"Radio activity" - The Role of Technical Objects and Agency for Participatory Practices of Radio Communication
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"Radio activity" - The Role of Technical Objects and Agency for Participatory Practices of Radio Communication



First presentation of my PhD project at the Graduate School Media and Communication (April 16, 2013; Hamburg)

First presentation of my PhD project at the Graduate School Media and Communication (April 16, 2013; Hamburg)



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"Radio activity" - The Role of Technical Objects and Agency for Participatory Practices of Radio Communication "Radio activity" - The Role of Technical Objects and Agency for Participatory Practices of Radio Communication Presentation Transcript

  • “Radio Activity”The Role of Technical Objects and Agency forParticipatory Practices of Radio CommunicationNele Heise, M. A.Doctoral ColloquiumGraduate School Media and CommunicationApril 16, 2013 | Hamburg
  • Outline1. My background2. The emergence of my dissertation project3. Research Object(s) of my project4. Principles and Case Studies of my project5. Next steps & added valueHeise | Radio Activity 2
  • • Home discipline: Communication Science (qualitative research)• Junior researcher at the Hans Bredow Institute for 2.5 years within aDFG-funded research project (2011-2014), i.e. great work conditionsbut few time for my dissertation project• Main focus: relationship of journalism and audienceMy backgroundHeise | Radio Activity 3
  • My initial starting pointEmergence of my dissertation projectThe idea of an“Active Audience”Has for long been an important reference withinscholarly discourses  “participatory turn” due toadvent of Web 2.0 and social media?Facets of “Audience Activity”(Cognitive) processes of selection and interpretation ofmedia content (e.g. uses & grats, encoding/decoding)Practice orientation: Usage of interactive / feedbackfeatures and produsage / prosumption (Bruns 2007)A conceptual gap? the role oftechnology for “audienceactivity”Role of Technology for reception and production onthe levels of Access [presence], Interaction [socio-communicative relationships] and Participation [co-deciding]  AIP model (Carpentier 2011)Heise | Radio Activity 4
  • Heise | Radio Activity 5(Techn.)ArtifactAgencyMedium PracticeActive Role of ICT UsersAppropriation of (media) technology (e.g.Domestication approach)Social Construction/Shaping of TechnologyActive Interpretation and familiarization(Sarrica 2010)(Active) use of participatory featuresand its preconditionsMotivation, self-esteem, attitudes,technology acceptance as well as skills andcompetence (e.g. Hujanen/Pietikäinen2004; King/He 2006; Correa 2010)Media characteristicsMedia affordances (e.g. Zillien 2008,Hepp 2012) as well as design,functionality, purposeInteractivity and interactive features(e.g. Chung 2007/2008; Himelboim/McCreery 2012)Media arrangementsMedia repertoires (Hasebrink/Domeyer 2012)Media HistoriesEmergence, continuities & variationsas well as diffusion of media artifacts,genres, formats (e.g. “personalmedia”, Lüders 2008)(Dis-) Advantage: Intersection of diverse theoretical concepts and disciplinesTexto-material perspective: intersection of practices of content creation andinterpretation as well as appropriation and shaping of artifacts (Siles/Boczkowski 2012)Emergence of my dissertation project
  • Heise | Radio Activity 6Important Step“Narrowing” the Research Object
  • IIIIII Practice dimensionIVIV Medium dimensionII Artifactual dimensionIIII Agency dimensionWhat role do(arrangements of) technical objects and their affordancesas well astechnical skills and competenceplay forparticipatory practicesofradio communication?Overarching RQ of my projectHeise | Radio Activity 7
  • Why “radio communication”?Research Object(s) of my projectHeise | Radio Activity 8the “flexible” mediummany definitions, formats, genres, theories;“universal usability”the “participatory” mediumlong history of listener involvement (e.g. talk radio)and participation models (e.g. community radio)due to low access barriers; mental involvementthe “ubiquitous” mediumextensive and stable usage; multiple receptiondevices (offline, online, mobile)the “forgotten” medium “seamlessness” of usage, “invisibility”;lack of empirical research (in Germany)
  • A (preliminary) definition of “radio communication”Radio communication includes the (frequent) practices of productionand reception of audio material or content which is distributed throughvarious channels (terrestrial and/or online, simulcast) and devices.Radio communication includes a broad variety of traditional andemerging formats (e.g. Hörfunk, web radio, Social Radio).Radio communication is characterized by “multiple layers of radiocontexts” (Vagle 2011: 96): natural order (human biology, technologiesas well as physical time and place), structural agents of social nature(e.g. political/economic system, social groups and institutions) as wellas cultural (inventory of genres) and situational contexts.Heise | Radio Activity 9Research Object(s) of my project
  • General approach of my dissertation projectHeise | Radio Activity 10Overall assumption Different types of “radio communication” enable or facilitatedifferent participatory practices of “doing radio” which requiredifferent (arrangements of) technologies and technical agencyResearch Principles Based on case studies (Yin 2009) Pro’s: flexibility (methods, data material), “thick”descriptions, context sensitivity Con’s: scope and generalization of results; justificationVariation of perspectives, search for similarities & structuralrelations (Kleining 1995, Hagemann 2003, Krotz 2005)Research Goal Conceptual mapping and description of different cases ofcontemporary “radio communication”Systematization and extension of existing theories(dimensions: artifactual, medium, agency, practice)
  • Case studies of my dissertation projectHeise | Radio Activity 11Amateur /Ham RadioCommunityRadio“Classical”Radio StationsWeb RadioStationsPodcasts /PodcastingActors [media organizations, communities, individuals]Professionalization [amateurs, Pro-Ams, journalists]Other: features of audience involvement, economic structure,reach/publicity, frequency, “sense of mission”Technical infrastructure [terrestrial and/or online distribution]Institutionalization *independence vs. “embeddedness”+Content [program structure, topicality, target group etc.]
