Hsa vocabulary w definitions


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  • Hsa vocabulary w definitions

    1. 1. Vocabulary Controlled Experiments hypothesis - possible solution to a problem or an answer to a scientific question observation - the process of using the senses to gather information data - information gathered during an observation or experiment dependent variable - will change in response to the independent variable independent variable - selected by the researcher prior to conducting the experiment controlled experiment - an experiment with only one variable
    2. 2. Vocabulary Controlled Experiments bias - preconceived idea
    3. 3. Vocabulary Chemistry polar molecule - a molecule with charged ends similar to a magnet (water) pH scale - the scale for measuring acids and bases (acids / 0 – 14 / bases) acid - pH below 7, sour to the taste, more H + ions base - pH above 7, feels slippery, more OH - ions density - ice floats because it’s less dense than water inorganic - organic - nutrients needed by the body (minerals) molecules that help regulate body processes (vitamins)
    4. 4. Vocabulary Chemistry solvent - substance in which solutes are dissolved (water) buffer - substance that helps prevent sharp changes in a cell’s pH
    5. 5. Vocabulary Biological Molecules carbohydrate - sugar made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen glucose - monosaccharide (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) made by plants during photosynthesis cellulose - polysaccharide / sugar that makes up cell walls in plants starch - carbohydrate used for energy storage in plants (corn, potato, beets) lipids - fats (from animals) and oils (from plants) used to store energy nucleic acids - (DNA and RNA) carry genetic information nucleotide - makes up DNA and RNA / composed of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogen base
    6. 6. Vocabulary Biological Molecules DNA - makes up chromosomes. Stores genetic information. RNA - carries information from the nucleus during protein synthesis. protein - found in meat, fish, fowl, some beans and dairy products / builds body tissue in animals. amino acid - small molecules that build protein and enzymes. enzyme - biological catalyst that controls the rate of chemical reactions in organisms substrate - the reactant of an enzyme catalyzed reaction
    7. 7. Vocabulary Biological Molecules vitamins - vitamin D (bone growth), vitamin K (blood clotting), vitamin C (wound healing) mineral - inorganic substances necessary for cell processes (calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and iron) toxin - poison
    8. 8. Vocabulary Cell Biology prokaryote - a cell that lacks a nucleus (bacteria / ancient origin) eukaryote - a cell that has a nucleus and other organelles nucleus - control center of a cell (brain / contains chromosomes) organelle - the organs of cells (vacuole, chloroplast, mitochondrion etc.) ribosome - structures on the E.R. where proteins are made mitochondrion - where energy is released from glucose (powerhouse) chloroplast - green organelle (contains chlorophyll) found only in plants where sunlight is turned into food (glucose)
    9. 9. Vocabulary Cell Biology cytoplasm - all of the contents inside a cell membrane (except the nucleus) cell wall - nonliving, outer boundary of a plant cell (made of cellulose) cilia(um) - flagella(um) - pseudopod - short, hair-like projections that produce movement in many cells long, whip-like tail found on some microorganisms “ false foot” or temporary projection of the cytoplasm used by some protists for feeding or movement
    10. 10. Vocabulary Cell Transport membrane - thin, living layer around all cells (controls what enters and exits) selectively permeable - different materials at different times go in and out concentration - amount of material dissolved in a solution equilibrium - concentration is the same diffusion - movement of molecules from high to low concentration osmosis - the diffusion of water across a membrane homeostasis - balance or steady state or a state of equilibrium
    11. 11. Vocabulary Levels of Organization cell - the smallest unit of life tissue - group of similar cells working together (muscle, blood, nerve, epithelial, and connective organ - a group of tissues working to perform a specific function system - a group of related organs performing a vital (life) function excretory - waste removal system (skin, lungs, colon, kidneys and bladder) skeletal - support system (bones, cartilage and ligaments) muscular - system that provides movement for the skeleton, air, blood, and food
    12. 12. Vocabulary Levels of Organization endocrine - system of glands that make chemicals (hormones) in one part of the body that work elsewhere in the body (regulation) nervous - system of electro-chemical control (brain, spinal chord, nerves and sensory organs / eyes, ears, tongue, nose and skin) vascular - plant tissue specialized for carrying water
    13. 13. Vocabulary Cell Reproduction mitosis - nuclear division (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase) binary fission - single cells split, forming two cells. (reproduction) chromosome - genetic material, made up of genes, located in the nucleus budding - vegetative - asexual, plant reproduction using horizontal stems and underground roots asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms like yeast
