response – but found they could collect share of revenue. Also, our field testing suggests that share of employment would be difficult to collect. Share of revenue will only be needed where the establishment produces both green and non-green outputs. We don’t know how often this is the case, versus establishments that produce only one type of output or only green outputs.
  • Here’s an illustration of what we expect to publish from this survey. We have enough funding for a fairly large national sample – around 120,000 units. We expect to publish data for States at the supersector level.
  • In addition to the industry data, we will collect employment and wages by occupation from the establishments included in the industry survey sample. The sample design will overlap with our regular OES survey sample, to minimize additional collection effort and respondent burden.
  • Change gears – let’s look at the Process approach. This is a different concept than the output approach, and is also different from our usual data collection activities. We know, however, that there are green jobs in businesses that do not produce green goods and services. Businesses may use green production processes to produce any type of good or service. That is, production processes that reduce pollution, conserve natural resources, etc. Two general categories: Producing green good or service for use within the establishment (not for sale to customers) Using production methods that have a positive impact on the environment or natural resources conservations
  • In the process approach, we will develop a special employer survey to measure the number of jobs related to these green production processes.
  • We published the definition in the Federal Register, which you have as a handout. We received 144 comments (slide says 143) – a little out of date. Some of you commented – thanks!
  • Here’s a snapshot of where the comments came from. General topics most frequently addressed: Definition - 44 Forestry - 22 Reuse - 18 Recycling - 16 Transportation -8 Construction 6 NAICS-3 Organic -3
  • Regarding the use of revenue: economic theory suggests this method is satisfactory if three conditions are met: Wages in the green and non-green jobs are the same Profits (relative to labor) earned from the two types of goods are the same Proportions of non-labor to labor inputs are the same for green and non-green goods
  • What happens next? We need to finalize the definition. This means studying the comments and making decisions on whether we will make any changes in response to them. We are also continuing to refine the goods and services, and industry list, and identify standards that might be used to distinguish “green” from other goods or services. We are getting help on this from some other federal agencies (EPA, Transportation, for example). Our first collection will be the output survey.
  • Process survey is on a somewhat later track, but we have begun work on it. We also are working on some new career information products, with wind energy as the first topic.
  • Iawp62810

    1. 1. It is Not Easy Being (or Defining) Green Presentation by Gary Crossley to the IAWP 97 th Educational Conference Monday, June 28, 2010 2Work www.LovetoWork.org [email_address] Phone -- 843/452-4121
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Defining Green </li></ul><ul><li>State Work -- Green Jobs & Other Mythical Creatures/TX </li></ul><ul><li>WIC Green Jobs Study Group </li></ul><ul><li>BLS Work on Definitions & Process </li></ul><ul><li>ONET Research & Web Site </li></ul><ul><li>ETA Community of Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Green Jobs Grants for States/Consortia </li></ul><ul><li>Q & A </li></ul>
    3. 3. It is Not Easy Being Green <ul><li>Green Buzz </li></ul><ul><li>Defining Green </li></ul><ul><li>New Green Careers </li></ul><ul><li>Green Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Charleston Goes Green </li></ul>
    4. 4. Green Buzz – Is it the Holy Grail? <ul><li>Green Emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Early Findings (OR, WA, CT, TX, MI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not as many jobs as expected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More of a need for retraining existing workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded career fields of energy auditors and brokers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expense of Going Green </li></ul>
    5. 5. It is Not So Easy Defining Green <ul><li>Bureau of Labor Statistics issued a Federal Register notice a few months ago inviting comments on their proposed surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Builds from work of Workforce Information Council Study Group of federal/state research </li></ul><ul><li>Defining Green – Look at economic activity that help protect/restore the environment or conserve natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Two Surveys – One to identify jobs associated with producing green goods/services and One to identify environmentally friendly processes </li></ul>
    6. 6. WIC Green Jobs Study Group <ul><li>State LMI, BLS, ETA joint study group, commissioned by Workforce Information Council </li></ul><ul><li>Charge: Recommend green jobs definition and measurement (not as easy as it sounds) </li></ul><ul><li>State members: recommend the unit of analysis at the green job level, not green industries or green businesses </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.workforceinfocouncil.org/Documents/WICGreenJobsStudyGroupReport-2009-10-01t.pdf </li></ul>
    7. 7. Understanding the Green Economy <ul><li>What is California LMI Doing/Planning? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborating to expand knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federal/state/local research partners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State and local workforce partners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control entities and utilities bringing about climate change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responding to state and national information needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Share knowledge across agencies and geographic areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Host a shared “green web page” http://www.labormarketinfo.edd.ca.gov/?pageid=1032 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveying California businesses to establish baselines of green employment and green business practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting and publishing career research to support workforce development </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. CA’s Working Definition of Green Jobs <ul><li>Green jobs produce (“ supply ”) goods or services that result in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>G enerating and storing renewable energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R ecycling existing materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E nergy efficient product manufacturing, distribution, construction, installation, and maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E ducation, compliance and awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N atural and sustainable product manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For the complete definition see: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.labormarketinfo.edd.ca.gov/contentpub/GreenDigest/Californias-Draft-Definition-Green-Industries.pdf </li></ul>
