Chapter 11: Many Types of Theatre
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Chapter 11: Many Types of Theatre Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 11Chapter 11 Many Types of TheatreMany Types of Theatre
  • 2. Comedy and TragedyComedy and Tragedy High comedyHigh comedy includes any play that depends onincludes any play that depends on sophisticated humor, wit, political satire, or socialsophisticated humor, wit, political satire, or social commentary.commentary. Low comedyLow comedy depends on gags, clowning, puns, anddepends on gags, clowning, puns, and slapstick.slapstick. FarceFarce traps the characters in a fast-paced situation withtraps the characters in a fast-paced situation with wild complications, mistaken identities, and incrediblewild complications, mistaken identities, and incredible coincidences.coincidences.
  • 3. Comedy and TragedyComedy and Tragedy Domestic comediesDomestic comedies take an entertaining look at thetake an entertaining look at the problems and complications of common everydayproblems and complications of common everyday people.people. Comedy of mannersComedy of manners plays are set during the age ofplays are set during the age of aristocrats and kings and poke fun at the bedroomaristocrats and kings and poke fun at the bedroom escapades, marital infidelities, and hypocrisies of theescapades, marital infidelities, and hypocrisies of the upper classes.upper classes. Comedy of ideasComedy of ideas are cerebral, socially relevant playsare cerebral, socially relevant plays that force audiences to reassess their culture,that force audiences to reassess their culture, community, and values.community, and values.
  • 4. Comedy and TragedyComedy and Tragedy A tragic play is one that takes a serious look at theA tragic play is one that takes a serious look at the meaning of life and human suffering.meaning of life and human suffering. The purpose of these plays is not to make the audienceThe purpose of these plays is not to make the audience feel depressed but rather to enable them to experiencefeel depressed but rather to enable them to experience an intense, twofold feeling of pity and fear known asan intense, twofold feeling of pity and fear known as catharsiscatharsis. Catharsis can occur when one truly. Catharsis can occur when one truly encounters life and confronts its many riddles.encounters life and confronts its many riddles.
  • 5. Comedy and TragedyComedy and Tragedy Anton Chekhov, theAnton Chekhov, the great Russiangreat Russian playwright, called manyplaywright, called many of his plays comediesof his plays comedies even though theyeven though they covered suchcovered such depressing subjects asdepressing subjects as debt, lost love anddebt, lost love and missed opportunities.missed opportunities. WilliamMissouriDowns
  • 6. Comedy and TragedyComedy and Tragedy AA tragictragic hero has ahero has a character flawcharacter flaw , a, a personal failing that leadspersonal failing that leads to his or her downfall.to his or her downfall. The ancient GreeksThe ancient Greeks called this flaw thecalled this flaw the hamartiahamartia. A common. A common hamartia ishamartia is hubrishubris—— overbearing pride oroverbearing pride or arrogance.arrogance. ArenaPal/Topham/TheImageWorks
  • 7. The Advent of RealismThe Advent of Realism  InventionsInventions  PhotographyPhotography  Light bulbLight bulb  Internal combustion engineInternal combustion engine  AutomobileAutomobile  IdeasIdeas  Charles DarwinCharles Darwin  Karl MarxKarl Marx  Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud MichalDaniel/Proofsheet
  • 8. NaturalismNaturalism  An extreme form ofAn extreme form of Realism, an accurateRealism, an accurate “slice of life” look at“slice of life” look at existence.existence.  The Russian playwrightThe Russian playwright Maxim Gorky (1868–Maxim Gorky (1868– 1936), whose play1936), whose play TheThe Lower DepthsLower Depths (1902) took(1902) took a stark look at peoplea stark look at people living in the cellar of aliving in the cellar of a Moscow flophouse.Moscow flophouse. SOVFOTO/EASTFOT O
