Artsource

MUSIC

The Music Center’s Study Guide
to the Performing Arts

TRANSFORMATION

ENDURING
VALUES

TRADITIONAL

ART...
Discussion Questions:

Audio-Visual Materials:

After listening to the audio recording:

• Artsource® audio recording: Jor...
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE HARP
The harp is an ancient instrument that evolved from the hunting bow thousands of years ago. In...
MUSIC

PATTERNS IN MUSIC AND ART
ENDURING VALUES

LEVEL I Sample Lesson
INTRODUCTION:
The music Mr. Ortiz plays has repeat...
• Ask students if they know what a pattern is in art? in music? in clothing? Ask for examples and illustrations.
• Play Jo...
MUSIC

TITLE A SONG
ENDURING VALUES

LEVEL II Sample Lesson
INTRODUCTION:
How does an artist select titles for each piece ...
• Now play a selection of three other pieces of music. Make sure that they each have different moods and
qualities and are...
MUSIC

BUILD A RUBBER BAND HARP
ENDURING VALUES

LEVEL III Sample Lesson

INTRODUCTION:
The harp, a multi-stringed instrum...
• Discuss the characteristics of the harp (see page 3) and other stringed instruments (violin, viola, cello,
double bass, ...
rtsource
A

The Music Center’s Study Guide
to the Performing Arts

A Project of the
Music Center

®
135 North Grand Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90012
www.musiccenter.org

© 1995 - 2012, The Music Center of Los Angeles County. A...
Introduction
A RTSOURCE ®: T HE M USIC C ENTER’ S S TUDY G UIDE

TO THE

P ERFORMING A RTS

Artsource® highlights works of...
Artsource Contributors
®

Project Director

Melinda Williams

Project Coordinator

Susan Cambigue-Tracey

Writers:
Dance

...
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Alfredo ortiz-artsource-unit