    9. 10. California’s Survey Results <ul><ul><li>Nearly 15,200 employers responded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8.6 percent of employers report employees working on green products and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 3.8 percent of all workers are working on green products and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About two-thirds of green workers spend more than half time on green aspects of job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>63 percent of employers report using at least one green business practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three-quarters of current green workers were trained on the job </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. BLS Green Jobs Initiative <ul><li>Goals are to provide information on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of green jobs and trends over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial, occupational, and geographic distribution of these jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What these jobs pay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FY 2010 appropriations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$7.8 million for BLS to develop new green jobs data </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Defining green jobs <ul><li>No widely accepted definition available </li></ul><ul><li>Definition should be objective and empirically measurable </li></ul><ul><li>Use standard classifications to provide comparability to other data </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Defining Green Jobs <ul><li>BLS background work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviewed the literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examined international work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Statistics Canada, Eurostat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consulted with stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federal agencies, industry associations, States </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Jobs Study Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.workforceinfocouncil.org/GreenJobs.asp </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 14. BLS green jobs definition <ul><li>Broadly defined, green jobs are jobs involved in economic activities that help protect or restore the environment or conserve natural resources. </li></ul>
    14. 15. BLS green jobs definition <ul><li>Categories of green economic activity </li></ul>Renewable energy Recycling and waste reduction Energy efficiency Agricultural and natural resources conservation Greenhouse gas reduction Education, compliance, public awareness, and training <ul><ul><li>Pollution reduction and clean-up </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. BLS green jobs definition <ul><li>Green economic activities result in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of green goods and services (outputs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of green production processes and practices (processes) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Capital </li></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Materials & equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><li>Natural resources </li></ul>Production Processes Outputs Goods and Services Consumers Pollutants and Waste
    16. 17. <ul><li>Two approaches to definition and measurement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Output approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify establishments producing green goods and services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Count the associated jobs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify establishments using environmentally-friendly production processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Count the associated jobs </li></ul></ul></ul>BLS green jobs definition
    17. 18. <ul><li>Output approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BLS defined four types of green goods and services </li></ul></ul>BLS green jobs definition 1. Direct green goods and services 3. Specialized inputs 2. Indirect green goods and services 4. Distribution of green goods
    18. 19. <ul><li>1. Direct green goods and services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A good or service produced specifically for an environmental protection or natural resource conservation purpose. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution control equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weatherizing buildings </li></ul></ul></ul>BLS green jobs definition
    19. 20. <ul><li>2. Indirect green goods and services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When produced, consumed, or scrapped, better for environment or conservation than other goods used for same purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose of a hybrid vehicle is to provide transportation. But when used, it may produce less pollution and greenhouse gases than a conventional fuel vehicle. </li></ul></ul></ul>BLS green jobs definition
    20. 21. <ul><li>2. Indirect green goods and services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goods containing recycled inputs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At the production stage where such inputs are introduced </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remanufactured goods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organic agricultural products and processed foods </li></ul></ul></ul>BLS green jobs definition
    21. 22. <ul><li>2. Indirect green goods and services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards for green-ness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To identify indirect goods that are “more energy efficient,” “ less polluting,” etc., a goal is objective standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exploring use of federal and other standards, for example: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USDA certified organic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Star appliances </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LEEDS certification in construction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>BLS green jobs definition
    22. 23. <ul><li>2. Indirect green goods and services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electricity produced from renewable sources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid vehicles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mercury-free batteries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recycled steel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retreaded tires </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organic canned organic vegetables </li></ul></ul></ul>BLS green jobs definition
    23. 24. <ul><li>3. Specialized inputs to production of a direct or indirect green good or service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wind turbine blades </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass transit rail cars </li></ul></ul></ul>BLS green jobs definition
