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modern, post-modern architects & their works
 

modern, post-modern architects & their works

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this presentation deals with the modern architecture- a few architects of modernist time and their famous works. ...

this presentation deals with the modern architecture- a few architects of modernist time and their famous works.
it also contains post-modern architecture and architects with their famous works.....!!

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    modern, post-modern architects & their works modern, post-modern architects & their works Presentation Transcript

    • THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE SUBMITTED BYGARIMA GUPTA III- YR ROLL NO- 14
    • Modern architecture INTRODUCTION  MODERN ARCHITECTURE IS A TERM APPLIED TO A PERIOD IN ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY DURING THE 20TH CENTURY.  MODERN ARCHITECTURE BEGAN WITH ADVANCEMENT AND THE MODERNIZATION OF EFFORTS TO RECONCILE THE PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN WITH RAPID TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY. MODERNISM IS BROADLY CHARACTERIZED BY SIMPLIFICATION OF FORM AND SUBTRACTION OF ORNAMENTATION FROM THE STRUCTURE AND THEME OF THE BUILDING. SALK INSTITUTE BY LOUIS KAHN IBM PLAZA BY MIES VAN DER ROHE SEAGRAM BUILDING BY MIES VAN DER ROHE EVOLUTION OF THE STYLE INCREASINGLY, DURING THE 1950s, MODERN ARCHITECTURE WAS CRITICIZED FOR ITS STERILITY, ITS "INSTITUTIONAL" ANONYMITY, AND ITS DISREGARD FOR REGIONAL BUILDING TRADITIONS. MORE VARIED MODES OF EXPRESSION WERE SOUGHT BY ARCHITECTS OF THE NEXT GENERATION, ALTHOUGH THE BASIC EMPHASIS ON STRUCTURE AND MATERIALS CONTINUED. THIS TENDENCY WAS EVIDENT IN THE WORKS OF LOUIS KAHN, EDWARD DURELL STONE, AND PHILIP CORTELYOU JOHNSON IN THE UNITED STATES, AND THE ARCHITECTS OF THE SO-CALLED NEW BRUTALISM MOVEMENT IN ENGLAND. A DYNAMIC SCULPTURAL UNITY DISTINGUISHED THE BUILDINGS OF EERO SAARINEN AND THE LATE WORKS OF LE CORBUSIER. ST. JOHN’S ABBEY CHURCH BY MARCEL BREUER BAUHAUS BUILDING BY WALTER GROPIUS MODERN ARCHITECTURE,EMERGED IN MANY WESTERN COUNTRIES IN THE DECADE AFTER WORLD WAR I. IT WAS BASED ON THE "RATIONAL" USE OF MODERN MATERIALS, THE PRINCIPLES OF FUNCTIONALIST PLANNING, AND THE REJECTION OF HISTORICAL PRECEDENT AND ORNAMENT. CHARACTERISTICS •THE NOTION THAT "FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION", MEANING THAT THE RESULT OF DESIGN SHOULD DERIVE DIRECTLY FROM ITS PURPOSE •SIMPLICITY AND CLARITY OF FORMS AND ELIMINATION OF "UNNECESSARY DETAIL" •MATERIALS AT 90 DEGREES TO EACH OTHER •VISUAL EXPRESSION OF STRUCTURE (AS OPPOSED TO THE HIDING OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS. •THE RELATED CONCEPT OF "TRUTH TO MATERIALS", MEANING THAT THE TRUE NATURE OR NATURAL APPEARANCE OF A MATERIAL OUGHT TO BE SEEN. •USE OF INDUSTRIALLY-PRODUCED MATERIALS. •A VISUAL EMPHASIS ON HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL LINES. •USE OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND NEW MATERIALS. •IMPLEMENTATION OF ―SKIN AND BONE ARCHITECTURE‖. •MINIMUM WASTAGE OF MATERIALS, MATERIALS GENERALY CONSISTS OF GLASS AND STEEL. •FULLY UTILIZATION OF SPACES EXTERNALLY AND INTERNALLY.
    • LE CORBUSIER INTRODUCTION CHARLES-ÉDOUARD JEANNERET-GRIS, BETTER KNOWN AS LE CORBUSIER (OCTOBER 6, 1887 – AUGUST 27, 1965), WAS AN ARCHITECT, DESIGNER, PAINTER, URBAN PLANNER, WRITER, AND ONE OF THE PIONEERS OF WHAT IS NOW CALLED MODERN ARCHITECTURE. HE WAS BORN IN SWITZERLAND AND BECAME A FRENCH CITIZEN IN 1930. HIS CAREER SPANNED FIVE DECADES, WITH HIS BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTED THROUGHOUT EUROPE, INDIA, AND AMERICA. HE WAS A PIONEER IN STUDIES OF MODERN HIGH DESIGN AND WAS DEDICATED TO PROVIDING BETTER LIVING CONDITIONS FOR THE RESIDENTS OF CROWDED CITIES. HE WAS AWARDED THE FRANK P. BROWN MEDAL AND AIA GOLD MEDAL IN 1961. LE CORBUSIER ADOPTED HIS PSEUDONYM IN THE 1920S, ALLEGEDLY DERIVING IT IN PART FROM THE NAME OF AN ANCESTOR, LECORBÉSIER. LE CORBUSIER (OCTOBER 6, 1887 – AUGUST 27, 1965), STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE MECHANICAL ANALOGY LINGUISTIC ANALOGY FIVE POINTS OF ARCHITECTURE – USE OF PILOTIS I.E. REINFORCED CONCRETE STILTS. FREE FAÇADE AND LONG RIBBON WINDOWS IN VILLA SAVOYE – FREE FAÇADE I.E NON-SUPPORTING WALLS THAT COULD BE DESIGNED AS THE ARCHITECT WISHED. ROOF GARDENS – OPEN FLOOR PLAN , MEANING THAT THE FLOOR SPACE WAS FREE TO BE CONFIGURED INTO ROOMS WITHOUT CONCERN FOR SUPPORTING WALLS. – LONG HORIZONTAL RIBBON WINDOWS THAT ALLOW UNENCUMBERED VIEWS OF THE LARGE SURROUNDING. – ROOF GARDEN TO COMPENSATE FOR THE GREEN AREA CONSUMED BY THE BUILDING AND REPLACING IT ON THE ROOF. PILOTIS IN CORBUSIER‘S BUILDINGS 1
    • LE CORBUSIER CHRONOLOGY OF CORBUSIER  CHARLES-ÉDOUARD JEANNERET-GRIS AKA LE CORBUSIER WAS A SWISS-BORN FRENCH ARCHITECT.  LE CORBUSIER WAS AT HIS MOST INFLUENTIAL IN THE SPHERE OF URBAN PLANNING, ONE OF THE FIRST TO REALIZE HOW THE AUTOMOBILE WOULD CHANGE HUMAN AGGLOMERATIONS, LE CORBUSIER DESCRIBED THE CITY OF  THE FUTURE AS CONSISTING OF LARGE APARTMENT BUILDINGS ISOLATED IN A  PARK-LIKE SETTING ON PILOTIS. 1907 – WORKED UNDER AUGUSTE PERRETE AT PARIS. FOR THE DESIGN OF THE BUILDINGS, LE CORBUSIER CRITICIZED ANY EFFORT AT ORNAMENTATION.  1918 – 1922 - DEVELOPED PURIST PAINTING WITH OZENFANT. HE CREATED BETTER LIVING CONDITIONS AND A BETTER SOCIETY THROUGH HOUSING CONCEPTS.  PARTNERING WITH HIS COUSIN, THEY MADE A SERIES OF VILLAS.  HE VIEWED HOUSE AS ―A MACHINE FOR LIVING IN‖.  DELVED INTO CITY PLANNING AND DESIGNED CHANDIGARH. INFLUENCES ON CORBUSIER LE CORBUSIER HARMONIZED AND LENT CREDENCE TO THE IDEA OF SPACE AS A SET OF DESTINATIONS WHICH MANKIND MOVED BETWEEN, MORE OR LESS CONTINUOUSLY.  LE CORBUSIER‘S IDEAS SANCTIONED FURTHER DESTRUCTION OF TRADITIONAL URBAN SPACES TO BUILD FREEWAYS THAT CONNECTED THIS NEW URBANISM TO LOW DENSITY, LOW COST, SUBURBAN AND RURAL LOCALES WHICH WERE FREE TO BE DEVELOPED AS MIDDLE CLASS SINGLE-FAMILY (DORMITORY) HOUSING. 1908 – STUDIED ARCHITECTURE AT VIENNA. DURING WORLD WAR I HE CAME UP WITH DOMINO HOUSE. DIED WHILE SWIMMING IN MEDITERRENEAN SEA ON 1965. SOME FAMOUS WORKS GUSTAVO CAPANEMA PALACE, RIO DE JANEIRO (BRAZIL) CHAPELLE NOTRE DAME DU HAUT, RONCHAMP, FRANCE ASSEMBLY BUILDING, CHANDIGARH, INDIA SECRETARIAT BUILDING, CHANDIGARH, INDIA CHURCH OF SAINT-PIERRE, FIRMINY, FRANCE 2
