MINERALS Ch.2
PROPERTIES OF MINERALS <ul><li>Ch. 2, Section 1 </li></ul>
 
FIVE PROPERTIES OF MINERALS <ul><li>Naturally occurring. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not man made. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inorga...
IDENTIFYING MINERALS <ul><li>Each mineral has its own specific properties that can be used to identify it. </li></ul><ul><...
IDENTIFYING MINERALS (CONT’D) <ul><li>Streak </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A mineral’s powder color.  Found by rubbing against a s...
IDENTIFYING MINERALS (CONT’D) <ul><li>Density:  Mass in a given space or mass per unit volume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never ...
IDENTIFYING MINERALS (CONT’D) <ul><li>Cleavage and Fracture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Way a mineral breaks. </li></ul></ul><ul...
SPECIAL PROPERTIES <ul><li>Not all minerals have special properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Include magnetism, fluorescence, re...
HOW MINERALS FORM <ul><li>Ch.2, Section 2 </li></ul>
 
PROCESSES THAT FORM MINERALS <ul><li>Form in 3 basic ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crystallization from melted materials. </...
CRYSTALLIZATION FROM MELTED MATERIALS <ul><li>Magma cooling inside crust. </li></ul><ul><li>Lava cooling outside of the cr...
MINERALS FORMED BY HOT WATER SOLUTIONS <ul><li>Elements that make up a mineral dissolve in water heated by magma deep bene...
MINERALS FORMED BY EVAPORATION <ul><li>When solutions evaporate, minerals can form. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex.  Salt water....
WHERE MINERALS ARE FOUND <ul><li>Crust is made up of common minerals. </li></ul><ul><li>Rare minerals found near volcanic ...
MINERAL RESOURCES <ul><li>Ch.2, Section 3 </li></ul>
USES OF MINERALS <ul><li>Sources for metals, gemstones, and other materials used to make many products. </li></ul>
ORES <ul><li>Rock that contains metal or an economically useful mineral. </li></ul><ul><li>Most metals do not occur in a p...
PROSPECTING <ul><li>Prospectors search for ore deposits. </li></ul><ul><li>Geologists look for certain features on Earth. ...
MINING <ul><li>Strip Mines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthmoving equipment scrapes away soil to expose ore. </li></ul></ul><ul...
SMELTING <ul><li>After miners remove the ore from the mine, the use the process of smelting to remove the metal from the o...
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Minerals

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Minerals

  1. 1. MINERALS Ch.2
  2. 2. PROPERTIES OF MINERALS <ul><li>Ch. 2, Section 1 </li></ul>
  3. 4. FIVE PROPERTIES OF MINERALS <ul><li>Naturally occurring. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not man made. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inorganic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never was living. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not made from any living thing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has definite volume and shape. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crystal Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particles line up in a repeating pattern to form a crystal shape. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes a microscope is needed to observe crystals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Definite Chemical Composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of definite elements . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be compounds or pure form minerals. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. IDENTIFYING MINERALS <ul><li>Each mineral has its own specific properties that can be used to identify it. </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How easily the mineral can be scratched. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured on a scale from 1-10, where 1 is the softest and 10 is the hardest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moh’s Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Softest: talc, Hardest: diamond. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Everything scratches talc, but nothing scratches a diamond. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily observed but not always reliable because many minerals are found in different colors. (Quartz) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. IDENTIFYING MINERALS (CONT’D) <ul><li>Streak </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A mineral’s powder color. Found by rubbing against a streak plate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A mineral’s color may vary, but its streak stays the same. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Luster </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The way a mineral reflects light. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metallic: shiny, glassy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-metallic: earthy, waxy, dull </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. IDENTIFYING MINERALS (CONT’D) <ul><li>Density: Mass in a given space or mass per unit volume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never changes in a given mineral. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mineral is weighed to determine mass. Then, mineral is placed in water to see how much water it displaces: volume. Mass is divided by volume to determine density. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crystal Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each mineral has its own particular crystal structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 systems: cubic, hexagonal, tetragonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic, and triclinic </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. IDENTIFYING MINERALS (CONT’D) <ul><li>Cleavage and Fracture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Way a mineral breaks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleavage splits evenly along flat surfaces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fracture breaks unevenly. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. SPECIAL PROPERTIES <ul><li>Not all minerals have special properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Include magnetism, fluorescence, reaction to acids, electrical </li></ul>
  9. 10. HOW MINERALS FORM <ul><li>Ch.2, Section 2 </li></ul>
  10. 12. PROCESSES THAT FORM MINERALS <ul><li>Form in 3 basic ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crystallization from melted materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals formed by hot water solutions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals formed by evaporation. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. CRYSTALLIZATION FROM MELTED MATERIALS <ul><li>Magma cooling inside crust. </li></ul><ul><li>Lava cooling outside of the crust. </li></ul><ul><li>Crystal size determined by 3 factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate at which magma cools. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slow cooling results in large crystals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fast cooling results in smaller crystals (sometimes not visible at all). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of gas magma contains. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical composition of the magma. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. MINERALS FORMED BY HOT WATER SOLUTIONS <ul><li>Elements that make up a mineral dissolve in water heated by magma deep beneath the Earth’s surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolved minerals form solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Hot water begins to cool, elements and compounds leave the solution and crystallize as minerals. </li></ul><ul><li>Pure metals that crystallize underground often form veins. </li></ul>
  13. 15. MINERALS FORMED BY EVAPORATION <ul><li>When solutions evaporate, minerals can form. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Salt water. Water evaporates, leaving salt crystals in the bottom of the container. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halite formed by evaporation of ancient seas. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. WHERE MINERALS ARE FOUND <ul><li>Crust is made up of common minerals. </li></ul><ul><li>Rare minerals found near volcanic areas or areas of mountain building. (Cu found near Andes Mountains in Chile) </li></ul>
  15. 17. MINERAL RESOURCES <ul><li>Ch.2, Section 3 </li></ul>
  16. 18. USES OF MINERALS <ul><li>Sources for metals, gemstones, and other materials used to make many products. </li></ul>
  17. 19. ORES <ul><li>Rock that contains metal or an economically useful mineral. </li></ul><ul><li>Most metals do not occur in a pure form. </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals have to be separated from the ore. </li></ul>
  18. 20. PROSPECTING <ul><li>Prospectors search for ore deposits. </li></ul><ul><li>Geologists look for certain features on Earth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe rocks on land. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine plants growing in an area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test stream water for presence of chemicals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geologists also examine Earth’s interior for ores. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set off explosions below ground. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explosions create shock waves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Echoes of shock waves used to map location, size, and shape of ore deposit. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. MINING <ul><li>Strip Mines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthmoving equipment scrapes away soil to expose ore. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open-pit Mining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthmoving equipment dig pits to remove ore deposits. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shaft Mines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a network of tunnels that follow veins of the ore. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. SMELTING <ul><li>After miners remove the ore from the mine, the use the process of smelting to remove the metal from the ore. </li></ul><ul><li>After smelting, additional processes can be carried out to increase the value of the metal. Impurities can be removed to make the metal harder. (Ex. Iron becomes steel) </li></ul><ul><li>Alloys, mixtures of 2 or more metals, are created to insure that the metal has desirable properties. (strength) </li></ul>
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