  1. 1. Artsource MUSIC The Music Center’s Study Guide to the Performing Arts TRANSFORMATION ENDURING VALUES TRADITIONAL ARTISTIC PERCEPTION (AP) CLASSICAL CREATIVE EXPRESSION (CE) CONTEMPORARY HISTORICAL & CULTURAL CONTEXT (H/C) EXPERIMENTAL AESTHETIC VALUING (AV) MULTI-MEDIA ® CONNECT, RELATE & APPLY (CRA) THE HUMAN FAMILY THE POWER OF NATURE FREEDOM & OPPRESSION Title of Work: About the Artwork: Joropo Azul and Zayante, Paraguayan Folk Harp The audio selection is really a pairing of two Creator: Alfredo Rolando Ortiz contrasting pieces. Joropo Azul and Zayante are two short works, representing traditional styles with both Background Information: classical and folk roots from Latin America. The “I was born in Cuba where the harp is not a traditional pieces were originally improvised and then become instrument. My adventure with the harp began when I was totally new compositions. The first piece, Joropo Azul, 11 years old. Our family emigrated to Venezuela. As the is in the style of joropo, the national folk dance of ship neared land, I saw green forms rising up through the Venezuela. clouds, and soon the mountains of Venezuela loomed in composed in the traditional style of Paraguay. Joropo front of us. As we drove up that mountain there was this Azul is played in a major key, with very bright tones beautiful music on the radio. I didn’t know what it was, but and an upbeat rhythm. The melody sometimes I fell in love with it.” It was a harp! As a teenager, Alfredo follows the main beat and sometimes is heard off the Ortiz borrowed one and began taking lessons from a fellow beat (syncopated), which gives a complex texture to student. His interest blossomed into a passion, as he began the piece. You will hear accented main pulses, and the to play the harp for hours at a time when schoolwork was groupings of very short pulses. done. On weekends he would get blisters from practicing as Creative Process of the Artist or Culture: he skipped meals and rest. He pursued the opportunity to Latin American harps are folk harps. As with folk hear the famous Paraguayan harpist Alberto Romero and music around the world, Latin American harp music met him backstage. Mr. Romero took an interest in the is usually not written down. The musicians learn by young boy who was fascinated with the harp, and after he listening and watching, as well heard Alfredo play offered to teach him at no charge. After as memorizing some pieces. graduation from high school, Alfredo was accepted to med- Some become proficient at ical school in Medellin, Colombia. His professional music improvisation. Each region career began shortly after arriving in Medellin, when he has characteristic received his first paid assignment to play at a local wedding. One structure and design of the It is set in contrast with Zayante, of the guests offered him a recording contract. Combined income from performances and recordings paid his way through medical school. In spite of his success as a harpist, Alfredo never missed a class and became a doctor. After five years of medical practice in Colombia, Dr. Ortiz moved to Southern California to study Music Therapy. Since 1978 his life has been wholly dedicated to music. its own harp, as well as unique ways of Photo courtesy of Alfredo Ortiz playing. “Nature, my countries, the people I love, and the marvelous Latin American music styles are the seeds of my compositions. The titles only identify them... the melodies, their feelings and emotions are mine... and yours.” Alfredo Rolando Ortiz California Cuba Venezuela
  2. 2. Discussion Questions: Audio-Visual Materials: After listening to the audio recording: • Artsource® audio recording: Joropo Azul and Zayante, • Does this harp music differ from what you expected? courtesy of Alfredo Rolando Ortiz. • What ideas or words describe the harp itself? Sample Experiences: • What words or images come to mind to describe Joropo Azul? How would you describe Zayante? • Describe the differences in mood between the two LEVEL I * • The music Mr. Ortiz plays has repeating themes and patterns. In performance he also wears colorful pieces. Discuss the feelings you had in listening to traditional clothing with repeating bands of colors and each one. patterns. • For what celebrations or special events could this Create rhythmic patterns using body percussion and also design patterns in art. Use accents. music be used? • Latin America is a group of countries that share many Background on Zayante continued: cultures - that of their own indigenous populations, of Zayante is characterized by a vigorous pulse and pow- Spain and of others. Do you have blended cultures in erful chord patterns. your heritage? Is there special music or art that is a part Following traditional Paraguayan rhythms, it grows in dynamic waves, falls of your traditions or celebrations? back and then resumes with increasingly powerful family’s traditions evolve? Do you think you will crescendos. A quiet pattern played in a minor key continue them? Is there a tradition that you would like (misterioso) completes the contrasting elements of the How did your to start? piece. Between the patterns are several flowing LEVEL II glissandos. The glissando is characteristic of harp • Most of the music played by Dr. Ortiz is “pure music” music, because on a harp all the strings can be or patterns that he improvises to make something strummed in quick succession, creating a wave of beautiful. sounds and colors. Often the patterns are quite distinctive. Listen to each of his pieces. Can you discern rhythmic Multidisciplinary Options: contrasts? Can you identify some of the patterns you • The Ultimate Concert: Dr. Ortiz recorded suites to hear? What tone colors do you perceive? Find a way to celebrate the birth of both his daughters. At the sec- draw or write the different patterns down. ond birth, the obstetrician allowed him to bring the elaborating on your basic ideas using graph paper and harp to the hospital to comfort his wife, Luz Marina, colored pencils. Try and the emerging infant, Michelle Maria. Music was * • Listen to a piece of music without words. Reflect on it. improvised throughout labor and