  • 9. Romanticism and MelodramaRomanticism and Melodrama  Melodramas have formulaicMelodramas have formulaic plots filled with oversimplifiedplots filled with oversimplified moral dilemmas and supportmoral dilemmas and support the values of love, marriage,the values of love, marriage, God, and country.God, and country.  Romanticism was a reaction toRomanticism was a reaction to the Enlightenment (1650–1800),the Enlightenment (1650–1800), a period of great philosophical,a period of great philosophical, scientific, technological,scientific, technological, political, and religiouspolitical, and religious revolutions that changed humanrevolutions that changed human thought forever.thought forever. Libraryof Congress
  • 10. Understanding ShakespeareUnderstanding Shakespeare  Almost 400 years after hisAlmost 400 years after his death, Shakespeare is onedeath, Shakespeare is one of the most producedof the most produced playwrights in the world.playwrights in the world.  He coined the phrases “toHe coined the phrases “to catch a cold,” “foregonecatch a cold,” “foregone conclusion,” “as luck wouldconclusion,” “as luck would have it,” “too much of a goodhave it,” “too much of a good thing,” “in one fell swoop,”thing,” “in one fell swoop,” “good riddance,” “vanish into“good riddance,” “vanish into thin air,” and “in the twinklingthin air,” and “in the twinkling of an eye.”of an eye.” LouAnneWright
  • 11. ExpressionismExpressionism Expressionism was created in response to RealismExpressionism was created in response to Realism and Naturalism, which film was better at depicting.and Naturalism, which film was better at depicting. VandammTheatreCollection/TheNewYorkPublicLibrary,Astor, Lenox,andTildenFoundations
  • 12. Epic TheatreEpic Theatre Bertolt Brecht (1898 – 1956) was a GermanBertolt Brecht (1898 – 1956) was a German playwright/director who responded to the devastation ofplaywright/director who responded to the devastation of World War I and its causes with a political theatre thatWorld War I and its causes with a political theatre that expected its audience to take action.expected its audience to take action. Epic Theatre has existed for hundreds of years. BrechtEpic Theatre has existed for hundreds of years. Brecht saw it as the perfect way to confront the social andsaw it as the perfect way to confront the social and political problems of his day. But he rebelled againstpolitical problems of his day. But he rebelled against theatrical illusions such as suspense, rising action,theatrical illusions such as suspense, rising action, climax, and other plot devices that lull the audience intoclimax, and other plot devices that lull the audience into a trance-like state and emotional catharsis.a trance-like state and emotional catharsis.
  • 13. Alienation EffectAlienation Effect The Threepenny OperaThe Threepenny Opera incorporates manyincorporates many elements that foster theelements that foster the alienation effect. Politicalalienation effect. Political slogans are projectedslogans are projected onto the back wall of theonto the back wall of the set, and songs serve toset, and songs serve to keep the audience fromkeep the audience from getting too attached togetting too attached to the characters.the characters. R.Finkelstein
  • 14. Theatre of the AbsurdTheatre of the Absurd The FatalistThe Fatalist Believe that we are trapped in an irrationalBelieve that we are trapped in an irrational universe where even basic communication isuniverse where even basic communication is impossibleimpossible  Samuel Beckett (1906-1989)Samuel Beckett (1906-1989)  Waiting for GodotWaiting for Godot (1953)(1953)  EndgameEndgame (1957)(1957)  Knapp’s Last TapeKnapp’s Last Tape (1958)(1958)  Happy DaysHappy Days (1961)(1961) Robbie Jack/Corbis