    • LE CORBUSIER VILLA SAVOYE VILLA SAVOYE IS A MODERNIST VILLA IN POISSY, IN THE OUTSKIRTS OF PARIS, FRANCE. LOCATION MAP OF VILLA SAVOYE TYPE VILLA ARCHITECTURAL STYLE MODERNIST, INTERNATIONAL TOWN OR CITY POISSY, YVELINES COUNTRY IT WAS DESIGNED BY SWISS ARCHITECTS LE CORBUSIER AND HIS COUSIN, PIERRE JEANNERET, AND BUILT BETWEEN 1928 AND 1931 USING REINFORCED CONCRETE. FRANCE CONSTRUCTION STARTED 1928 COMPLETED 1931 RENOVATED 1963, 1985-1997 OWNER A MANIFESTO OF LE CORBUSIER'S "FIVE POINTS" OF NEW ARCHITECTURE, THE VILLA IS REPRESENTATIVE OF THE BASES OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE. THE HOUSE WAS ORIGINALLY BUILT AS A COUNTRY RETREAT ON BEHEST OF THE SAVOYE FAMILY. FRENCH GOVERNMENT TECHNICAL DETAILS STRUCTURAL SYSTEM REINFORCED CONCRETE DURING WORLD WAR II THE JEWISH SAVOYE FAMILY WAS SENT TO CONCENTRATION CAMPS BY THE NAZIS WHO TOOK OVER THE HOUSE AND USED IT FOR STORAGE. AFTER BEING PURCHASED BY THE NEIGHBOURING SCHOOL IT PASSED ON TO BE PROPERTY OF THE FRENCH STATE IN 1958, AND AFTER SURVIVING SEVERAL PLANS OF DEMOLITION, IT WAS DESIGNATED AS AN OFFICIAL FRENCH HISTORICAL MONUMENT IN 1965 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ARCHITECT LE CORBUSIER, PIERRE JEANNERET IT WAS THOROUGHLY RENOVATED FROM 1985 TO 1997, AND UNDER THE CARE OF THE CENTRE DES MONUMENTS NATIONAUX, THE REFURBISHED HOUSE IS NOW OPEN TO VISITORS YEAR-ROUND. 3
    • LE CORBUSIER VILLA SAVOYE Construction Estimates of the cost in February 1929 were approximately half a million Francs, although this excluded the cost of the lodge and the landscaping elements (almost twice the original budget). The project was tendered in February with contracts awarded in March 1929. Changes made to the design whilst the project was being built including an amendment to the storey height and the exclusion and then re-introduction of the chauffeur's accommodation led to the costs rising to approximately 800,000 Francs. At the time the project started on site no design work had been done on the lodge and the final design was only presented to the client in June 1929. GROUND AND FIRST FLOOR PLAN OF VILLA SAVOYE The design was for a double lodge but this was reduced to a single lodge as the costs were too high. Although construction of the whole house was complete within a year it was not habitable until 1931. SECTION THROUGH VILLA SAVOYE 4
    • LE CORBUSIER VILLA SAVOYE DESIGN FEATURES UNTIL NOW LOAD-BEARING WALLS FORMING THE GROUND FLOOR AND THE UPPER STORIES, UP TO EAVES. THE REINFORCED CONCRETE GIVES US THE PILOTIS. THE HOUSE IS UP IN THE AIR, FAR FROM THE GROUND. REINFORCED CONCRETE IN THE HOUSE PROVIDES A FREE PLAN. THE GARDEN IS ALSO OVER THE HOUSE, ON THE ROOF THE WINDOW IS ONE OF THE ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF THE HOUSE. THE COLUMNS SET BACK FROM THE FACADES, INSIDE THE HOUSE. THE FLOOR CONTINUES CANTILEVERED. THE FACADES ARE NO LONGER ANYTHING BUT LIGHT SKINS OF INSULATING WALLS OR WINDOWS. THE FACADE IS FREE. THE STAIRCASE AND THE RAMP IN THE HOUSE REINFORCED CONCRETE PROVIDES A REVOLUTION IN THE HISTORY OF THE WINDOW. WINDOWS CAN RUN FROM ONE END OF THE FACADE TO THE OTHER. 5
    • LE CORBUSIER VILLA SAVOYE DESIGN FEATURES THE PLAN WAS SET OUT USING THE PRINCIPLE RATIOS OF THE GOLDEN SECTION: IN THIS CASE A SQUARE DIVIDED INTO SIXTEEN EQUAL PARTS, EXTENDED ON TWO SIDES TO INCORPORATE THE PROJECTING FAÇADES AND THEN FURTHER DIVIDED TO GIVE THE POSITION OF THE RAMP AND THE ENTRANCE. THE HOUSE, DESIGNED AS A SECOND RESIDENCE AND SITED AS IT WAS OUTSIDE PARIS WAS DESIGNED WITH THE CAR IN MIND. THE FOUR COLUMNS IN THE ENTRANCE HALL SEEMINGLY DIRECT THE VISITOR UP THE RAMP. THIS RAMP, THAT CAN BE SEEN FROM ALMOST EVERYWHERE IN THE HOUSE CONTINUES UP TO THE FIRST FLOOR LIVING AREA AND SALON BEFORE CONTINUING EXTERNALLY FROM THE FIRST FLOOR ROOF TERRACE UP TO THE SECOND FLOOR SOLARIUM. CORBUSIER'S PILOTI PERFORM A NUMBER OF FUNCTIONS AROUND THE HOUSE, BOTH INSIDE AND OUT. ON THE TWO LONGER ELEVATIONS THEY ARE FLUSH WITH THE FACE OF THE FAÇADE AND IMPLY HEAVINESS AND SUPPORT, BUT ON THE SHORTER SIDES THEY ARE SET BACK GIVING A FLOATING EFFECT THAT EMPHASISES THE HORIZONTAL FEELING OF THE HOUSE. THE WIDE STRIP WINDOW TO THE FIRST FLOOR TERRACE HAS TWO BABY PILOTI TO SUPPORT AND STIFFEN THE WALL ABOVE. THE VILLA SAVOYE USES THE HORIZONTAL RIBBON WINDOWS FOUND IN HIS EARLIER VILLAS. UNLIKE HIS CONTEMPORARIES, CORBUSIER OFTEN CHOSE TO USE TIMBER WINDOWS RATHER THAN METAL ONES. 6
    • LE CORBUSIER UN HEADQUARTERS THE HEADQUARTERS OF THE UNITED NATIONS IS A COMPLEX IN NEW YORK CITY. THE COMPLEX HAS SERVED AS THE OFFICIAL HEADQUARTERS OF THE UNITED NATIONS SINCE ITS COMPLETION IN 1952. IT IS LOCATED IN THE TURTLE BAY NEIGHBORHOOD OF THE BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN, ON SPACIOUS GROUNDS OVERLOOKING THE EAST RIVER. THE UNITED NATIONS HEADQUARTERS IN NEW YORK CITY, AS VIEWED FROM THE EAST RIVER IN MAY 2006 ARCHITECTURAL STYLE INTERNATIONAL STYLE LOCATION NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION STARTED 1948 (1948) COMPLETED $65,000,000 OWNER UNITED NATIONS HEIGHT THEY ARE TECHNICALLY EXTRATERRITORIAL THROUGH A TREATY AGREEMENT WITH THE U.S. GOVERNMENT. HOWEVER, IN EXCHANGE FOR LOCAL POLICE AND FIRE PROTECTION AND OTHER SERVICES, THE U.N. AGREES TO ACKNOWLEDGE MOST LOCAL, STATE, AND FEDERAL LAWS. 9 OCTOBER 1952 (1952-10-09) COST THE UNITED NATIONS HAS THREE ADDITIONAL, SUBSIDIARY, REGIONAL HEADQUARTERS OR HEADQUARTER DISTRICTS. ALTHOUGH IT IS SITUATED IN NEW YORK CITY, THE LAND OCCUPIED BY THE UNITED NATIONS HEADQUARTERS AND THE SPACES OF BUILDINGS THAT IT RENTS ARE UNDER THE SOLE ADMINISTRATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 155 METRES (509 FT) THE UNITED NATIONS HEADQUARTERS COMPLEX WAS CONSTRUCTED IN STAGES WITH THE CORE COMPLEX COMPLETED BETWEEN 1948-1952. THE HEADQUARTERS OCCUPIES A SITE BESIDE THE EAST RIVER, ON 17 ACRES (69,000 M2) OF LAND PURCHASED FROM THE FOREMOST NEW YORK REAL ESTATE DEVELOPER. TECHNICAL DETAILS FLOOR COUNT 39 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ARCHITECT OSCAR NIEMEYER LE CORBUSIER HARRISON & ABRAMOVITZ MAIN CONTRACTOR [FULLER, TURNER, SLATTERY] Location map of un headquarters 7
