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"Radio Activity" - Theoretical perspectives on the Interplay of  Radio, Participatory Practices and Technology

"Radio Activity" - Theoretical perspectives on the Interplay of Radio, Participatory Practices and Technology



Slides of my talk at the "Radio Conference. A transnational forum 2013" (July 11, 2013)

Slides of my talk at the "Radio Conference. A transnational forum 2013" (July 11, 2013)



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    "Radio Activity" - Theoretical perspectives on the Interplay of  Radio, Participatory Practices and Technology "Radio Activity" - Theoretical perspectives on the Interplay of Radio, Participatory Practices and Technology Presentation Transcript

    • “Radio Activity” Theoretical perspectives on the Interplay of Radio, Participatory Practices and Technology Nele Heise, M. A. Radio 2013 The Radio Conference: A Transnational Forum 2013 July 11, 2013 | Bedfordshire (UK)
    • The “active audience” and “audience activity” (Cognitive) processes of selection and interpretation of media content (e.g. uses & gratifications, cultural studies tradition)  meaning making and appropriation as co-construction; satisfaction of certain need Participatory Turn: rise of a participatory culture (Jenkins), connected with emergence of “personal media” (Lüders 2008), practices of “produsage” / “prosumption” (Bruns 2010) and implementation of interactive features and new feedback channels (e.g. social media)  Shifting attention to means of production and the role of technological infrastructure Heise | Radio Activity 2 Active audiences and the media
    • “Anyone who looks to things more closely, cannot possibly overlook the obvious matter, namely technology”. (Walter Benjamin, 1932; cited in Werber 2003) Heise | Radio Activity 3 Participation and (Media) Technology It’s the technology stupid!
    • (Arrangements of) media technologies (Carpentier 2011b): large-scale, vertically structured mainstream media arrangements vs. small-scale, horizontally structured alternative or community media arrangements (organizational); cultural (“production culture” related with certain technologies) AIP model (Carpentier 2011a): being in operational reach of technologies as a precondition to produce, distribute and receive content (Access), to create socio- communicative relationships to (co-)produce, select and interpret content (Interaction), as well as to take part in co-deciding processes of media production (Participation) Agency: Participation requires certain technical skills and competences; motivation and interests; attitudes towards technology (e.g. Chung 2007; Correa 2010) Affordances (Zillien 2008) and „moulding forces of media“ (Hepp 2012): material structure has a certain structuring effect since it open or restricts vertain options of usage Participation and (Media) Technology Heise | Radio Activity 4
    • Radio communication Heise | Radio Activity 5 “the radio has only one side where it should have two. It is an apparatus of distribution (…) –– here is a suggestion for changing the function of the radio: transform it from an apparatus of distribution into an apparatus of communication. (…) This means making the listener not only listen but also speak; not to isolate him but to place him in relation to others.” (Brecht 1932; cited in Werber 2003 “Recent discussions about media and technologies as tools that can challenge passivity and consumption and allow for participatory culture are not new and were going on with local educational radio in the 1930s” (Gregory 2013, p. 1)
    • Radio as „participatory medium“ • Cognitive aspects: high mental involvement (Forsslund 2012), community- building aspects, „media memories“ (Kaun/Stiernstedt 2012) • various forms of listener involvement (e.g. call-in’s, talk back; Orians 1991) as well as participation models and notions of alternativity: e.g. educational radio, community radio and free radio stations (Vogel 1991, Kleinsteuber 2012) • Historical dimension: processes of making the active radio audience through certain principals: mode of address, model listener, audience research, and the audience as producers/product (Forsman 2013); various contributions of specialized users: amateurs, fans, hackers (Santos 2012), e.g. definition of “amateurism” in the “early radio” era (Driscoll 2013) Radio, Activity and Participatory Practices Heise | Radio Activity 6
    • Today: Diversification of “radio” and broadcasting due to • Emergence of supplementary services in the modes of “audio” reception (mobile usage, usage on demand) and emergence of new media repertoires (Hasebrink/Domeyer 2012); greater control over reception (Albarran et al. 2013) [user perspective] • emergence of new broadcasting formats (e.g. Social Radio), additional distribution and feedback channels (e.g. mobile apps, social network sites) [producer perspective] • emergence of “personal media” (Lüders 2008), e.g. podcasts as radio-like media; new universal distribution platforms (e.g. Soundcloud, Mixcloud) [“produser” perspective] Radio and “radio like” formats Heise | Radio Activity 7
    • “Once it was your radio station, broadcasting on your frequency. Now that brilliant invention, podcasting, gives radio to us. And we have found more uses for it than you did.” (Rosen 2006) Heise | Radio Activity 8 The case of podcasting
    • The case of podcasting Disruptive technology developed in an open source environment; intersection of forms of amateur/hobby, Pro-Am and professional media communication and a type of audio processing/presentation Different forms refer to uses in the sense of „personal media“ (niche formats, special interest) and/or mass media (providing content as podcast) Self-definitions: notions of „doing radio“ (Markham 2011), „Radio Universal“ (Pritlove 2013)  “radio-like” communication Open format which enables different participatory practices and interactional roles (live-streaming and interaction with the chat room)  relevance of community building, orientation and collaboration (self-referenciality); cooperation with users (amateurs, hackers, fans) Heise | Radio Activity 9