  • 15. Theatre of the AbsurdTheatre of the Absurd The ExistentialistsThe Existentialists  Maintain that “God is Dead,” and therefore, we have aMaintain that “God is Dead,” and therefore, we have a responsibility to live our lives “authentically” each dayresponsibility to live our lives “authentically” each day  Human beings must “take action” and create their ownHuman beings must “take action” and create their own sense of meaning in the worldsense of meaning in the world  Jean-Paul Sartre (1908-1980)Jean-Paul Sartre (1908-1980)  French philosopher and playwright who wrote onFrench philosopher and playwright who wrote on Existentialism and its place in the worldExistentialism and its place in the world  Some of his most popular plays include:Some of his most popular plays include:  The FliesThe Flies (1943)(1943)  No ExitNo Exit (1944)(1944)
  • 16. Theatre of the AbsurdTheatre of the Absurd The HilariousThe Hilarious  Acknowledge that the only sane response to theAcknowledge that the only sane response to the absurdity of the human condition is to take a comicalabsurdity of the human condition is to take a comical point of view.point of view.  Eugene Ionesco (1912-1994)Eugene Ionesco (1912-1994)  Romanian-born French playwright whose two mostRomanian-born French playwright whose two most produced play are:produced play are:  RhinocerosRhinoceros (1959) and(1959) and The Bald SopranoThe Bald Soprano (1949)(1949)  Harold Pinter (1930-2008)Harold Pinter (1930-2008)  English playwright who was awarded the Nobel Prize inEnglish playwright who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 2005 who most famous plays include:2005 who most famous plays include:  The DumbwaiterThe Dumbwaiter (1957),(1957), The Birthday PartyThe Birthday Party (1958), and(1958), and BetrayalBetrayal (1978)(1978)
  • 17. Precolonial African TheatrePrecolonial African Theatre  Grew out of ritual andGrew out of ritual and employed acting,employed acting, music, storytelling,music, storytelling, costumes, and dance.costumes, and dance.  Often used masks.Often used masks.  Audience participationAudience participation required.required.  Concerned withConcerned with religion andreligion and community.community. Marc&EvelyneBernheim/WoodfinCamp& Associates
  • 18. Sanskrit DramaSanskrit Drama Sanskrit drama - uses Sanskrit, the oldest ofSanskrit drama - uses Sanskrit, the oldest of Indian languages, and tells stories based onIndian languages, and tells stories based on Indian myth.Indian myth. DinodiaPhoto Library
  • 19. Peking OperaPeking Opera AA synthesis of music, dance,synthesis of music, dance, acting, and acrobatics.acting, and acrobatics. Because they originallyBecause they originally performed outdoors, Pekingperformed outdoors, Peking opera actors developed aopera actors developed a piercing style of singing theirpiercing style of singing their lines over boisterous crowds.lines over boisterous crowds. The orchestra is made up ofThe orchestra is made up of gongs, cymbals, lutes, rattles,gongs, cymbals, lutes, rattles, drums, castanets, and a two-drums, castanets, and a two- string violin.string violin. Lou Anne Wright
  • 20. Japanese TheatreJapanese Theatre Kabuki Theatre -- Ka (song), Bu (dance) and Ki (skill).Kabuki Theatre -- Ka (song), Bu (dance) and Ki (skill). A popular theatre form that includes elaborateA popular theatre form that includes elaborate costumes, melodramatic acting, and special effects.costumes, melodramatic acting, and special effects. MichaelS. Yamashita/CORBIS
  • 21. Islamic TheatreIslamic Theatre •Shadow TheatreShadow Theatre In the ancient Muslim world, theatre was not an important part of its culture. The Koran, Islam’s holy book, contains a warning about “graven images,” which applies to actors and puppets. Islamic performers skirted the rules by back lighting two- dimensional figures and casting their shadows on a screen. WilliamMissouriDowns
  • 22. Curtain CallCurtain Call In his famous introductionIn his famous introduction toto The Story of ArtThe Story of Art, E. H., E. H. Gombrich says, “There isGombrich says, “There is no such thing as art.no such thing as art. There are only artists.”There are only artists.” This is certainly true in theThis is certainly true in the theatre—how eachtheatre—how each designer, director, actor,designer, director, actor, or playwright sees lifeor playwright sees life affects the style of theaffects the style of the plays they createplays they create William Missouri Downs