    • LE CORBUSIER UN HEADQUARTERS Planning and construction THE PROPERTY WAS ORIGINALLY A SLAUGHTER HOUSE. THE DIMINUTIVE SITE ON THE EAST RIVER NECESSITATED A "ROCKEFELLER CENTER" TYPE VERTICAL COMPLEX, THUS, IT WAS A GIVEN THAT THE SECRETARIAT WOULD BE HOUSED IN A TALL OFFICE TOWER. Plan of the headquarters DURING DAILY MEETINGS FROM FEBRUARY TO JUNE 1947, THE COLLABORATIVE TEAM PRODUCED AT LEAST 45 DESIGNS AND VARIATIONS. AFTER MUCH DISCUSSION, HARRISON, WHO COORDINATED THE MEETINGS, DETERMINED THAT A DESIGN BASED ON NIEMEYER'S AND LE CORBUSIER'S PROJECT WOULD BE DEVELOPED FOR THE FINAL PROJECT. LE CORBUSIER'S PROJECT 23 CONSISTED OF A LARGE BLOCK CONTAINING BOTH THE ASSEMBLY HALL AND THE COUNCIL CHAMBERS NEAR THE CENTRE OF THE SITE WITH THE SECRETARIAT TOWER EMERGING AS A SLAB FROM THE SOUTH. NIEMEYER'S PLAN WAS CLOSER TO THAT ACTUALLY CONSTRUCTED, WITH A DISTINCTIVE GENERAL ASSEMBLY BUILDING, A LONG LOW HORIZONTAL BLOCK HOUSING THE OTHER MEETING ROOMS, AND A TALL TOWER FOR THE SECRETARIAT. THE COMPLEX AS BUILT, HOWEVER, REPOSITIONED NIEMEYER'S GENERAL ASSEMBLY BUILDING TO THE NORTH OF THIS TRIPARTITE COMPOSITION. THIS PLAN INCLUDED A PUBLIC PLAZA AS WELL. AS PER AN AGREEMENT WITH THE CITY, THE BUILDINGS MET SOME BUT NOT ALL LOCAL FIRE SAFETY AND BUILDING CODES. THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL IS ON THE 38TH FLOOR. CONSTRUCTION ON THE INITIAL BUILDINGS BEGAN IN 1948, WITH THE CORNERSTONE LAID ON 24 OCTOBER 1949, AND WAS COMPLETED IN 1952. THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE HEADQUARTERS WAS FINANCED BY AN INTEREST-FREE LOAN OF $65 MILLION MADE BY THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, AND THE COST OF CONSTRUCTION WAS ALSO REPORTED AS $65 MILLION. 8
    • LE CORBUSIER UN HEADQUARTERS Design features THE COMPLEX INCLUDES A NUMBER OF MAJOR BUILDINGS.WHILE THE SECRETARIAT BUILDING IS MOST PREDOMINANTLY FEATURED IN DEPICTIONS OF THE HEADQUARTERS, IT ALSO INCLUDES THE DOMED GENERAL ASSEMBLY BUILDING, THE DAG HAMMARSKJÖLD LIBRARY, AS WELL AS THE CONFERENCE AND VISITORS CENTER. JUST INSIDE THE PERIMETER FENCE OF THE COMPLEX STANDS A LINE OF FLAGPOLES WHERE THE FLAGS OF ALL 193 UN MEMBER STATES, PLUS THE U.N. FLAG, ARE FLOWN IN ENGLISH ALPHABETICAL ORDER. UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY HALL. THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY BUILDING HOLDS THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY HALL WHICH HAS A SEATING CAPACITY OF 1,800. AT 165 FT (50 M) LONG BY 115 FT (35 M) WIDE, IT IS THE LARGEST ROOM IN THE COMPLEX. THE CONFERENCE BUILDING FACES THE EAST RIVER BETWEEN THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY BUILDING AND THE SECRETARIAT. THE 39-STORY SECRETARIAT TOWER HOUSES OFFICES FOR THE SECRETARY GENERAL, THE UNDER-SECRETARY-GENERAL. THE DAG HAMMARSKJÖLD LIBRARY WAS DEDICATED ON 16 NOVEMBER 1961. THE BUILDING WAS A GIFT FROM THE FORD FOUNDATION AND IS LOCATED NEXT TO THE SECRETARIAT AT THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE HEADQUARTERS CAMPUS. THE LIBRARY HOLDS 400,000 BOOKS, 9,800 NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICAL TITLES, 80,000 MAPS AND THE WOODROW WILSON COLLECTION CONTAINING 8,600 VOLUMES OF LEAGUE OF NATIONS DOCUMENTS AND 6,500 RELATED BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS. THE LIBRARY'S ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS COLLECTION IS HOUSED IN THE DC-2 BUILDING. 9
    • LE CORBUSIER THE SECRETARIAT INTRODUCTION LOCATED AT THE OTHER END OF THE CAPITOL, SEPARATING THE PALACE OF JUSTICE AND AT THE WESTERN END OF THE GOVERNMENT, CALLED THE SECRETARIAT IS A LONG BAR OF 245 M LONG AND 42 HIGH, WHICH CONTAINS 8-LEVEL ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES OF TWO PROVINCES PUNJAB AND HARYANA. THE SECRETARIAT BUILDING IS A LONG, HORIZONTAL CONCRETE SLAB FORM, 254 METERS LONG AND 42 METERS HIGH, AND MARKS THE EDGE OF THE CAPITOL COMPLEX ON THE LEFT SIDE. THE BUILDING IS COMPOSED OF SIX EIGHT-STORY BLOCK DIVIDED BY EXPANSION JOINTS AND MEASURES OVER 800 FEET LONG, BOOKENDED BY TWO SCULPTURAL RAMPS PROVIDING VERTICAL CIRCULATION THROUGHOUT THE FACILITIES‘ LEVELS. COMPLETED IN 1952, THE SECRETARIAT BUILDING FUNCTIONS AS THE HEADQUARTERS OF THE PUNJAB AND HARYANA MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENTS. Location map of the secretariat LOCATION FUNCTION CHANDIGARH THE MASSIVE, HORIZONTAL COMPLEX IS COMPRISED OF 8 STORIES OF ROUGH-CAST CONCRETE. GOVERNMENT CONTRIBUTED BY BRUNO_VANBESIEN PROJECT YEAR : 1951-1962 THE BUILDING HAS NOTABLE SIMILARITIES WITH CORBUSIER‘S MARSEILLE BLOCK AND HAD AN EQUALLY LOFTY GOAL: TO REVOLUTIONIZE THE MODERN OFFICE BUILDING. THE SECRETARIAT WAS AMONG THE FIRST BUILDINGS DESIGNED AS A ―HEALTHY BUILDING‖ WITH CAREFUL ATTENTION PAID TO NATURAL LIGHTING, VENTILATION, AND ORGANIZATIONAL EFFICIENCY. 10
    • LE CORBUSIER THE SECRETARIAT STRUCTURAL AND DESIGN FEATURES THE WHOLE STRUCTURE IS CONSTRUCTED IN ‗BETON BRUT‘ (ROUGHCAST CONCRETE) WITH CORBUSIER‘S SIGNATURE ‗BRISE-SOLEILS‘ FACADE. OVER 800 FEET LONG, THE EXTENSIVE FACADE OF THE BUILDING GIVES A SCULPTURAL AESTHETIC WITH EXPOSED CONCRETE RAMPS, PUNCTURED WITH SMALL SQUARE WINDOWS DICTATING THE FRONT AND REAR VIEWS. ACCORDINGLY, THE SECRETARIAT BUILDING AVOIDS OVERSHADOWING THE CAPITOL AS A WHOLE WITH ITS BULK SIZE. INSTEAD, IT PLAYS A UNIFYING ROLE IN THE COMPLEX, WHICH IS SYMBOLIC OF ITS ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTION. THE FAÇADE OF THE BUILDING GIVES A SCULPTURAL APPEARANCE WITH EXPOSED CONCRETE RAMPS, PERFORATED WITH SMALL SQUARE WINDOWS DOMINATING THE FRONT AND REAR VIEWS. THE BUILDING FAÇADE IS PROVIDED WITH PROJECTS FOR SUN CONTROL. THE SECRETARIAT BUILDING HELPS IN DEFINING SPACE OF THE CAPITOL COMPLEX. IT EMPHASIZE A SENSE OF HIERARCHY OF FAÇADES AND BY ITS SHEER CLIFF LIKE SIZE AND VOLUME, COMPLETES THE VISTA THROUGH DISTANT MOUNTAINS, WHERE EYE IS LED ONWARDS TO THE SMALLER, MORE SIGNIFICANT BUILDINGS AND SPACE BEYOND. 11