    • Promoting Standards and Infrastructure Podlove Initiative: Podlove Podcast Publisher / Web Player collaboration with audio services and software providers, developers, designers, fans, hackers, consumers and podcasters to enhance production/consumption (via open source programming, crowdfunding) Heise | Radio Activity 10Picture: http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7376/8719225214_54196d8113.jpg Podlove Web Player as used by „Bildsprache Podcast“
    • Engaged listeners and hobby culture Shownot.es: group of „engaged listeners“, collaborative transcription of podcasts, meta-data (additional information, links, chapter marks); developers of a specialized technological infrastructure  intersection of hobby and hacker users Heise | Radio Activity 11
    • Aggregation Curation Collaboration Hörsuppe: „forecast“ and program guide, aggregator, curation, personalized live feed, archive, news, information portal Heise | Radio Activity 12 Podcastideen: crowdsourced Tumblr with ideas for new formats, exchange (opinions, ideas), search for supporters and collaborators
    • Crowd-sourced map of German podcasts and modified Wii controller (both by R. Stockmann) Identification and disruption Heise | Radio Activity 13 http://dev2.dariah.eu/e4d/?source1=3&kml1=http%3A%2F%2Fref.dariah.eu%2Fstorage%2F152651
    • USERPRODUCER (Arrangements of) Media Technologies Access Interaction Participation Affordances Purposes(s) Functionality Design Appropriation Usage Practices Negotiation Appropriation Usage Practices Negotiation Contexts: natural order, structural agents of social nature, cultural/situational contexts Production Cultures Institutional logics Norms / values Role perception Motivations Cultural resources Reception Cultures Media Repertoires Norms / values Role perception Motivations Cultural resources Conceptual dimensions
    • Previous research suggests • a consideration of technological aspects (e.g. affordances) and their influence on “participatory practices” • an examination of different arrangements of media technologies and their relation to media participation (e.g. openness) • a differentiated conceptualization of “radio” and other audio media from the producer and user perspective (mass media vs. “personal media”, broadcasting vs. narrowcasting, mass markets vs. niche communication) as well as their intersection from a “produsage” perspective Heise | Radio Activity 15 Outlook
    • Assumption Different types of “radio” or “audio communication” facilitate different participatory practices which require access to different (arrangements of) technologies and technical agency  will be empirically examined within my PhD project with regard to three case studies: “traditional” radio station, podcasts and amateur radio … but this will be my next presentation  Heise | Radio Activity 16 Outlook
    • Nele Heise, M. A. Hans Bredow Institute for Media Research, Hamburg n.heise@hans-bredow-institut.de hamburgergarneleh.wordpress.com @neleheise http://de.slideshare.net/garneleh Thanks* for your attention! * My Radio 2013 participation is kindly funded by the Graduate School for Media & Communication Hamburg
    • References Boczkowski, Pablo J. (2004). The Mutual Shaping of Technology and Society in Videotex Newspapers: Beyond the Diffusion and Social Shaping Perspectives. The Information Society, 20 (4), 255–267. Bollert, Christian, Benjamin Bigl, Marcus Engert, Markus Schubert & Hans-Jörg Stiehler (2012). Internetradios in Sachsen. Eine empirische Untersuchung sächsischer Webradioangebote. Berlin: Vistas. Bruns, Axel (2010). From Reader to Writer: Citizen Journalism as News Produsage. In J. Hunsinger, L. Klastrup & M. Allen (Eds.), International Handbook of Internet Research (pp. 119–133). Springer Netherlands. Carpentier, Nico (2011a). The concept of participation. If they have access and interact, do they really participate?. Communication Management Quarterly, 6(21), 13–36. Carpentier, Nico (2011b). Media and participation. A site of ideological-democratic struggle. Chicago: Intellect Chung, Deborah S. (2008). Interactive Features of Online Newspapers: Identifying Patterns and Predicting Use of Engaged Readers. Journal of Computer- Mediated Communication, 13, 658–679. Correa, Teresa (2010). The Participation Divide Among „Online Experts“: Experience, Skills and Psychological Factors as Predictors of College Students' Web Content Creation. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 16(1), 71–92. Driscoll, Kevin (2013). Producing the “amateur” in pre-regulation U.S. radio, 1899-1912. Paper presented at the 63rd Annual Conference of the International Communication Association (ICA), June 18, London. Engel, Bernhard & Stefanie Best (2012). Stream, Audio und Page – die Rezeptionsformen in der konvergenten Medienwelt [Stream, Audio, and Page – reception forms in a convergent media environment]. Media Perspektiven, 2, 62–71. Forsman, Michael (2013). Talk back and participate! The making of the active audience within Swedish local radio 1977−2000. Paper presented at the 63rd Annual Conference of the International Communication Association (ICA), June 18, London. Forsslund, Titti (2011). Radio – the forgotten medium for user’ creative mental interaction and co-production. In M. Oliviera & L. A. Santos (Eds.), Radio Evolution. Conference Proceedings. Retrieved from: http://www.lasics.uminho.pt/ojs/index.php/radioevolution/article/view/831/833 (accessed April 14, 2013). Gregory, Brian C. (2013). Listening to the Community: The Goals and Instructional Methods of Local Educational Radio Broadcasters. Paper presented at the 63rd Annual Conference of the International Communication Association (ICA), June 18, London. Hasebrink, Uwe & Hanna Domeyer (2012). Media repertoires as patterns of behavior and as meaningful practices: A multimethod approach to media use in converging media environments. Participations, 9(2), 757–779. Heise, Nele (2013). “Bridging Technologies” – Intermediating functions of technical objects within the relationship of journalism and audience. Paper presented at the ICA Pre-Conference “The Objects of Journalism” (June 17, 2013). Hepp, Andreas (2012). Mediatization and the ‘Molding Force’ of the Media. In: Communications, 37(1), 1–28. Hujanen, Jaana & Sari Pietikäinen (2004). Interactive Uses of Journalism. Crossing Between Technological Potential and Young People's News-Using Practices. New Media & Society, 6(3), 383-401. Jenkins, Henry (2006). Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York University Press.
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