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Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals
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Minerals

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  • 1. MINERALS Ch.2
  • 2. PROPERTIES OF MINERALS
    • Ch. 2, Section 1
  • 3.  
  • 4. FIVE PROPERTIES OF MINERALS
    • Naturally occurring.
      • Not man made.
    • Inorganic.
      • Never was living.
      • Not made from any living thing.
    • Solid
      • Has definite volume and shape.
    • Crystal Structure
      • Particles line up in a repeating pattern to form a crystal shape.
      • Sometimes a microscope is needed to observe crystals.
    • Definite Chemical Composition
      • Made of definite elements .
      • Can be compounds or pure form minerals.
  • 5. IDENTIFYING MINERALS
    • Each mineral has its own specific properties that can be used to identify it.
    • Hardness
      • How easily the mineral can be scratched.
      • Measured on a scale from 1-10, where 1 is the softest and 10 is the hardest.
      • Moh’s Scale
        • Softest: talc, Hardest: diamond.
        • Everything scratches talc, but nothing scratches a diamond.
    • Color
      • Easily observed but not always reliable because many minerals are found in different colors. (Quartz)
  • 6. IDENTIFYING MINERALS (CONT’D)
    • Streak
      • A mineral’s powder color. Found by rubbing against a streak plate.
      • A mineral’s color may vary, but its streak stays the same.
    • Luster
      • The way a mineral reflects light.
        • Metallic: shiny, glassy
        • Non-metallic: earthy, waxy, dull
  • 7. IDENTIFYING MINERALS (CONT’D)
    • Density: Mass in a given space or mass per unit volume
      • Never changes in a given mineral.
      • Mineral is weighed to determine mass. Then, mineral is placed in water to see how much water it displaces: volume. Mass is divided by volume to determine density.
    • Crystal Systems
      • Each mineral has its own particular crystal structure.
      • 6 systems: cubic, hexagonal, tetragonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic, and triclinic
  • 8. IDENTIFYING MINERALS (CONT’D)
    • Cleavage and Fracture
      • Way a mineral breaks.
      • Cleavage splits evenly along flat surfaces.
      • Fracture breaks unevenly.
  • 9. SPECIAL PROPERTIES
    • Not all minerals have special properties.
    • Include magnetism, fluorescence, reaction to acids, electrical
  • 10. HOW MINERALS FORM
    • Ch.2, Section 2
  • 11.  
  • 12. PROCESSES THAT FORM MINERALS
    • Form in 3 basic ways:
      • Crystallization from melted materials.
      • Minerals formed by hot water solutions.
      • Minerals formed by evaporation.
  • 13. CRYSTALLIZATION FROM MELTED MATERIALS
    • Magma cooling inside crust.
    • Lava cooling outside of the crust.
    • Crystal size determined by 3 factors:
      • Rate at which magma cools.
        • Slow cooling results in large crystals.
        • Fast cooling results in smaller crystals (sometimes not visible at all).
      • Amount of gas magma contains.
      • Chemical composition of the magma.
  • 14. MINERALS FORMED BY HOT WATER SOLUTIONS
    • Elements that make up a mineral dissolve in water heated by magma deep beneath the Earth’s surface.
    • Dissolved minerals form solutions.
    • Hot water begins to cool, elements and compounds leave the solution and crystallize as minerals.
    • Pure metals that crystallize underground often form veins.
  • 15. MINERALS FORMED BY EVAPORATION
    • When solutions evaporate, minerals can form.
      • Ex. Salt water. Water evaporates, leaving salt crystals in the bottom of the container.
      • Halite formed by evaporation of ancient seas.
  • 16. WHERE MINERALS ARE FOUND
    • Crust is made up of common minerals.
    • Rare minerals found near volcanic areas or areas of mountain building. (Cu found near Andes Mountains in Chile)
  • 17. MINERAL RESOURCES
    • Ch.2, Section 3
  • 18. USES OF MINERALS
    • Sources for metals, gemstones, and other materials used to make many products.
  • 19. ORES
    • Rock that contains metal or an economically useful mineral.
    • Most metals do not occur in a pure form.
    • Minerals have to be separated from the ore.
  • 20. PROSPECTING
    • Prospectors search for ore deposits.
    • Geologists look for certain features on Earth.
      • Observe rocks on land.
      • Examine plants growing in an area.
      • Test stream water for presence of chemicals.
    • Geologists also examine Earth’s interior for ores.
      • Set off explosions below ground.
      • Explosions create shock waves.
      • Echoes of shock waves used to map location, size, and shape of ore deposit.
  • 21. MINING
    • Strip Mines
      • Earthmoving equipment scrapes away soil to expose ore.
    • Open-pit Mining
      • Earthmoving equipment dig pits to remove ore deposits.
    • Shaft Mines
      • Have a network of tunnels that follow veins of the ore.
  • 22. SMELTING
    • After miners remove the ore from the mine, the use the process of smelting to remove the metal from the ore.
    • After smelting, additional processes can be carried out to increase the value of the metal. Impurities can be removed to make the metal harder. (Ex. Iron becomes steel)
    • Alloys, mixtures of 2 or more metals, are created to insure that the metal has desirable properties. (strength)

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