delivery. Several What do you think of? What feelings do you get when days later, the music was recorded in a studio, except you hear this music? Think of a title for the music. for the passage that had been improvised just as the Design a CD album cover for it. What words would you baby was born. The joy and beauty of the family are use? What images would you show? How would you put first heard in the patterns of the harp rising and falling your words, images and music together? back in waves and finally interspersed with the first LEVEL III sounds of the infant. The final movement of the suite * • Stringed instruments function according to precise has never been attempted again. It cannot be repli- mathematical and physical principles. Build a simple cated. Describe a piece of music that you associate tuned instrument - water glasses, rubber band harp, with a special memory or celebration. Explain the etc. and explore how sounds vary with tension, length connection between them. Research different pieces of strings, materials and size of the soundbox. of music to find a piece that would capture the mood • Research other harp music at the library. Listen to and spirit of a specific event in your own life. several different pieces and note the differences. * Indicates sample lessons 2
  3. 3. A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE HARP The harp is an ancient instrument that evolved from the hunting bow thousands of years ago. In Africa today they still play a single stringed musical bow with a gourd or turtle shell for the soundbox. Many types of harps are found throughout the world, but there were none found in the pre-Colombian Americas. The first harps were brought over by the Spanish missionaries. There are written records of famous harpists as early as the 16th century in Veracruz and other parts of Latin America. The Spanish harps consisted of a wooden soundbox and multiple strings of varying lengths. These harps, and other stringed instruments such as the guitar, came to characterize the music of Spain and found their way into the New World. The Spanish missionaries were proficient players and accomplished instrument-makers (luthiers). Research countries that have harps and find them on a map. What conclusions can you draw from your research? Egyptian Harps PREPARING FOR THE EXPERIENCE Understanding diversity is the key to understanding the arts of Latin America. Cuba, an ethnically diverse island set in the Caribbean Sea, is the artist’s birthplace. There is a strong Spanish influence in Venezuela and Colombia which both have seacoasts and enormous mountains. In Paraguay, the plains are far from the ocean. Two languages are taught there in schools; Spanish and Guarani, the language of the Guarani Indians. Prior to listening to the audio tape, give students some historical and cultural perspective on Latin America. Ask students what they know about any of these countries. Discuss how traditions are shared, and how independent traditions and musical styles might evolve in an area with vast geographical and ethnic diversity. Direct them to observe and listen to diverse aspects of the performance. 3
  4. 4. MUSIC PATTERNS IN MUSIC AND ART ENDURING VALUES LEVEL I Sample Lesson INTRODUCTION: The music Mr. Ortiz plays has repeating themes and rhythmic patterns. Rhythm, one of the principle elements of music, is the distinctive grouping of sounds and silence in time, based on duration (length) of tone, strong and weak stresses and other factors such as harmony. It is usually regulated by a steady, regular underlying pulse or beat. Rhythmic patterns are also found in visual designs. For example, in performance, Mr. Ortiz wears colorful traditional clothing with repeating bands of colors and lines that form patterns. Each band is simple when alone, but form colorful and elaborate images when combined. When a shape, line or color repeats itself in a work of art, it creates a visual rhythm. This lesson is designed to increase an awareness of both musical and visual rhythmic patterns. OBJECTIVES: Students will be able to: • Recognize and identify rhythmic patterns in music. (Artistic Perception) • Create a variety of rhythmic patterns in music and be able to repeat patterns created by others. (Creative Expression) • Recognize and identify patterns in art and clothing. (Artistic Perception) • Design a repeated pattern in art, using different colors, shapes and lines. (Artistic Perception) • Describe, discuss, analyze and connect information and experiences based on this lesson. Refer to Assessment at the end of this lesson. (Aesthetic Valuing) MATERIALS: • Artsource® audio recording of Joropo Azul. Folk harp • Large sheets of paper and crayons or markers. PROGRESSION: • Give some background information on Alfredo Rolando Ortiz and his music (see Unit pages 1-2). 4
  5. 5. • Ask students if they know what a pattern is in art? in music? in clothing? Ask for examples and illustrations. • Play Joropo Azul and help the students clap the upbeat rhythmic beat of the music. Ask if students can identify and clap any rhythmic patterns that are repeated in the music. • Clap a few simple rhythmic patterns and have the students repeat or echo them. If you have trouble thinking of simple rhythmic sound patterns, use lines from a nursery rhyme such as “Jack and Jill.” Also make sure your patterns have certain sounds accented (stronger emphasis). • Ask different students to create simple clapping patterns that others echo. This is called ‘Call and Response.’ • Take each sound pattern and repeat it four times so that students can clearly hear the pattern. Encourage them to use other aspects of body or vocal percussion, such as stamping, snapping and clicks. • Look around the room and ask students to identify patterns in objects or in clothing that peers are wearing. If available, show photos of artwork featuring patterns. • TASK: After seeing many examples, pass out paper and crayons to students and have them create a simple visual pattern that they repeat many times. Ask them to have 3-5 different types of lines, shapes or colors in their pattern. Make sure they establish an order of lines, shapes and colors that is repeated. Some students may wish to cover a full sheet of paper or construction paper with their visual pattern. It is a good idea to play the music of Mr. Ortiz as they work, to give them added inspiration. • Display your students’ projects when completed. • Using some of the questions below, ask students to discuss their work and the work of their peers. EXTENSIONS: • Use stencils and paint to create a class mural of patterns; or paste patterns onto long strips of fabric or construction paper and group together in a hanging. • Use a full nursery rhyme and clap the rhyme first with words, then just with rhythmic sound. Try putting these patterns in the feet, adding movement. • Create a visual pattern using hands, feet and fingertips in different colors. VOCABULARY: rhythmic pattern, design, Call and Response, musical tone, tempo, tone color (timbre), lines, shapes, colors ASSESSMENT: (Aesthetic Valuing) DESCRIBE: Describe either a musical or visual pattern and show three examples. DISCUSS: Discuss the things you liked about the pattern you designed. CONNECT: Discuss ways that you can create patterns with numbers, words, houses, gardens, etc. 5
  6. 6. MUSIC TITLE A SONG ENDURING VALUES LEVEL II Sample Lesson INTRODUCTION: How does an artist select titles for each piece of music he/she composes? Dr. Ortiz draws from his personal experiences in thinking of some of his titles. For example, one piece is dedicated to his wife, whose name is Luz Marina - light from the sea - so he chose that as a theme and title. In another instance, the composer and his wife share a long-standing custom of looking at the moon and telling each other: “Te regalo la luna” or - “I give you the moon.” He took this idea and composed a song, using that title and the images of the moon, to celebrate their 20th wedding anniversary. Another piece, The Butterfly Trees, was inspired by a visit to Santa Cruz, California, where he saw thousands of Monarch butterflies which appeared literally as “a carpet of wings covering every leaf and branch of the tree.” OBJECTIVES: Students will be able to: • Create titles for different selections of music. (Artistic Perception) • Design a CD cover to convey the images of a song. (Creative Expression) • Demonstrate a basic knowledge of some of the ways that composers find inspiration for their music and titles. (Artistic Perception) • Describe, discuss, analyze and connect information and experiences based on this lesson. Refer to Assessment at the end of this lesson. (Aesthetic Valuing) MATERIALS: • Artsource® audio recording of Joropo Azul and Zayante. • A variety of instrumental music that displays a contrast of rhythms, qualities and moods. • Paper, preferably the size of a CD cover, and pencils, crayons or markers. PROGRESSION: • Give some background information on Alfredo Rolando Ortiz and his music (see Unit pages 1-2). • Play the Artsource® audio cassette recording of Joropo Azul and Zayante. Ask students what images come to their minds as they listen to the pieces. If they could give each piece a title, what would it be? What images, colors and designs would they create for the CD featuring one of them. 6
  7. 7. • Now play a selection of three other pieces of music. Make sure that they each have different moods and qualities and are strictly instrumental. Ask students to select one piece that appeals to them. They are to give the piece of music they selected a title and then plan a CD cover to illustrate it. • Pass out the materials and ask the students to begin their project. The title can be small or large, but must in some way connect to the drawing of the scene or images that express the title. • Display and share the work of the class. Use some of the questions below to begin a conversation about the different interpretations. EXTENSION: • Write a poem that depicts the images you associate with the piece of music. Read the poem as the music plays in the background. VOCABULARY: pattern, CD, image ASSESSMENT: (Aesthetic Valuing) DESCRIBE: Describe the music you selected so that someone knowing nothing about it would have an idea of what it sounds like. Think of adjectives that could describe it (joyful, eloquent, intricate, precise, flowery, light, lively, courtly, busy, etc.) DISCUSS: Discuss the images that came into your mind as you listened to the music. ANALYZE: Look at the different interpretations for the same piece of music by different students in the class. Discuss and analyze why the images were the same or different. CONNECT: Think of other things that people give titles to, such as cars, businesses, animals. What purpose does a title have in identifying an object or concept? What meaning does it convey? (metaphor/symbol) Orchestral harp 7
  8. 8. MUSIC BUILD A RUBBER BAND HARP ENDURING VALUES LEVEL III Sample Lesson INTRODUCTION: The harp, a multi-stringed instrument, is an ancient invention that may have begun with the sounds of the hunting bow thousands of years ago. People realized that the vibrations of a string, held securely at both ends, could produce sounds. Stringed instruments function according to precise mathematical and physical principles. The length, thickness and tension of the string determines the pitch and quality of sound that will be heard. OBJECTIVES: Students will be able to: • Construct a basic stringed instrument. (Artistic Perception) • Discuss the relationship between sound and the principles of physics that produce sound. (Artistic Perception) • Demonstrate a basic knowledge of the history of the harp. (Historical and Cultural Context) Photo courtesy of Alfredo Ortiz • Describe, discuss, analyze and connect information and experiences based on this lesson. Refer to Assessment at the end of this lesson. (Aesthetic Valuing) MATERIALS: • Artsource® audio recording of Joropo Azul and Zayante. • Photos of stringed instruments (harp, violin, viola, cello), if available. • Each group will need: one 9" x 12" sheet of peg board, 16 golf tees, rubber bands, fishline or thin wire, two stacks of books about 6 inches high. PROGRESSION: • Share with students some of the basic principles of sound production. vibration - is needed to produce sound pitch - tension and length of string affects frequencies of sound waves amplification - a soundbox is needed on a stringed instrument; the initial vibration must echo through a larger space in order to be heard over a distance harmonics - fractional equivalents on the string that produce octaves, fifths and additional intervals when the length of the vibration is interrupted • Give some background on Alfredo Rolando Ortiz (see Unit pages 1-2) and play the two pieces of music from the Artsource® audio. Ask students to pay particular attention to the different pitches and durations of sound they hear. 8