    • LE CORBUSIER THE SECRETARIAT TO MAXIMIZE NATURAL LIGHTING AND INCREASE CROSS-VENTILATION, A LONG AND NARROW PLAN WAS IMPLEMENTED BY CORBUSIER — THIS APPROACH ALSO HELPED DELINEATE BOTH THE ACTUAL AND THE IMPLIED BORDERS OF THE CAPITOL COMPLEX AS A WHOLE. TO VISUALLY REDUCE THE SCALE OF ITS MASSIVE FAÇADE, THE SECRETARIAT WAS DESIGNED WITH A MODULAR FAÇADE THAT FRAGMENTS THE ELEVATION INTO LEGIBLE, PROGRAMMATIC ELEMENTS. THIS APPROACH NOT ONLY PREVENTS ONLOOKERS FROM BEING OVERWHELMED BY ITS SCALE, IT ALSO PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE WITH REGARD TO THE DAYLIGHTING SCHEME OF THE PROJECT AS A WHOLE. THE VARIOUS PROJECTIONS, RECESSES, CIRCULATION ELEMENTS, AND MULTI-LEVEL INTERIOR SPACES ACT AS SUN-BREAKS (‗BRISE-SOLEILS‘) TO MITIGATE SOLAR GAIN. THE SECRETARIAT IS A SIMPLER AND MORE CONVENTIONAL FORM WHERE VARIATIONS OF STRUCTURE AND INTERNAL DISTRIBUTION DO NOT INTERRUPT ITS COMPACT VOLUME, BUT ARE REPRODUCED TWODIMENSIONALLY IN THE VERY ELABORATE DESIGN OF THE ‗BRISE SOLEILS‘. THE SECRETARIAT AND THE VIDHAN SABHA (LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY) BUILDING ARE IN SECTOR 1 OF THE COMPLEX. NEARBY IN THE SECTOR IS A HUGE OPEN HAND SCULPTURE, CONCEIVED AS A SYMBOL OF UNIT AND THE COLORFUL HIGH COURT, WHICH HAS A DOUBLE ROOF, PROVIDING PROTECTION FROM THE SUN. 12
    • LE CORBUSIER THE SECRETARIAT DESIGN FEATURES TO VISUALLY REDUCE THE SCALE OF ITS MASSIVE FAÇADE, THE SECRETARIAT WAS DESIGNED WITH A MODULAR FAÇADE THAT FRAGMENTS THE ELEVATION INTO LEGIBLE, PROGRAMMATIC ELEMENTS. Plan of the capitol complex 13
    • Walter Gropius INTRODUCTION WALTER ADOLPH GEORG GROPIUS (MAY 18, 1883 – JULY 5, 1969) WAS A GERMAN ARCHITECT BORN IN BERLIN AND FOUNDER OF THE BAUHAUS SCHOOL, WHO, ALONG WITH LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE, LE CORBUSIER AND FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT IS WIDELY REGARDED AS ONE OF THE PIONEERING MASTERS OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE. EARLY CAREER •WALTER GROPIUS, LIKE HIS FATHER AND HIS GREAT-UNCLE MARTIN GROPIUS BEFORE HIM, BECAME AN ARCHITECT. GROPIUS COULD NOT DRAW, AND WAS DEPENDENT ON COLLABORATORS AND PARTNER-INTERPRETERS THROUGHOUT HIS CAREER. •IN 1910 GROPIUS LEFT THE FIRM OF BEHRENS AND TOGETHER WITH FELLOW EMPLOYEE ADOLF MIYER ESTABLISHED A PRACTICE IN BERLIN. • TOGETHER THEY SHARE CREDIT FOR ONE OF THE SEMINAL MODERNIST BUILDINGS CREATED DURING THIS PERIOD: THE FAGUSWERK IN ALFELD AN DER LEINE , GERMANY , A SHOE LAST FACTORY. WALTER ADOLPH GEORG GROPIUS (MAY 18, 1883 – JULY 5, 1969) •ALTHOUGH GROPIUS AND MEYER ONLY DESIGNED THE FACADE, THE GLASS CURTAIN WALLS OF THIS BUILDING DEMONSTRATED BOTH THE MODERNIST PRINCIPLE THAT FORM REFLECT FUNCTION AND GROPIUS'S CONCERN WITH PROVIDING HEALTHFUL CONDITIONS FOR THE WORKING CLASS. •OTHER WORKS OF THIS EARLY PERIOD INCLUDE THE OFFICE AND FACTORY BUILDING FOR THE WERKBURN EXHIBITION (1914) IN COLOGNE . BAUHAUS (BUILT 1925–1926) IN DESSAU, GERMANY WALTER GROPIUS'S MONUMENT TO THE MARCH DEAD (1921) 14
    • Walter Gropius BAUHAUS PERIOD ( 1919- 1932) IN 1919, GROPIUS WAS INVOLVED IN THE GLASS CHAIN UTOPIAN EXPRESSIONIST CORRESPONDENCE UNDER THE PSEUDONYM "MASS." USUALLY MORE NOTABLE FOR HIS FUNCTIONALIST APPROACH, THE "MONUMENT TO THE MARCH DEAD," DESIGNED IN 1919 AND EXECUTED IN 1920, INDICATES THAT EXPRESSIONISM WAS AN INFLUENCE ON HIM AT THAT TIME. ALUMINUM CITY TERRACE (1944) IN 1923, GROPIUS DESIGNED HIS FAMOUS DOOR HANDLES, NOW CONSIDERED AN ICON OF 20TH-CENTURY DESIGN AND OFTEN LISTED AS ONE OF THE MOST INFLUENTIAL DESIGNS TO EMERGE FROM BAUHAUS. HE ALSO DESIGNED LARGE-SCALE HOUSING PROJECTS IN BERLIN, KARLSRUHE AND DESSAU IN 1926-32 THAT WERE MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NEW OBJECTIVITY MOVEMENT, INCLUDING A CONTRIBUTION TO THE SIEMENSSTADT PROJECT IN BERLIN. SOME FAMOUS WORKS 1910–1911 THE FAGUS FACTORY, ALFELD AN DER LEINE, GERMANY GROPIUS HOUSE (1938) IN LINCOLN, MASSACHUSETTS 1921 SOMMERFELD HOUSE, BERLIN, GERMANY DESIGNED FOR ADOLF SOMMERFELD 1914 OFFICE AND FACTORY BUILDINGS AT THE WERKBUND EXHIBITION, 1914, COLOGNE, GERMANY 1967– 69 TOWER EAST, SHAKER HEIGHTS, OHIO, THIS WAS GROPIUS' LAST MAJOR PROJECT. 15
    • Walter Gropius FAGUS FACTORY THE FAGUS FACTORY, A SHOE LAST FACTORY IN ALFELD ON THE LEINE IN GERMANY, IS AN IMPORTANT EXAMPLE OF EARLY MODERN ARCHITECTURE. COMMISSIONED BY OWNER CARL BENSCHEIDT WHO WANTED A RADICAL STRUCTURE TO EXPRESS THE COMPANY'S BREAK FROM THE PAST, THE FACTORY WAS DESIGNED BY WALTER GROPIUS AND ADOLF MEYER. IT WAS CONSTRUCTED BETWEEN 1911 AND 1913, WITH ADDITIONS AND INTERIORS COMPLETED IN 1925. FOR THE FIRST TIME A COMPLETE FACADE IS CONCEIVED IN GLASS. COUNTRY GERMANY TYPE CULTURAL CONSTRUCTION 1911- 1913 UNESCO REGION EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA THE SUPPORTING PIERS ARE REDUCED TO NARROW MULLIONS OF BRICK. THE CORNERS ARE LEFT WITHOUT ANY SUPPORT. THE EXPRESSION OF THE FLAT ROOF HAS ALSO CHANGED. ONLY IN THE BUILDING [THE STEINER HOUSE, VIENNA] BY ADOLF LOOS WHICH WAS DONE ONE YEAR BEFORE THE FAGUS FACTORY, HAVE WE SEEN THE SAME FEELING FOR THE PURE CUBE. ANOTHER EXCEEDINGLY IMPORTANT QUALITY OF GROPIUS'S BUILDING IS THAT, THANKS TO THE LARGE EXPANSES OF CLEAR GLASS, THE USUAL HARD SEPARATION OF EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR IS ANNIHILATED. 16
    • Walter Gropius FAGUS FACTORY INFLUENCES THE BUILDING THAT HAD THE GREATER INFLUENCE ON THE DESIGN OF FAGUS WAS AEG‘S TURBINE FACTORY DESIGNED BY PETER BEHRENS. THE FAGUS MAIN BUILDING CAN BE SEEN AS AN INVERSION OF THE TURBINE FACTORY.BOTH HAVE CORNERS FREE OF SUPPORTS, AND GLASS SURFACES BETWEEN PIERS THAT COVER THE WHOLE HEIGHT OF THE BUILDING. HOWEVER, IN THE TURBINE FACTORY THE CORNERS ARE COVERED BY HEAVY ELEMENTS THAT SLANT INSIDE. THE GLASS SURFACES ALSO SLANT INSIDE AND ARE RECESSED IN RELATION TO THE PIERS. THE LOAD-BEARING ELEMENTS ARE ATTENUATED AND THE BUILDING HAS AN IMAGE OF STABILITY AND MONUMENTALITY. IN FAGUS EXACTLY THE OPPOSITE HAPPENS; THE CORNERS ARE LEFT OPEN AND THE PIERS ARE RECESSED LEAVING THE GLASS SURFACE TO THE FRONT. AEG TURBINE FACTORY BY PETER BEHRENS, 1910 GROPIUS DESCRIBES THIS TRANSFORMATION BY SAYING, "THE ROLE OF THE WALLS BECOMES RESTRICTED TO THAT OF MERE SCREENS STRETCHED BETWEEN THE UPRIGHT COLUMNS OF THE FRAMEWORK TO KEEP OUT RAIN, COLD AND NOISE‘ FAGUS FACTORY FLOOR PLAN 17