    24. 25. <ul><li>4. Distribution of green goods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services that specialize in distribution of green goods, including services in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation and warehousing services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wholesale and retail trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rental and leasing services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transport of wind turbines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organic food markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caterers specializing in organic products </li></ul></ul></ul>BLS green jobs definition
    25. 26. BLS Green Jobs Definition <ul><li>Definition is based on economic activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not consider job aspects unrelated to the work (e.g., wages, union membership, benefits, career ladders) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But BLS will collect wage data by occupation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Goal is a broad definition, with presentation of results in sufficient detail for users to adjust for their needs </li></ul>
    26. 27. <ul><li>Do not have sufficient information to use a ‘net impact on the environment’ concept to classify goods and services as green or not green </li></ul><ul><li>No mechanism yet for updating green and non-green concepts (e.g. if hybrids become the norm) </li></ul>BLS green jobs definition
    27. 28. Measuring green jobs: output approach <ul><li>BLS identified industries where green goods and services are classified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List of detailed NAICS industries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green goods and services industry survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey expansion </li></ul></ul>
    28. 29. Measuring green jobs: output approach <ul><li>Green goods and services industry survey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample establishments in industries where green goods and services are classified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present to respondents a description of green products or services classified in their industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Request share of revenue accounted for by sale of green goods and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use share of revenue as proxy for share of employment </li></ul></ul>
    29. 30. Measuring green jobs: output approach <ul><li>Publication goal and example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For all NAICS codes where green activity is found, publish one or more categories of green employment. </li></ul></ul>NAICS Industry Employment 221119 Other electric power generation xx,xxx - Solar power generation x,xxx - Wind power generation x,xxx -Geothermal power generation x,xxx -Other renewable power generation x,xxx 236118 Residential remodelers xxx,xxx - Green residential remodelers xx,xxx
    30. 31. Measuring green jobs: output approach <ul><li>Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain occupational staffing patterns and wages of establishments in the industry survey sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overlap of industry sample with regular Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expand OES sample as needed </li></ul></ul>
    31. 32. Measuring green jobs: process approach <ul><li>Businesses may implement green production processes for any type of good or service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of green goods and services for use within the establishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: retail store generates solar power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of production methods that have positive impact on environment or natural resources conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: redesigning product packaging to reduce use of plastics </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 33. Measuring green jobs: process approach <ul><li>Special employer survey to measure jobs related to environmentally-friendly production processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the establishment use environmentally-friendly production processes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If yes, does it employ any workers whose primary duties relate to those processes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If yes, collect information on number of workers and their wages, by occupation </li></ul></ul>
    33. 34. Feedback on definition <ul><li>Federal Register Notice soliciting public comment on green jobs definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comment period March 16-April 30, 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access at www.bls.gov /green </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As of April 30, 143 comments received </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary of comments being prepared </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussion with Federal agencies at OMB-hosted session, April 15, 2010 </li></ul>
    34. 35. Feedback on definition <ul><li>Federal Register Notice responses </li></ul>Respondent Category Number Percent Distribution Business or industry association 41 28.7% State workforce agency 20 14.0% Private employer 18 12.6% Individual 15 10.5% Union 14 9.8% Other state or local government 12 8.4% Academic/Research organization 9 6.3% Federal government 7 4.9% Non-profit 7 4.9% Total 143 100.0%
    35. 36. Feedback on definition <ul><li>Three topics of special interest to BLS for comment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composition of the seven types of green economic activities identified by BLS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Including services that specialize in distribution of green goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using revenue to apportion employment </li></ul></ul>
    36. 37. What happens next? <ul><li>Finalize green jobs definition </li></ul><ul><li>Output approach data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry survey field testing underway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample design work underway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OMB Clearance, including another public comment period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey collection during FY2011 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in FY2012 </li></ul></ul>
    37. 38. What happens next? <ul><li>Process approach data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial development underway; field testing starting fall 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public comment on approach and OMB Clearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey collection during FY2011 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in FY2012 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Career Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First products in FY2010 </li></ul></ul>
    38. 39. New Green Careers <ul><li>See New O*Net Green Economy </li></ul><ul><li>www.online.onetcenter.org </li></ul><ul><li>Existing/expanding career fields: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>logistic engineers, fuel cell engineers, energy auditors, photonics engineers, robotics technicians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New/emerging careers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind turbine engineers, wind farm service technicians, biofuel plant operators, solar plant technicians, weatherization technicians & installers, carbon credit traders </li></ul></ul>