    14. 14. Vocabulary DNA and Protein Synthesis DNA - genetic molecule which makes up chromosomes (double helix) RNA - similar to DNA, helps to build proteins and enzymes (single strand) nucleotide - makes up DNA & RNA (sugar, phosphate and nitrogen base) nitrogen bases - adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine and uracil double helix - shape of DNA (like a twisted ladder) sugar - phosphate - five carbon sugar, ribose in RNA and deoxyribose in DNA PO 4 group found in DNA and RNA
    15. 15. Vocabulary DNA and Protein Synthesis transcription - mRNA is made from DNA translation - proteins are made with the help of tRNA codon - a group of three nitrogen bases found on mRNA anticodon - a group of three nitrogen bases found on tRNA mRNA - tRNA - rRNA - carries information for making proteins (messenger) carries amino acids to build proteins (transfer) makes up the structure of a ribosome (ribosomal)
    16. 16. Vocabulary DNA and Protein Synthesis mutation - a change in DNA (either in a gene or on a whole chromosome)
    17. 17. Vocabulary Genetics meiosis - sex cell formation (making sperm and eggs) homologous - paired chromosomes chromosome - packaged form of DNA (in the nucleus) crossing-over - exchanging parts of a chromosome gamete - sex cell (sperm, egg, pollen and ova) fertilization - the joining of sex cells zygote - a fertilized egg cell
    18. 18. Vocabulary Genetics Punnette Square - diagram used to solve genetics problems genotype - genetic make up of an individual (BB or Cc or dd) phenotype - appearance of a trait (tall pea plant, widow’s peak) heterozygous - two different alleles (Bb or Cc or Dd) homozygous - two identical alleles (BB or cc) dominant - recessive - an allele that will always exhibit its form of a trait an allele that only exhibits its form of the trait if a dominant allele is not present
    19. 19. Vocabulary Genetics sex-linked - a trait effected by ones sex (baldness, color blindness) pedigree - the genetic history of an organism
    20. 20. Vocabulary Genetic Engineering gel electrophoresis - procedure used to separate and analyze DNA recombinant DNA - DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources gene splicing - combining DNA from different sources clone - genetically identical individual produced from a single cell
    21. 21. Vocabulary Evolution evolution - change over time of a species variation - natural differences between individuals of a species natural selection - survival of the fittest artificial selection - people select the variations that they find useful fitness - ability of an organism to survive and reproduce adaptation - inherited characteristic that increases the chance of survival homologous structures - structures that have different mature forms in different organisms but develop from the same embryonic tissues (arms, wings and flippers)
    22. 22. Vocabulary Classification prokaryote - a cell without a nucleus (bacteria) eukaryote - a cell with a nucleus (most cells) unicellular - made up of only one cell multicellular - made up of more than one cell angiosperm - plants that reproduce with flowers
    23. 23. Vocabulary Ecology biotic - living abiotic - nonliving predator - hunts and eats other organisms for food prey - food organisms eaten by predators parasite - lives in or on another organism and uses it as a food source host - where parasites live mutualism - symbiosis where both organisms benefit
    24. 24. Vocabulary Ecology commensalism - symbiosis (one benefits, other neither helped nor harmed) niche - full range of conditions in which an organism lives (physical, biological) producer - makes the food (plant, algae or bacteria) / (autotroph) consumer - gets energy from another organism competition - when organisms attempt to use resources in the same place at the same time herbivore - carnivore - eats plants eats flesh
    25. 25. Vocabulary Ecology omnivore - eats plants and animals food chain - series of steps in obtaining energy in an ecosystem food web - interconnected food chains trophic level - the steps in a food chain or food web (energy level) scavenger - eat organisms that have died (detritivore) diversity - sum total of the variety within an ecosystem pyramid - a diagram that shows the number of individuals, biomass or energy in an ecosystem
    26. 26. Vocabulary Ecology carbon cycle - movement of carbon through an ecosystem photosynthesis - making food using the energy in light chemosynthesis - making food using the energy in inorganic molecules cellular respiration - getting energy for cells from glucose molecules water cycle - movement of water through an ecosystem nitrogen cycle - movement of nitrogen through an ecosystem
    27. 27. Vocabulary Ecology invasive species - non-native species introduced into an ecosystem deforestation - removal of a large numbers of trees ATP - energy molecules used by all cells (adenosine triphosphate) aerobic - anaerobic - with oxygen (form of respiration) without oxygen (form of respiration) combustion - burning succession - a series of predictable changes in an ecosystem
    28. 28. Vocabulary Ecology pollution - harmful materials that enter the biosphere through the land, air or water urbanization - replacing nature with man-made structures