    • Walter Gropius FAGUS FACTORY DESIGN FEATURES THE BUILDING THAT IS COMMONLY REFERRED AS THE FAGUS BUILDING IS THE MAIN BUILDING. IT WAS CONSTRUCTED IN 1911 ACCORDING TO WERNER‘S PLAN BUT WITH THE GLASS FACADES DESIGNED BY GROPIUS AND MEYER AND THEN EXPANDED IN 1913. THE FAGUS BUILDING IS A 40-CENTIMETER HIGH, DARK BRICK BASE THAT PROJECTS FROM THE FACADE BY 4 CENTIMETER. THE ENTRANCE WITH THE CLOCK IS PART OF THE 1913 EXPANSION. THE INTERIORS OF THE BUILDING, WHICH CONTAINED MAINLY OFFICES, WERE FINISHED IN THE MID 20S. THE OTHER TWO BIG BUILDINGS ON THE SITE ARE THE PRODUCTION HALL AND THE WAREHOUSE. BOTH WERE CONSTRUCTED IN 1911 AND EXPANDED IN 1913. THE PRODUCTION HALL IS A ONE-STOREY BUILDING. IT WAS ALMOST INVISIBLE FROM THE RAILWAY (NORTH) ELEVATION AND ACQUIRED A PROPER FACADE AFTER THE EXPANSION. THE WAREHOUSE IS A FOUR-STOREY BUILDING WITH FEW OPENINGS. ITS DESIGN FOLLOWED CLOSELY THE ORIGINAL PLAN BY WERNER AND IT IS LEFT OUT FROM MANY OF THE PHOTOGRAPHS. APART FROM THEM, THE SITE CONTAINS VARIOUS SMALL BUILDINGS DESIGNED BY GROPIUS AND MEYER. GROPIUS AND MEYER WERE ABLE TO ENFORCE ONLY MINOR CHANGES IN THE OVERALL LAYOUT OF THE FACTORY COMPLEX. OVERALL, WERNER'S INTENDED LAYOUT FOR THE INDIVIDUAL BUILDINGS WITHIN THE COMPLEX WAS CARRIED OUT; GREATER UNIFORMITY AND COHERENCE WERE ACHIEVED, HOWEVER, THROUGH GROPIUS AND MEYER'S REDUCTIONISM IN FORM, MATERIAL, AND COLOR. 18
    • Walter Gropius GROPIUS HOUSE INTRODUCTION THE GROPIUS HOUSE WAS THE FAMILY RESIDENCE OF NOTED ARCHITECT WALTER GROPIUS AT 68 BAKER BRIDGE ROAD, LINCOLN, MASSACHUSETTS. IT IS NOW OWNED BY HISTORIC NEW ENGLAND AND IS OPEN TO THE PUBLIC WEDNESDAY THROUGH SUNDAY (JUNE 1 – OCTOBER 15, AND WEEKENDS (OCTOBER 16 – MAY 31). AN ADMISSION FEE IS CHARGED. THIS HOUSE WAS HIS FIRST ARCHITECTURAL COMMISSION IN THE UNITED STATES. HE DESIGNED IT IN 1937, WHEN HE CAME TO TEACH AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY‗S GRADUATE SCHOOL OF DESIGN, AND IT WAS BUILT IN 1938. AREA: 68 BAKER BRIDGE ROAD,HE CHOSE THE AREA BECAUSE OF ITS PROXIMITY TO CONCORD ACADEMY WHICH LINCOLN, HIS DAUGHTER, ATI, WAS GOING TO ATTEND. MASSACHUSETTS IT REMAINED GROPIUS' HOME FROM 1938 UNTIL HIS DEATH IN 1969. THE HOUSE 5.51 ACRES (22,300 M2) CAUSED A SENSATION WHEN BUILT. NRHP REFERENCE#: 00000709 LOCATION: IN KEEPING WITH BAUHAUS PHILOSOPHY, EVERY ASPECT OF THE HOUSE AND ITS SURROUNDING LANDSCAPE WAS PLANNED FOR MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY AND SIMPLICITY. LOCATION MAP OF GROPIUS HOUSE 19
    • Walter Gropius GROPIUS HOUSE PLAN OF GROPIUS HOUSE AS TO MY PRACTICE, WHEN I BUILT MY FIRST HOUSE IN THE U.S.A. – WHICH WAS MY OWN – I MADE IT A POINT TO ABSORB INTO MY OWN CONCEPTION THOSE FEATURES OF THE NEW ENGLAND ARCHITECTURAL TRADITION THAT I FOUND STILL ALIVE AND ADEQUATE. THIS FUSION OF THE REGIONAL SPIRIT WITH A CONTEMPORARY APPROACH TO DESIGN PRODUCED A HOUSE THAT I WOULD NEVER HAVE BUILT IN EUROPE WITH ITS ENTIRELY DIFFERENT CLIMATIC, TECHNICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL BACKGROUND. —WALTER GROPIUS, SCOPE OF TOTAL ARCHITECTURE (1956 20
    • Walter Gropius GROPIUS HOUSE DESIGN FEATURES HIS SCREENED PORCH WAS PLACED IN SUCH A WAY THAT IT HELPS TO DIVIDE THE LAND AROUND THE HOUSE INTO MULTIPLE ZONES, COMPARABLE TO ROOMS INSIDE A HOUSE. THE GROPIUS HOUSE MIXES UP THE TRADITIONAL MATERIALS OF NEW ENGLAND ARCHITECTURE (WOOD, BRICK, AND FIELDSTONE) WITH INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS SUCH AS GLASS BLOCK, ACOUSTIC PLASTER, AND CHROME BANISTERS. THE HOUSE STRUCTURE CONSISTS OF A TRADITIONAL NEW ENGLAND POST AND BEAM WOODEN FRAME, SHEATHED WITH WHITE PAINTED TONGUE AND GROVE VERTICAL SIDING. TRADITIONAL CLAPBOARDS ARE USED IN THE INTERIOR FOYER, BUT ARE APPLIED VERTICALLY. STRIKING AS IT IS, THE HOUSE WAS BUILT WITH ECONOMY IN MIND, AND TOTAL CONSTRUCTION COSTS WERE $18,000. IT WAS DECLARED A NATIONAL HISTORIC LANDMARK IN 2000. 21
    • Post-Modern architecture INTRODUCTION aim --MODERN ARCHITECTURE HAD FEW LIMITATIONS, THEREFORE POST MODERN ARCHITECTURE EMERGED. --MODERN ARCHITECTURE HAD MONOTONY IN THE BUILDINGS. --BASICALLY POST-MODERNISM ADDRESSES THE LIMITATIONS OF THE MODERN PERIOD ARCHITECTURE HIGH-TECH ARCHITECTURE LATE POST-MODERN POST MODERN ARCHITECTURE DECONSTRUCTIVISM EARLY POST-MODERN POST MODERNISM  POSTMODERN ARCHITECTURE BEGAN AS AN INTERNATIONAL STYLE, THE FIRST EXAMPLES OF WHICH ARE GENERALLY CITED AS BEING FROM THE 1950S, BUT DID NOT BECOME A MOVEMENT UNTIL THE LATE 1970S AND CONTINUES TO INFLUENCE PRESENT-DAY ARCHITECTURE.  POST-MODERNITY IN ARCHITECTURE IS SAID TO BE HERALDED BY THE RETURN OF "WIT, ORNAMENT AND REFERENCE" TO ARCHITECTURE IN RESPONSE TO THE FORMALISM OF THE INTERNATIONAL STYLE OF MODERNISM.  THE FUNCTIONAL AND FORMALIZED SHAPES AND SPACES OF THE MODERNIST STYLE ARE REPLACED BY DIVERSE AESTHETICS: STYLES COLLIDE, FORM IS ADOPTED FOR ITS OWN SAKE, AND NEW WAYS OF VIEWING FAMILIAR STYLES AND SPACE ABOUND. PERHAPS MOST OBVIOUSLY, ARCHITECTS REDISCOVERED THE EXPRESSIVE AND SYMBOLIC VALUE OF ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS AND FORMS THAT HAD EVOLVED THROUGH CENTURIES OF BUILDING WHICH HAD BEEN ABANDONED BY THE MODERN STYLE. CHARACTERISTICS VANNA VENTURI HOUSE BY ROBERT VENTURI SONY BUILDING BY PHILIP JOHNSON PORTLAND BUILDING BY MICHEAL GRAVES MIES VAN DE ROHE ROBERT VENTURI “LESS IS MORE “ “LESS IS BORE” “FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION” “FORM AND FUNCTIONS ARE THE SAME”  THE USE OF SCULPTURAL FORMS, ORNAMETS, ANTHROPOMORPHISM AND MATERIALS WHICH PERFORM TROMPE DÓEIL- (TECHNIQUE THAT USES REALISTIC IMAGERY TO CREATE OPTICAL ILLUSION, THE PORTLAND BUILDING (1980) HAS PILLARS REPRESENTED BUT THEY ARE NOT REAL.  PLURALISM, DOUBLE CODING (BUILDINGS CONVEY MANY MEANINGS SIMULTANEOUSLY-THE SONY BUILDING IN NEW YORK, IT BRINGS THE CONNOTATIONS OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY YET AT TOP SECTION CONVEYS ELEMENTS OF CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY), FLYING BUTTRESSES AND HIGH CEILINGS, IRONY AND PARADOX, AND CONTEXTUALISM.  THE FORMS ARE NOT REDUCED TO AN ABSOLUTE MINIMUM; THEY ARE BUILT AND SHAPED FOR THEIR OWN SAKE. POSTMODERNISM FOLLOWS- COMMUNICATING A MEANING AND THE CHARACTERISTIC OF SYMBOLISM. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF POSTMODERNISM WERE RATHER UNIFIED GIVEN THEIR DIVERSE APPEARANCES-PLAYFULLY EXTRAVAGANT FORMS AND THE HUMOUR OF THE MEANINGS THE BUILDINGS CONVEYED.