    39. 40. Greening of the World of Work <ul><ul><li>Investigated the implications for the O*NET System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- How were the current O*NET-SOC occupations affected? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What about N & E occupations? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive literature and web review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Define Green Economy and Green Sectors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop concept of Greening of Occupations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify O*NET Green Occupations </li></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 41. Green Economy <ul><ul><li>“ Green Economy” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>economic activity related to reducing the use of fossil fuels, decreasing pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, increasing the efficiency of energy usage, recycling materials, and developing and adopting renewable sources of energy </li></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 42. Green Economy Sectors <ul><ul><ul><li>Research, Design, and Consulting Services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable Energy Generation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Green Construction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environment Protection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    42. 43. Green Economy Sectors (cont.) <ul><ul><ul><li>Governmental and Regulatory Administration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture and Forestry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recycling and Waste Reduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Trading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy and Carbon Capture </li></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 44. O*NET Green Methodology <ul><li>Sector focused </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive literature and web review conducted by trained occupational analysts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry associations and organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local, state, and federal programs/agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job posting sites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information gathered, documented, and detailed criteria for inclusion applied </li></ul>
    44. 45. Greening of Occupations <ul><ul><li>The extent to which green economy activities and technologies increase the demand for existing occupations, shape the work and worker requirements needed for occupational performance, or generate unique work and worker requirements </li></ul></ul>
    45. 46. Greening of Occupations (cont.) <ul><li>Green Increased Demand Occupations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase in the employment demand for an existing occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changes in work context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>few if any significant changes in work (tasks) and worker requirements of the occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Green Enhanced Skills Occupations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>significant changes in work and worker requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>essential purposes of the occupation remain the same, but tasks, skills, knowledge, and external elements, such as credentials, have changed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may or may not result in an increase in employment demand for the occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Green New & Emerging Occupations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>impact of green economy activities and technologies creates unique work and worker requirements, which results in the generation of a new occupation relative to the O*NET taxonomy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The new occupation could be new or “born” from an existing occupation </li></ul></ul>
    46. 47. New/Emerging O*NET Evaluation <ul><li>Each potential occupation is evaluated in terms of specific criteria: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significantly different work performed from other O*NET-SOCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not well-reflected in O*NET-SOC classification structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate occupation level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant employment (at least 5,000+ job incumbents) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive projected growth </li></ul></ul>
    47. 48. O*NET Green Results <ul><li>Green Increased Demand Occupations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>64 O*NET-SOC occupations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geological and Petroleum Technicians; Locomotive Engineers; Architectural Drafters; Chemists; Natural Science Mangers; Agricultural Inspectors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Green Enhanced Skills Occupations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60 O*NET-SOC occupations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power Plant Operators; Electrical Engineers; Heating and Air Conditioner Mechanics and Installers; Roofers; Nuclear Engineers; Construction Managers; Farmers and Ranchers; Hazardous Materials Handlers </li></ul></ul></ul>
    48. 49. O*NET Green Results (cont.) <ul><li>Green New & Emerging Occupations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>91 total N & E Occupations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>45 O*NET-SOCs previously identified through research on in-demand industries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Logistic Engineers, Fuel Cell Engineers, Energy Auditors, Precision Agriculture Technicians, Photonics Engineers, Robotics Technicians, Manufacturing Engineering Technologists </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>46 additional N &E occupations (13 wait listed) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wind Turbine or Farm Engineers, Wind Turbine Service Technicians, Biofuels Plant Operators, Solar Power Plant Technicians, Solar Sales Representatives/Assessors, Weatherization Technicians/Installers, Carbon Credit Traders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    49. 50. O*NET Green Results (cont.)
    50. 51. Affect of the New Green Economy on O*NET Occupations Occupation Information Occupation Type New & Emerging Enhanced Skill Increased Demand Specific --Job Titles --Tasks --Tools & Technology --Detailed Work Activities ALL NEW & GREEN ADDITIONALGREEN STAYS THE SAME Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities --Importance and level ratings on current O*NET KSAs ALL NEW & GREEN CHANGED STAYS THE SAME New Knowledge, Skills, or Abilities --KSAs not currently identified within the O*NET Content Model POTENTIALLY POTENTIALLY
    51. 52. Current Activities <ul><li>Green Job Titles </li></ul><ul><li>Green Task Development </li></ul><ul><li>Green Tools & Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Green Data Collection </li></ul><ul><li>O*NET Green Economy Book of References </li></ul>