  9. 9. • Discuss the characteristics of the harp (see page 3) and other stringed instruments (violin, viola, cello, double bass, guitar, mandolin, etc.). If you have photos of these instruments, show them to the students. Ask what characteristics they have in common and what is unique to each. • Guide students in constructing a simple rubber band harp. They will need the following materials: 9" x 12" sheet of peg board 16 golf tees rubber bands two stacks of books about 6 inches high • Work in small groups. Stack the books, and set your peg board on top. Install a row of 8 pegs across the bottom of the pegboard. Then install a diagonal row of pegs in ascending order toward the top of the board. Stretch the rubber bands vertically across the two rows of pegs. • Experiment with the sound you can make with the different lengths of stretched rubber bands, fishline or thin wire. Think of some of the following questions. How does the length of the string affect pitch? How does the tension of the string affect pitch? Can you play a simple tune? If you have access to stringed instuments, how does the construction of the instrument affect the sounds? • Share findings from your experiment with other groups. EXTENSION: • Ask students who play a stringed musical instrument to bring it to class and show it and play it for the other students. Ask them to pay particular attention to the sound box and arrangement of the strings, as well as the thickness of the strings. Do the strings vary in thickness? Ask the student who owns the instrument to show the class what happens when the strings are tightened or loosened and how the musician controls that aspect of the instrument. • Use new or old guitar, violin or cello strings or different thickness of bendable wire as alternative ‘strings’ on your harp. Work with them until you can achieve a high quality of sound. Try pressing down on the strings at different points to see if you can change the pitch. VOCABULARY: stringed instruments, vibration, tension, duration, pitch, amplification, harmonics, intervals ASSESSMENT: (Aesthetic Valuing) DESCRIBE: Describe, in your own words, the principles behind a person's ability to produce and hear sound. DISCUSS: Discuss the main ideas you learned from this construction of a rubber-band harp. ANALYZE: Discuss the main differences between the instrument you made and a professionally-made instrument. CONNECT: What are the differences in the way sound is produced by stringed instruments compared to wind and percussion instruments? 9
  10. 10. rtsource A The Music Center’s Study Guide to the Performing Arts A Project of the Music Center ®
  11. 11. 135 North Grand Avenue Los Angeles, CA 90012 www.musiccenter.org © 1995 - 2012, The Music Center of Los Angeles County. All rights reserved. Artsource® written units, audio, video and slides/photographic materials are subject to the provisions of copyright law, and are to be used for educational purposes only. Individuals or institutions are prohibited from broadcasting over the air, charging admission or receiving direct compensation for the exhibition of the video, audio or photographic materials accompanying the Artsource® units. The Music Center does not sanction the illegal use or unauthorized duplication of someone else’s work in any form. Individuals who willfully violate the Music Center’s policy do so at their own risk and are liable to the Music Center in the event of a loss resulting from litigation.
  12. 12. Introduction A RTSOURCE ®: T HE M USIC C ENTER’ S S TUDY G UIDE TO THE P ERFORMING A RTS Artsource® highlights works of art and artists of stature from diverse cultures. It represents early to contemporary art forms in the disciplines of dance, music and theatre and complements the programs and performances of the Music Center’s resident companies and artist roster. The arts are ancient, enduring and universal forms of communication. Artists present their perceptions, reflections, and points of view which influence, and are influenced by, the culture and period of time in which they exist.
  13. 13. Artsource Contributors ® Project Director Melinda Williams Project Coordinator Susan Cambigue-Tracey Writers: Dance Susan Cambigue-Tracey Diana Cummins, Carole Valleskey, Madeleine Dahm, Deborah Greenfield, Barbara Leonard, Melinda Williams Music Rosemarie Cook-Glover Ed Barguiarena, Susan Cambigue-Tracey, Barbara Leonard, Connie Hood, Annette Simons, Marilyn Wulliger, Diana Zaslove, John Zeretzke Theatre Barbara Leonard Kathryn Johnson Technical Production donated by Layout and Logo* Design Paul Tracey Maureen Erbe Design *Received the LULU AWARD for excellence in graphic design and advertising, sponsored by the Los Angeles Advertising Women (LAAW) Additional Artwork & Artsource® Logo Graphic H. P. Law & Partners The Music Center of Los Angeles County wishes to thank the artists featured in this publication for their outstanding artistry and their generosity in allowing us to share their creative spirit in the classroom. Sincere appreciation is also extended to the members of the Center’s Board of Directors and Education Council for their guidance in developing these resource materials, Music Center volunteers for their help in organizing, proofing and editing Artsource® units; the professionals who provided field review; and the dedicated teachers who tested the Artsource® units in their classrooms. Mark Slavkin Vice President for Education Melinda Williams Director of Education

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