    • PHILIP JOHNSON HIS WORKS GLASS HOUSE (1949) NY CITY GATE OF EUROPE (1989).MADRID, EUROPE INTRODUCTION PHILIP CORTELYOU JOHNSON (JULY 8, 1906 – JANUARY 25, 2005) WAS AN INFLUENTIAL AMERICAN ARCHITECT. EARLY CAREER •IN 1930, HE FOUNDED THE DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN AT THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART IN NEW YORK CITY. •PRODUCED THE LANDMARK SHOW ―THE INTERNATIONAL STYLE: ARCHITECTURE SINCE 1922‖ AS AN INTRODUCTION OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE TO THE AMERICAN PUBLIC. •IN 1978 HE WAS AWARDED AN AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS GOLD MEDAL AND IN 1979 THE FIRST PRITZKER ARCHITECTURE PRIZE. •HE WAS A STUDENT AT THE HARVARD GRADUATE SCHOOL OF DESIGN. •JOHNSON DIED IN HIS SLEEP WHILE AT THE GLASS HOUSE RETREAT. •HE LIVED WITH HIS LIFE PARTNER OF 45 YEARS, DAVID WHITNEY ,WHO DIED LATER THAT YEAR AT AGE 66. PHILIP JOHNSON‘S STYLE WAS EVER-CHANGING STYLISTIC ADHERENCES, WHICH PASSED FROM MODERNITY TO DECONSTRUCTION THROUGH ABSTRACT CLASSICISM AND HISTORICIST POSTMODERNITY: IN 1932, WITH AN EXHIBITION IN THE NEW YORK MOMA, HE INTRODUCED IN THE UNITED STATES WHAT HE AND HENRY-RUSSELL HITCHCOCK NAMED ―INTERNATIONAL STYLE‖; THE SONY BUILDING (1984), NY CHARACTERISTICS 1. 2. 3. EMPHASIS ON ARCHITECTURAL VOLUME OVER MASS (PLANES OVER SOLIDITY). REJECTION OF SYMMETRY. REJECTION OF APPLIED DECORATION. IN 1988, OR 56 YEARS LATER, WITH ANOTHER MOMA EXHIBITION HE CONSECRATED THE FRACTURED ARCHITECTURE OF DECONSTRUCTION
    • PHILIP JOHNSON GLASS HOUSE  THE GLASS HOUSE OR JOHNSON HOUSE, BUILT IN 1949 IN NEW CANAAN, CONNECTICUT, WAS DESIGNED BY PHILIP JOHNSON AS HIS OWN RESIDENCE.  IT WAS AN IMPORTANT AND INFLUENTIAL PROJECT FOR JOHNSON AND FOR MODERN ARCHITECTURE.  THE BUILDING IS AN ESSAY IN MINIMAL STRUCTURE, GEOMETRY, PROPORTION, AND THE EFFECTS OF TRANSPARENCY AND REFLECTION.  THE HOUSE IS AN EXAMPLE OF EARLY USE OF INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS SUCH AS GLASS AND STEEL IN HOME DESIGN. LOCATION: BUILT: ARCHITECT:  INSPIRED BY MIES VAN DER ROHE‘S FARNSWORTH HOUSE, THE GLASS HOUSE BY PHILIP JOHNSON, WITH ITS PERFECT PROPORTIONS AND ITS SIMPLICITY, IS CONSIDERED ONE OF THE FIRST MOST BRILLIANT WORKS OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE.  JOHNSON BUILT THE 47-ACRE ESTATE FOR HIMSELF IN NEW CANAAN, CONNECTICUT. NEW CANAAN, CONNECTICUT HOUSE WAS THE FIRST OF FOURTEEN STRUCTURES THAT THE ARCHITECT BUILT ON  THE THE PROPERTY OVER A SPAN OF FIFTY YEARS. 1949 PHILIP CORTELYOU JOHNSON ARCHITECTURAL STY MODERN MOVEMENT LE: GOVERNING BODY: NATIONAL TRUST FOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION THE ONE-STORY HOUSE HAS A 32′X56′ OPEN FLOOR PLAN ENCLOSED IN 18-FEET-WIDE FLOOR-TOCEILING SHEETS OF GLASS BETWEEN BLACK STEEL PIERS AND STOCK H-BEAMS THAT ANCHORED THE GLASS IN PLACE. JOHNSON SPENT THREE YEARS DESIGNING THE STRUCTURE, WHICH WAS ORIGINALLY ONE OF TWO BUILDINGS (ALONG WITH THE BRICK GUEST HOUSE) ON WHAT WAS THEN AN 11-ACRE (45,000 M2) TRACT SITE PLAN OF GLASS HOUSE FLOOR PLAN OF THE GLASS HOUSE THE HOUSE WAS DECLARED A NATIONAL HISTORIC LANDMARK IN 1997. THE HOUSE WAS THE PLACE OF PHILIP JOHNSON'S PASSING ON JANUARY 25, 2005 AT THE AGE OF 98. JOHNSON PASSED ON OWNERSHIP OF THE GLASS HOUSE TO THE NATIONAL TRUST FOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION, WHICH OPENED IT TO VISITORS IN APRIL 2007.