    52. 53. Green Job Titles <ul><li>Harvest green titles from the green report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>839 titles identified for 135 occupations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New & Emerging = 666 new titles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced Skill = 173 additional titles </li></ul></ul></ul>
    53. 54. Green Task Project <ul><li>Develop new task lists for Green N & E Occupations </li></ul><ul><li>Augment the current task list for Enhanced Skill Occupations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review existing tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify existing tasks to include green </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify new green tasks </li></ul></ul>
    54. 55. Green Task Results to Date <ul><li>Completed initial review of 72 occupations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>47 New & Emerging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>714 new tasks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 Enhanced Skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>47 existing tasks were green </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>105 modified/new green tasks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Task information for all 138 green occupations will be complete in the summer of 2010 </li></ul>
    55. 56. Modified Green Task Example <ul><li>Soil and Water Conservationists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ORIGINAL : Participate on work team to plan, develop, and implement water and land management programs and policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MODIFIED : Participate on work teams to plan, develop, and implement programs and policies for improving environmental habitats, wetlands, and groundwater or soil resources </li></ul></ul>
    56. 57. New Green Task Example <ul><li>Soil and Water Conservationists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NEW : Gather information from geographic information systems (GIS) databases or applications to formulate land use recommendations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NEW : Identify or recommend integrated weed and pest management (IPM) strategies, such as resistant plants, cultural or behavioral controls, soil amendments, insects, natural enemies, barriers, and pesticides. </li></ul></ul>
    57. 58. Green Tools & Technology <ul><li>Green N & E occupations prioritized within tools and technology data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By the 2010 release all green related occupations will be populated </li></ul></ul>
    58. 59. Green Data Collection <ul><li>Increased Demand and Enhanced Skill Occupations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All updated at least once via incumbent/OE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced skill occupations will be collected again with updated task list </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New and Emerging Occupations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12 published </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>38 in data collection </li></ul></ul></ul>
    59. 60. Green Book of References <ul><li>Currently 250+ References </li></ul><ul><li>Updated Quarterly </li></ul><ul><li>Primary References </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized by Green Sectors + General Economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Title, Source, Reference Type, Web Address </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Supplemental Source References </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industry associations, trade publication/journals, university/community college programs, training providers, business sites, & job search sites </li></ul></ul></ul>
    60. 61. Future Activities <ul><li>Green Detailed Work Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the DWAs for N & E and Enhanced Skill Occupations? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KSA analysis of Enhanced Skill Occupations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities become more important or have a change in level requirement due to the green economy? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KSA analysis of New & Emerging Occupations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities are important? </li></ul></ul>
    61. 62. Future Activities (cont.) <ul><li>New KSA identification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have new, green Knowledge, Skill, and Abilities emerged that are not currently identified in the O*NET Content Model? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze the task, DWA, and tools & technology info </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitor the demand for all green occupations </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing research/investigation of the Green Economy and its influence on occupations </li></ul>
    62. 63. http://greenjobs.workforce3one.org/
    63. 64. Charleston Goes Green <ul><li>Green Initiatives Before Going Green Was Cool </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation of Buildings and Trees </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal Conservation </li></ul><ul><li>New Boeing Efficient 787 Aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>History of Restoring not Destroying </li></ul><ul><li>Clemson Restoration Institute on former Naval Base </li></ul>
    64. 65. Clemson Wind Turbine Testing Facility <ul><li>Clemson and local officials put up a collaborative proposal to the Dept. of Energy for $45M grant </li></ul><ul><li>Wind turbine and drive train testing </li></ul><ul><li>Housed in Bldg. 69 on old Navy Base </li></ul><ul><li>Construction started & will be retro-fitted by late next year </li></ul>
    65. 66. Clemson Wind Turbine Testing Facility <ul><li>About 125 construction jobs over next year </li></ul><ul><li>In initial operation will have just under 100 jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect jobs could reach almost 900 over the first few years of operation </li></ul><ul><li>First spinoff company announced in March – IMO Group will bring 190 jobs as a wind turbine parts mfg. plant in Dorchester County, with start up this July </li></ul>
    66. 67. Green Resources <ul><li>Green Jobs Report from the WIC, www.workforceinfocouncil.org </li></ul><ul><li>California’s Green Web Site, http://www.labormarketinfo.edd.ca.gov/?pageid=1032 </li></ul><ul><li>DOL ETA Green Community of Practice, http://greenjobs.workforce3one.org </li></ul><ul><li>ONET’s Green Economy Jobs, www.online.onetcenter.org </li></ul>
    67. 69. California Industries With the Most Green Jobs
    68. 70. California’s Top Green Jobs
    69. 71. Business Practice Skill Needs
    70. 72. Preparation of Current Green Workers – OJT!
    71. 73. Presentation Summary <ul><li>Kermit was Right – It is Not Easy Being Green! </li></ul><ul><li>Resources – BLS, ETA, ONET, States, & the WIC </li></ul><ul><li>Green Jobs are Hard to Find and Not Real Plentiful </li></ul><ul><li>The Answer May be Blowin’ in the Wind as Bob Dylan Says! </li></ul>
    72. 74. Questions? <ul><li>Gary Crossley </li></ul><ul><li>LovetoWork.org, LLC </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>843/452-4121 </li></ul>2Work www.LovetoWork.org
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