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Minerals
 

Minerals

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    Minerals Minerals Presentation Transcript

    • MINERALS Ch.2
    • PROPERTIES OF MINERALS
      • Ch. 2, Section 1
    •  
    • FIVE PROPERTIES OF MINERALS
      • Naturally occurring.
        • Not man made.
      • Inorganic.
        • Never was living.
        • Not made from any living thing.
      • Solid
        • Has definite volume and shape.
      • Crystal Structure
        • Particles line up in a repeating pattern to form a crystal shape.
        • Sometimes a microscope is needed to observe crystals.
      • Definite Chemical Composition
        • Made of definite elements .
        • Can be compounds or pure form minerals.
    • IDENTIFYING MINERALS
      • Each mineral has its own specific properties that can be used to identify it.
      • Hardness
        • How easily the mineral can be scratched.
        • Measured on a scale from 1-10, where 1 is the softest and 10 is the hardest.
        • Moh’s Scale
          • Softest: talc, Hardest: diamond.
          • Everything scratches talc, but nothing scratches a diamond.
      • Color
        • Easily observed but not always reliable because many minerals are found in different colors. (Quartz)
    • IDENTIFYING MINERALS (CONT’D)
      • Streak
        • A mineral’s powder color. Found by rubbing against a streak plate.
        • A mineral’s color may vary, but its streak stays the same.
      • Luster
        • The way a mineral reflects light.
          • Metallic: shiny, glassy
          • Non-metallic: earthy, waxy, dull
    • IDENTIFYING MINERALS (CONT’D)
      • Density: Mass in a given space or mass per unit volume
        • Never changes in a given mineral.
        • Mineral is weighed to determine mass. Then, mineral is placed in water to see how much water it displaces: volume. Mass is divided by volume to determine density.
      • Crystal Systems
        • Each mineral has its own particular crystal structure.
        • 6 systems: cubic, hexagonal, tetragonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic, and triclinic
    • IDENTIFYING MINERALS (CONT’D)
      • Cleavage and Fracture
        • Way a mineral breaks.
        • Cleavage splits evenly along flat surfaces.
        • Fracture breaks unevenly.
    • SPECIAL PROPERTIES
      • Not all minerals have special properties.
      • Include magnetism, fluorescence, reaction to acids, electrical
    • HOW MINERALS FORM
      • Ch.2, Section 2
    •  
    • PROCESSES THAT FORM MINERALS
      • Form in 3 basic ways:
        • Crystallization from melted materials.
        • Minerals formed by hot water solutions.
        • Minerals formed by evaporation.
    • CRYSTALLIZATION FROM MELTED MATERIALS
      • Magma cooling inside crust.
      • Lava cooling outside of the crust.
      • Crystal size determined by 3 factors:
        • Rate at which magma cools.
          • Slow cooling results in large crystals.
          • Fast cooling results in smaller crystals (sometimes not visible at all).
        • Amount of gas magma contains.
        • Chemical composition of the magma.
    • MINERALS FORMED BY HOT WATER SOLUTIONS
      • Elements that make up a mineral dissolve in water heated by magma deep beneath the Earth’s surface.
      • Dissolved minerals form solutions.
      • Hot water begins to cool, elements and compounds leave the solution and crystallize as minerals.
      • Pure metals that crystallize underground often form veins.
    • MINERALS FORMED BY EVAPORATION
      • When solutions evaporate, minerals can form.
        • Ex. Salt water. Water evaporates, leaving salt crystals in the bottom of the container.
        • Halite formed by evaporation of ancient seas.
    • WHERE MINERALS ARE FOUND
      • Crust is made up of common minerals.
      • Rare minerals found near volcanic areas or areas of mountain building. (Cu found near Andes Mountains in Chile)
    • MINERAL RESOURCES
      • Ch.2, Section 3
    • USES OF MINERALS
      • Sources for metals, gemstones, and other materials used to make many products.
    • ORES
      • Rock that contains metal or an economically useful mineral.
      • Most metals do not occur in a pure form.
      • Minerals have to be separated from the ore.
    • PROSPECTING
      • Prospectors search for ore deposits.
      • Geologists look for certain features on Earth.
        • Observe rocks on land.
        • Examine plants growing in an area.
        • Test stream water for presence of chemicals.
      • Geologists also examine Earth’s interior for ores.
        • Set off explosions below ground.
        • Explosions create shock waves.
        • Echoes of shock waves used to map location, size, and shape of ore deposit.
    • MINING
      • Strip Mines
        • Earthmoving equipment scrapes away soil to expose ore.
      • Open-pit Mining
        • Earthmoving equipment dig pits to remove ore deposits.
      • Shaft Mines
        • Have a network of tunnels that follow veins of the ore.
    • SMELTING
      • After miners remove the ore from the mine, the use the process of smelting to remove the metal from the ore.
      • After smelting, additional processes can be carried out to increase the value of the metal. Impurities can be removed to make the metal harder. (Ex. Iron becomes steel)
      • Alloys, mixtures of 2 or more metals, are created to insure that the metal has desirable properties. (strength)