    • PHILIP JOHNSON GLASS HOUSE ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES THE BRICK HOUSE SERVED AS A GUEST HOUSE ENTRANCE TO THE PAINTING GALLERY THE CLEAR GLASS PANELS CREATE A SERIES OF LIVELY REFLECTIONS, INCLUDING THOSE OF THE SURROUNDING TREES, AND PEOPLE WALKING INSIDE OR OUTSIDE OF THE HOUSE, LAYERING THEM ON TOP OF ONE ANOTHER CREATING EVERCHANGING IMAGES WITH EACH STEP TAKEN AROUND IT. THE INTERIOR OF THE GLASS HOUSE IS COMPLETELY EXPOSED TO THE OUTDOORS EXCEPT FOR THE A CYLINDER BRICK STRUCTURE WITH THE ENTRANCE TO THE BATHROOM ON ONE SIDE AND A FIREPLACE ON THE OTHER SIDE. THE STUDY THE FLOOR-TO-CEILING HEIGHT IS TEN AND A HALF FEET AND THE BRICK CYLINDER STRUCTURE PROTRUDES FROM THE TOP. THE ONLY OTHER DIVISIONS IN THE HOUSE BESIDES THE BATHROOM ARE DISCREETLY DONE WITH LOW CABINETS AND BOOKSHELVES, MAKING THE HOUSE A SINGLE OPEN ROOM. "DA MONSTA" JOHNSON'S RAMBLING ESTATE, ORIGINALLY 47ACRE (190,000 M2), ALSO INCLUDES 13 MODERNIST STRUCTURES "BRICK HOUSE" (1949–1950), WHICH SERVES AS A GUEST HOUSE, THE PAVILION (1962), PAINTING GALLERY (1965), SCULPTURE GALLERY (1970), THE STUDY (1980), THE GHOST HOUSE (1982), THE KIRSTEIN TOWER (1985) AND THE GATE HOUSE ("DA MONSTA", 1995). THIS PROVIDES VENTILATION FROM ALL FOUR SIDES FLOWING THROUGH THE HOUSE AS WELL AS AMPLE LIGHTING THE BEAUTY IN ITS COMPOSITION ALONG WITH THE ROLLING LANDSCAPE AND WITH THE LINES OF THE GLASS HOUSE AND THE OTHER BUILDINGS SMOOTHLY BLENDING IN WITH THE LINES OF THE HORIZON AND THE SURROUNDING LANDSCAPE, ONE CAN FEEL A BREATHTAKING SENSATION OF ENDLESSNESS. INTERIOR OF SCULPTURE GALLERY
    • PHILIP JOHNSON SONY BUILDING  THE SONY TOWER, FORMERLY THE AT&T BUILDING, IS A 647 FEET (197 M) TALL, 37-STORY HIGHRISE SKYSCRAPER LOCATED IN THE NEW YORK CITY BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN.  IT IS THE HEADQUARTERS OF SONY CORPORATION OF AMERICA. THE BUILDING WAS DESIGNED BY ARCHITECT PHILIP JOHNSON AND PARTNER JOHN BURGEE, COMPLETED IN 1984, AND CLOSE - IN CONCEPT - TO THE 1982 HUMANA BUILDING BY MICHAEL GRAVES.  IT BECAME IMMEDIATELY CONTROVERSIAL FOR ITS ORNAMENTAL TOP (SOMETIMES MOCKED AS "CHIPPENDALE", BUT ENJOYED FOR ITS SPECTACULAR ARCHED ENTRANCEWAY, MEASURING ABOUT SEVEN STORIES IN HEIGHT. WITH THESE ORNAMENTAL ADDITIONS, THE BUILDING CHALLENGED ARCHITECTURAL MODERNISM'S DEMAND FOR STARK FUNCTIONALISM AND PURELY EFFICIENT DESIGN. TYPE OFFICE ARCHITECTURAL STYLE POSTMODERN ADDRESS NEW YORK CITY, USA CONSTRUCTION STARTED 1981 COMPLETED 1984 COST $1.1 BILLION OWNER THE CHETRIT GROUP HEIGHT ROOF 647 FT (197 M) TECHNICAL DETAILS FLOOR COUNT SONY HEADQUARTERS SONY TECHNOLOGY LAB ARCHED ENTRANCEWAY IN OCTOBER 1978, AT&T WAS GRANTED PERMISSION TO ADD 81,928 SQUARE FEET (7,611.4 M2), THE EQUIVALENT OF SOME FOUR FLOORS OF SPACE ON ITS PROPOSED BUILDING, IN EXCHANGE FOR AGREEING TO PROVIDE OPEN PUBLIC SPACE AND A THREESTORY COMMUNICATIONS MUSEUM. 37 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ARCHITECT SONY BUILDING PHILIP JOHNSON AND JOHN BURGEE THE FIRM WAS GRANTED AN ADDITIONAL 43,000 SQUARE FEET (4,000 M2), ABOUT TWO FLOOR'S WORTH, AS A BONUS FOR CREATING A 14,000-SQUARE-FOOT (1,300 M2) COVERED ARCADE ALONG MADISON AVENUE THAT WOULD INCLUDE SEATING AND RETAIL KIOSKS.
    • PHILIP JOHNSON SONY BUILDING IN 1992, SONY SUBMITTED IN WHICH IT WOULD TAKE SOME OF THE OPEN SPACE IN THE BUILDING'S ATRIUM THAT HAD BEEN USED TO OBTAIN APPROVAL FOR ADDITIONAL FLOORS ON TOP OF THE BUILDING, AND CONVERT THOSE AREAS INTO RETAIL SPACE. IN EXCHANGE, THE COMPANY WOULD EXPAND THE GLASS-ENCLOSED PEDESTRIAN WALKWAY WITH THE ADDITION OF PLANTERS AND PUBLIC SEATING. SONY ACQUIRED ADDITIONAL SPACE ACROSS THE STREET, A 445,000 SQUARE FEET (41,300 M2) BUILDING BUILT IN THE 1960S THAT UNDERWENT RENOVATIONS OF ITS LOBBY, WINDOWS, BATHROOMS AND OTHER COMMON SPACES IN CONJUNCTION WITH SONY'S LEASE. SONY CONNECTED THE TWO BUILDINGS USING FIBER OPTIC CABLES THAT WERE RUN UNDER MADISON AVENUE AND INSTALLED MICROWAVE COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT ON THE TOP OF THE 555 BUILDING. DIFFERENT VIEWS OF THE BUILDING DOUBLE CODING SONY WONDER TECHNOLOGY LAB  THE SONY WONDER TECHNOLOGY LAB IS A MULTIMEDIA, HANDS-ON TOUR THROUGH THE WORLD OF MEDIA, LOCATED IN A FOUR-STORY ANNEX ACCESSIBLE THROUGH A GLASS-ROOFED ATRIUM THAT CONNECTS 55TH AND 56TH STREETS IN MID-BLOCK.  OPEN TUESDAY THROUGH SATURDAY, SONY BILLS THE FREE EXHIBITS AS A "TECHNOLOGY AND ENTERTAINMENT MUSEUM FOR ALL AGES".  SONY WONDER REPLACED INFOQUEST CENTER, A PERMANENT TELECOMMUNICATIONS EXHIBITION THAT HAD BEEN BUILT BY AT&T. GLASS ATRIUM TOP VIEW
    • ROBERT VENTURI INTRODUCTION HIS WORKS VANNA VENTURI HOUSE,(1964), PENNSYLVANIA ROBERT CHARLES VENTURI, JR. (BORN JUNE 25, 1925) IS AN AMERICAN ARCHITECT, FOUNDING PRINCIPAL OF THE FIRM VENTURI, SCOTT BROWN AND ASSOCIATES, AND ONE OF THE MAJOR ARCHITECTURAL FIGURES IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY. THEIR BUILDINGS, PLANNING, THEORETICAL WRITINGS AND TEACHING HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO THE EXPANSION OF DISCOURSE ABOUT ARCHITECTURE. VENTURI WAS AWARDED THE PRITZKER PRIZE IN ARCHITECTURE IN 1991 GUILD HOUSE, (1964), PHILADELPHIA HE IS ALSO KNOWN FOR COINING THE MAXIM "LESS IS A BORE" A POSTMODERN ANTIDOTE TO MIES VAN DER ROHE'S FAMOUS MODERNIST DICTUM "LESS IS MORE". CHARACTERISTICS  VENTURI'S BUILDINGS TYPICALLY JUXTAPOSE ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS, ELEMENTS AND AIMS, TO ACKNOWLEDGE THE CONFLICTS OFTEN INHERENT IN A PROJECT OR SITE ROBERT VENTURI IS KNOWN FOR INCORPORATING STYLIZED CULTURAL ICONS INTO HIS BUILDINGS. SAINSBURY WING OF THE NATIONAL GALLERY, (1991), LONDON HOWEVER, VENTURI IS RECOGNIZED FOR MUCH MORE THAN POSTMODERNIST DESIGNS. UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE, (1996), USA HE WROTE THE BOOK ―COMPLEXITY AND CONTRADICTION IN ARCHITECTURE‖ WHICH CHANGED PEOPLE‘S VIEW ABOUT ARCHITECTURE THE FIRM HAS COMPLETED MORE THAN 400 PROJECTS, EACH UNIQUELY SUITED TO THE SPECIAL NEEDS OF THE CLIENTS.
