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Hegemony, Marxism and Stereotype Theory
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Hegemony, Marxism and Stereotype Theory

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Hegemony, Marxism and Stereotype Theory - week 2 A'Level Media introduction to theory. This slide show has been adapted from others that can be found on this site.

Hegemony, Marxism and Stereotype Theory - week 2 A'Level Media introduction to theory. This slide show has been adapted from others that can be found on this site.

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  • 1. Key Theory 2 Hegemony and Marxism As a class read through the theory sheet in the media highlighting important sentences.
  • 2. Key points to remember • In the 19th Century Marx and Engles saw the Dominant Ideology of Capitalism as a problem. • Only the ruling class benefited – most people suffered • Only revolution could change this.
  • 3. Key points to remember • Antonio Gramsci developed the theory of Hegemony.
  • 4. Task - on your blog title a post Hegemony and Marxism. • Write a brief summary of the two theories. • Under Marixism research and name the few countries that DID have a revolution to try and break away from Capitalism. • Under Hedgemony research examples of the media using hegemony in operation (think of war coverage) 15 minutes – feedback to the class
  • 5. Stereotype theory • With difference comes a tendency to stereotype. • A stereotype is a simplification we use to make sense of a person or group. • Four parts to a stereotype – Appearance – Behaviour – Constructed to fit in to a particular medium – Comparison with normal behaviour.
  • 6. Stereotype theory - Dyer – Richard Dyer - 1979 Many of the debates and critical approaches to representation focus upon stereotypes, which, according to Dyer (1979), involve a number of processes: The complexity and variety of a group is reduced to few characteristics. An exaggerated version of these characteristics is applied to everyone in the group as if they are an essential element of all members of the social group These characteristics are represented in the media through media language.
  • 7. – Dyer (1979) suggested that stereotypes are always about power - those with power stereotype those with less power. – Hence he argued there were more recognisable stereotypes of gay men, non-white racial groups, the working class and women in society , and alternatively it was perhaps not so easy to point to media stereotypes of white, middle class, heterosexual men. – Dyer wrote about gay stereotypes nearly 30 years ago and there is much debate about the extent to which the representation of this group has shifted since then. – This is an issue that would need to be explored and addressed when undertaking a case study
  • 8. – Stereotyping can be seen to exaggerate difference and in doing so may increase antagonisms between groups . – A problem with the media’s use of stereotypes is its selectivity , as it conveys values and assumptions that may help construct the audience’s perception of the world and consequently their behaviour. – It is important to note that the media does not invent stereotypes, but by repeatedly using them, media can be accused of reinforcing certain values and assumptions
  • 9. – suggested that stereotypes can be seen as a type of media shorthand that provides an easy point of contact when the text needs to communicate quickly with the audience . – Some genres and mediums are more prone to the use of stereotypes than others, for example, stereotypes are often seen on television in adverts and sitcoms. – Other genres, such as soap opera, use stereotypes for less significant characters or when introducing new characters. – Over time, both soap opera and sitcom may develop these initial stereotypes into more rounded and complex characters , which challenge the audience’s first impressions and which provide for more complex enigma narratives Stereotype Theory – Medhurst (1995)
  • 10. Stereotype theory – Dyer. Task – Compose a table giving a summary of many of the media’s stereotypical representations of teenagers. - 10 minutes – Then discuss your answers with a partner – are there similarities or differences? – What does this tell you about the importance of stereotyping in constructing images of social groups? Feedback as a class.
  • 11. Task - on your blog title a post Stereotype Theory • Copy the quotes onto your post. • For Dryer’s theory find an example from; – TV – Film Countertypes A Challenging of traditional stereotypes from; • TV • Film Hybrids Representations which are a mixture of stereotypes and counter-types – TV – Film 15 minutes – feedback to the class
  • 12. Key theory 4 – Rethinking stereotypes • Tessa Perkins – shorthand ways of referring to complex social relationships. • She states that there are false assumptions about stereotypes • No single reading of a stereotype
  • 13. – For example, the stereotypical image of the Frenchman as riding a bicycle, wearing the beret and a striped jumper has its origins in the French garlic sellers who, in the first half of the 20th century, came from Brittany to sell garlic and onions to housewives in the south of England. – It could be argued that there is some truth behind the representation of Asian families, the Masoods and the Alahans, in both Eastenders (BBC, 1985-) and Coronation Street (ITV, 1960-) as running shops. – The problem lies with these being the only representations of Asians within soap operas.
  • 14. Task - Revised Stereotype theory. • Write a brief summary of the revised theory of Perkins.
  • 15. Stereotyping. • Theoretical perspective • It can be argued that it is not the media’s use of stereotypes that is problematic but the audience’s assumption that this representation can be applied to all members of a particular group.
  • 16. Examiners tip • Exploring the stereotypes of a particular identity group within different genres of media texts and across different media platforms is a good way to undertake a case study of representation. • Analyse how the stereotypes are constructed with reference to clothing, body language or mannerisms, décor of habitat, location, accent or language, music, relationships and lifestyle. • In examining a stereotype, try to consider whether Dyer’s (1979), Medhurst’s (1995) and Perkins’s (1979) arguments have any credibility
  • 17. Analyse the following extracts in terms of how the stereotypes are constructed • Review the previous three theoretical ideas and see if you can apply them to these texts. • Do they have credibility? Explain your answer. • 1. Kevin the teenager – Harry Enfield and Chums • 2: Vicky Pollard – Little Britain • 3:David Platt – Coronation Street • 4: Quorn advert • 5: Lauren – The Catherine Tate Show
  • 18. • How do you feel about these stereotypes and the way in which they are used? • What effect do you think such stereotypes have on the audience’s perceptions of teenagers? • Read through the following theoretical ideas about the possible influence the media has over its audience. • Discuss with a partner whether these ideas might apply to the texts you have been discussing so far.
  • 19. Task -Analyse how British youth are represented in The Inbetweeners. • Season 1 episode 2 – Can be view on Channel 4oD • Use the theories we have looked at today, make sure you can answer: – Who produced it? – What/who is represented in the text? – How is that thing represented? – Why was this particular representation (this shot, framed from this angle, this story phrased in these terms, etc) selected, and what might the alternatives have been? – What frame of reference does the audience use when understanding the representation? • Use the Constructionist view. • To be completed as homework for next week