  • Regional context: HamburgCase studies of my dissertation projectHeise | Radio Activity 12AmateurDarc e.V.CommunityTide / FSK“Classical”N-JoyWeb RadioByteFMPodcastingH.P.C.Group discussion / focus groupParticipatory observation (meetings, workshops etc.)In-depth-InterviewsStandardized surveysFeature Analyses and “home” visits (technical objects & arrangement)* Concrete methodology also relies on field access (+ study group) & previous research/knowledge*
  • Current status of my dissertation projectLiterature review Main areas: concepts of participation, technologicalchange, appropriation and shaping of technology“Defining” my field Step 1: role of technological objects in the relationbetween journalism and audience (ICA 2013)Step 2: selecting relevant case studies with regard toprevious knowledge and assumptions“Entering” the field Empirical field research on five case studiesStarting point (05/13): Podcasting Workshop in BerlinNext stepsFirst steps“Entering” the PhD Decision 1: cumulative vs. conventional dissertation?Decision 2: status of empirical work and theory?Decision 3: ECREA Summer School in Bremen?Heise | Radio Activity 13
  • Added valueDescriptive examination of emerging and differentiating media formats deeper understanding of motivations of active audiencemembers and dimensions of media related technical agencyNormative democratic value of participatory practices (e.g. for opinionformation and diversity) emancipatory potential of participatory practices (e.g.empowerment of minorities)Heise | Radio Activity 14Supportive  technology-related barriers of participation (e.g. in journalism)and inequalities (due to gender, education, access etc.) recommendations for media education
  • Thanks for your attention!Nele Heise, M. A.Hans Bredow InstituteWarburgstraße 8-1020354 Hamburg/Germanyn.heise@hans-bredow-institut.de@neleheisehttp://de.slideshare.net/garnelehHeise | Radio Activity 15
  • ReferencesBoczkowski, Pablo J. (2004). The Mutual Shaping of Technology and Society in Videotex Newspapers: Beyond the Diffusion and Social Shaping Perspectives. TheInformation Society, 20 (4), 255–267.Bollert, Christian, Benjamin Bigl, Marcus Engert, Markus Schubert & Hans-Jörg Stiehler (2012). Internetradios in Sachsen. Eine empirische Untersuchungsächsischer Webradioangebote. Berlin: Vistas.Bruns, Axel (2010). From Reader to Writer: Citizen Journalism as News Produsage. In J. Hunsinger, L. Klastrup & M. Allen (Eds.), International Handbook ofInternet Research (pp. 119–133). Springer Netherlands.Carpentier, Nico (2011). The concept of participation. If they have access and interact, do they really participate?. Communication Management Quarterly, 6(21),13–36.Chung, Deborah S. (2007). Profits and Perils: Online News Producers’ Perceptions of Interactivity and Uses of Interactive Features. Convergence, The InternationalJournal of Research into New Media Technologies, 13(1), 43–61.Chung, Deborah S. (2008). Interactive Features of Online Newspapers: Identifying Patterns and Predicting Use of Engaged Readers. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13, 658–679.Correa, Teresa (2010). The Participation Divide Among „Online Experts“: Experience, Skills and Psychological Factors as Predictors of College Students WebContent Creation. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 16(1), 71–92.Engel, Bernhard & Stefanie Best (2012). Stream, Audio und Page – die Rezeptionsformen in der konvergenten Medienwelt. Media Perspektiven, 2, 62–71.Forsslund, Titti (2011). Radio – the forgotten medium for user’ creative mental interaction and co-production. In M. Oliviera & L. A. Santos (Eds.), Radio Evolution.Conference Proceedings. Retrieved from: http://www.lasics.uminho.pt/ojs/index.php/radioevolution/article/view/831/833 (accessed April 14, 2013).Gattringer, Karin & Walter Klingler (2012). Radionutzung in Deutschland steigt erneut an. Media Perspektiven, 9, 410–423.Hagemann, Otmar (2003). Qualitativ-heuristische Methodologie im Lehr-Dialog. In O. Hagemann & F. Krotz (Eds.), Suchen und Entdecken. Beiträge zu Ehren vonGerhard Kleining (pp. 31-62). Berlin: Rhombos.Hartmann, Maren (2009). Roger Silverstone. Medienobjekte und Domestizierung. In A. Hepp, F. Krotz & T. Thomas (Eds.), Schlüsselwerke der Cultural Studies (pp.304–315). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Hasebrink, Uwe & Hanna Domeyer (2012). Media repertoires as patterns of behavior and as meaningful practices: A multimethod approach to media use inconverging media environments. Participations, 9(2), 757–779.Hepp, Andreas (2012). Mediatization and the ‘Molding Force’ of the Media. In: Communications, 37(1), 1–28.Himelboim, Itai & Steve McCreery (2012). New technologies, old practices: Examining news websites from a professional perspective. Convergence: Theinternational Journal of Research into New Media Technologies. Published online 7 February 2012 (DOI: 10.1177/1354856511429648).Hujanen, Jaana & Sari Pietikäinen (2004). Interactive Uses of Journalism. Crossing Between Technological Potential and Young Peoples News-Using Practices.New Media & Society, 6(3), 383-401.Heise | Radio Activity 16
  • ReferencesJönsson, Anna Maria & Henrik Örnebring (2011). User-Generated Content and the News: Empowerment of Citizens or Interactive Illusion? Journalism Practice,5(2), 127–144.Kahl, Annett, Annette Mende & Ulrich Neuwöhner (2012). Webangeboteunterstützen Bindung und Nutzung des Radios. Media Perspektiven, 7-8, 397–403.King, William R. & Jun He (2006). A meta-analysis of the technology acceptance model. Information & Management, 43(6), 740–755.Kleining, Gerhard (1995). Lehrbuch entdeckende Sozialforschung. Bd. 1: Von der Hermeneutik zur qualitativen Heuristik. Weinheim: Beltz.Kleinsteuber, Hans J. (2012). Radio – Versuch einer Begriffsbestimmung. In H. Kleinsteuber (Ed.), Radio – eine Einführung. (pp. 15–36). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag fürSozialwissenschaften.Krotz, Friedrich (2005). Neue Theorien entwickeln. Eine Einführung in die Grounded Theory, die Heuristische Sozialforschung und die Ethnographie anhand vonBeispielen aus der Kommunikationsforschung. Köln: Herbert von Halem Verlag.Larsson, Anders Olof (2012).Understanding Nonuse of Interactivity in Online Newspapers: Insights from Structuration Theory. The Information Society, 28(4),253–263.Lüders, Marika (2008). Conceptualizing personal media. New Media & Society, 10(5), 683–702.MacKenzie, Donald & Judy Wajcman (Eds.) (1999). The Social Shaping of Technology. 2nd ed. Buckingham/Philadelphia: Open University Press.Orians, Wolfgang (1991). Hörerbeteiligung im Radio eine Fallstudie zu Motivation, Erwartung und Zufriedenheit von Anrufern. München: R. Fischer Verlag.Renger, Rudi (2004). Journalismus als kultureller Diskurs. Grundlagen der Cultural Studies als Journalismustheorie. In M. Löffelholz (Ed.), Theorien desJournalismus. Ein diskursives Handbuch (pp. 359–371). 2nd ed. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Sarrica, Mauro (2010). ICTs Meanings and Practices: Contributions from the Social Representations Approach. In: The Journal of Community Informatics, 6(3).Online: http://ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/731/612 (accessed September 30, 2012).Schätzlein, Frank (2012). Theorien. In H. Kleinsteuber (Ed.), Radio – eine Einführung. (pp. 37–62). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Siles, Ignacio; Boczkowski, Pablo (2012). At the Intersection of Content and Materiality: A Texto-Material Perspective on the Use of Media Technologies.Communication Theory, 22(3), 227–249.Silverstone, Roger; Haddon, Leslie (1996). Design and the domestication of information and communication technologies: Technical change and Everyday Life. InR. Mansell & Roger Silverstone (Eds.): Communication by design. The politics of information and communication technologies (pp. 44–74). Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press.Vagle, Wenche (2011). Time and Space in Early Norwegian Radio. Technology, Textuality, and Discursive Roles and Relations. Nordicom Review, 32(2), 95–110.Vogel, Andreas (1991). Rundfunk für alle. Bürgerbeteiligung, Partizipation und zugangsoffene Sendeplätze in Hörfunk und Fernsehen. Berlin: VistasVerlagsgesellschaft.Yin, Robert K. (2009). Case study research. Design and methods. 4th ed. California: Thousand Oaks.Zillien, Nicole (2008). Die (Wieder-)Entdeckung der Medien: das Affordanzkonzept in der Mediensoziologie. Sociologia Internationalis, 46(2), 161–181.Heise | Radio Activity 17