    • ROBERT VENTURI VANNA VENTURI HOUSE  THE VANNA VENTURI HOUSE, ONE OF THE FIRST PROMINENT WORKS OF THE POSTMODERN ARCHITECTURE MOVEMENT, IS LOCATED IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD OF CHESTNUT HILL IN PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA.  IT WAS DESIGNED BY ARCHITECT ROBERT VENTURI FOR HIS MOTHER VANNA VENTURI, AND CONSTRUCTED BETWEEN 1962 -1964.  THE HOUSE WAS SOLD IN 1973 AND REMAINS A PRIVATE RESIDENCE. STRUCTURAL DETAILS THE FIVE ROOM HOUSE STANDS ONLY ABOUT 30 FEET (9 M) TALL AT THE TOP OF THE CHIMNEY, BUT HAS A MONUMENTAL FRONT FAÇADE.  A NON-STRUCTURAL APPLIQUE ARCH AND "HOLE IN THE WALL" WINDOWS, AMONG OTHER ELEMENTS, WERE CHALLENGE TO MODERNIST ORTHODOXY. GENERAL INFORMATION TYPE RESIDENCE ARCHITECTURAL STYLE POSTMODERN TOWN OR CITY PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA COUNTRY UNITED STATES CONSTRUCTION STARTED 1959 (DESIGN) COMPLETED 1964 COST $43,000 CLIENT  THE HOUSE IS DESIGNED AROUND A CHIMNEY THAT IS CENTRALISED AND GOES ALL THE WAY TO THE TOP OF THE HOUSE. EXTERNALLY, THEY HOUSE IS BUILT SYMMETRICAL. VENTURI HAS DISTORTED THIS IDEA OF SYMMETRY. THERE IS ALSO A BASEMENT UNDERNEATH THE HOUSE THAT IS OFTEN NOT UNCOVERED BY PEOPLE. VANNA VENTURI TECHNICAL DETAILS STRUCTURAL SYSTEM LIGHT WOOD FRAME FLOOR COUNT 2 PLUS BASEMENT FLOOR AREA VIEW FROM THE SIDE (SOUTHEAST) 1,800 SQ FT (170 M2) FLOOR PLANS OF VENTURI RESIDENCE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ARCHITECT ROBERT VENTURI VIEW FROM THE REAR OF THE HOUSE (SOUTH)
    • ROBERT VENTURI VANNA VENTURI HOUSE ― I LIKE ELEMENTS WHICH ARE HYBRID RATHER THAN "PURE," COMPROMISING RATHER THAN "CLEAR," DISTORTED RATHER THAN "STRAIGHTFORWARD." - ROBERT VENTURI ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES DETAILED SECTION OF THE HOUSE  THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF THE HOUSE ARE A REACTION AGAINST STANDARD MODERNIST ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS: - PITCHED ROOF RATHER THAN FLAT ROOF, EMPHASIS ON CENTRAL HEARTH & CHIMNEY, CLOSED GROUND FLOOR "SET FIRMLY ON GROUND" RATHER THAN MODERNIST COLUMNS & GLASS WALLS WHICH OPEN UP THE GROUND FLOOR. -ON THE FRONT ELEVATION THE BROKEN PEDIMENT OR GABLE & A PURELY ORNAMENTAL APPLIQUE ARCH REFLECT RETURN TO MANNERIST ARCHITECTURE AND A REJECTION OF MODERNISM.  HOUSE IS A COMPOSITION OF RECTANGULAR, CURVILINEAR, AND DIAGONAL ELEMENTS COMING TOGETHER (OR SOMETIMES JUXTAPOSING EACH OTHER) IN A WAY THAT INARGUABLY CREATES COMPLEXITY AND CONTRADICTION. FRONT ELEVATION IN ORDER TO CREATE MORE CONTRADICTION AND COMPLEXITY, VENTURI EXPERIMENTED WITH SCALE. INSIDE THE HOUSE CERTAIN ELEMENTS ARE ―TOO BIG,‖ SUCH AS THE SIZE OF THE FIREPLACE AND THE HEIGHT OF THE MANTEL COMPARED TO THE SIZE OF THE ROOM. -DOORS ARE WIDE AND LOW IN HEIGHT, ESPECIALLY IN CONTRAST TO THE GRANDNESS OF THE ENTRANCE SPACE. - VENTURI ALSO MINIMIZED CIRCULATION SPACE IN THE DESIGN OF THE HOUSE, SO THAT IT CONSISTED OF LARGE DISTINCT ROOMS WITH MINIMUM SUBDIVISIONS BETWEEN THEM. REAR ELEVATION FRONT GABLED ARCH INTERIOR OF THE HOUSE STAIRCASE LEADING TO UPPER FLOOR DRAWING ROOM AREA
    • ROBERT VENTURI PROVINCIAL CAPITOL BUILDING  THE CAPITOL IS THE HEART OF THE MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION OF THE FRENCH CITY OF TOULOUSE. IT IS DESIGNED BY THE ROBERT VENTURI ALONG WITH HIS WIFE DENISE AND ASSOCIATES IN 1999 FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF HAUTE-GARONNE. THE BUILDING IS TWO NARROW 6 STORY WINGS JOINED TOGETHER BY TWO GLASS-CLAD BRIDGES, GLASS CURTAIN WALLS WERE UNIQUE AT THAT TIME FOR TOULOUSE WHICH IS MOSTLY BRICK TOWN.  THE CURRENT FAÇADE, 135 METRES LONG AND BUILT OF THE CHARACTERISTIC PINK BRICK IN NEOCLASSICAL STYLE, DATES FROM 1750, BUILT ACCORDING TO PLANS BY GUILLAUME CAMMAS. THE EIGHT COLUMNS REPRESENT THE ORIGINAL EIGHT CAPITOLS. IN 1873, EUGÈNE VIOLLETLE-DUC BUILT A BELL TOWER TYPICAL OF THE STYLE OF NORTHERN FRANCE ON TOP OF THE DONJON OF THE BUILDING. GENERAL INFORMATION TYPE GOVERNMENT OFFICES ARCHITECTURAL STYLE POSTMODERN TOWN OR CITY TOULOUSE COUNTRY FRANCE COMPLETETION 1999 COST $80,000,000 CLIENT DEPARTMENT OF HAUTE-GARONNE FLOOR AREA 760,000 SQ FEET DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ARCHITECT VENTURI, SCOTT BROWN AND ASSOCIATES FLOOR PLAN OF THE CAPITOL SITE PLAN THE BUILDING CONSISTS OF AN ADMINISTRATIVE AND LEGISLATIVE COMPLEX INCLUDING OFFICES THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY CHAMBER, PUBLIC SERVICES, VARIOUS PUBLIC AND GOVERNMENTAL SUPPORT SPACES, THREE LEVELS OF UNDERGROUND PARKING FOR PUBLIC AND STAFF, AND OUTDOOR AND INDOOR CEREMONIAL SPACES. TODAY THE CAPITOLE HOUSES THE CITY HALL, AS WELL AS THE THÉÂTRE DU CAPITOLE DE TOULOUSE OPERA COMPANY AND A SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA
    • ROBERT VENTURI PROVINCIAL CAPITOL BUILDING DESIGN • THE BUILDING IS ARRANGED IN TWO SLENDER SIX-STORY WINGS OF FLEXIBLE LOFT SPACE LINKED BY TWO GLASS-CLAD BRIDGES. • THESE LINEAR ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS FRAME A PEDESTRIAN WAY, A "CIVIC STREET" THAT CROSSES THE SITE DIAGONALLY AND CONNECTS THE SITE OF AN HISTORIC CITY GATE NEAR THE CANAL DU MIDI BRIDGE - REPLICATED WITH TWO COLUMNS. VIEW INTO COURTYARD • AT THE CENTER OF THE SITE ONE WING BOWS OUTWARD TO CREATE THE CRESCENT-SHAPED PUBLIC SPACE ALONG THIS CIVIC STREET, THE FOCUS OF BUILDINGS. • THE SURFACES OF THE INTERIOR COURT CONTAIN THE SAME WINDOWS, AND ARE OF BRICK SO THE "STREET" EVOKES THE ROSY AURA OF THE HISTORICAL STREETS OF TOULOUSE. • IMPORTANT FORMS SUCH AS THOSE OF THE HALL D'HONNEUR AND SALLE DU CONSEIL GÉNÉRAL ARE SHEATHED IN GLASS CURTAIN WALLS. NORTH ENTRY & ―STREET THROUGH THE BUILDING‖ ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES EXTERIOR OF ASSEMBLY HALL INTERIOR OF ASSEMBLY HALL THE BUILDING'S SITING IN CENTER OF SITE, FRAMED BY LANDSCAPED PARK AND GARDENS, SOFTENS ITS IMPACT IN THIS NEIGHBORHOOD, WHILE ALLOWING THE POSSIBILITY OF FUTURE EXPANSION OF SMALLER INCREMENTS NEARER THE PERIMETER OF THE SITE. INTERIOR OF THE BUILDING A LARGE PARK FACING THE CANAL DU MIDI ENHANCES THE NEIGHBORHOOD AND PROVIDES A SETTING FOR THE BUILDING ALONG THE CANAL WHERE ONE CAN SEE THE GREAT CURVED SECTION OF THE BUILDING AS A REFLECTION OF THE CURVE OF THE GARONNE IN THIS AREA, AS IT FLOWS TO THE SEA. AERIAL VIEW COVERED BRIDGES IN GLASS SPAN THE PEDESTRIAN STREET CONNECTING THE TWO WINGS OF THE BUILDING AT TWO LOCATIONS. THEY OFFER DRAMATIC VIEWS FROM WITHIN THE COMPLEX AND, BY THEIR FORM AND SILHOUETTE, SERVE AS SYMBOLIC GATEWAYS TO THE CIVIC CRESCENT. DISTANT VIEWS OF THE BUILDING IN CONTEXT THE COURTYARD
    • DECONSTRUCTIVISM EVOLUTION  DECONSTRUCTIVISM CAME TO PUBLIC NOTICE WITH THE 1982 PARC DE LA VILLETTE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN COMPETITION (ESPECIALLY THE ENTRY FROM JACQUES DERRIDA AND PETER EISENMAN AND BERNARD TSCHUMI'S WINNING ENTRY). THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART‘S 1988 DECONSTRUCTIVIST ARCHITECTURE EXHIBITION IN NEW YORK, ORGANIZED BY PHILIP JOHNSON AND MARK WIGLEY. INTRODUCTION  DECONSTRUCTIVISM IS A DEVELOPMENT OF POSTMODERN ARCHITECTURE THAT BEGAN IN THE LATE 1980S.  IT IS INFLUENCED BY THE THEORY OF "DECONSTRUCTION‖ , WHICH IS A FORM OF SEMIOTIC ANALYSIS. CHRACTERISTICS  IT IS CHARACTERIZED BY FRAGMENTATION, AN INTEREST IN MANIPULATING A STRUCTURE'S SURFACE OR SKIN, NON-RECTILINEAR SHAPES WHICH APPEAR TO DISTORT AND DISLOCATE ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE, SUCH AS STRUCTURE AND ENVELOPE. THE FINISHED VISUAL APPEARANCE OF BUILDINGS THAT EXHIBIT DECONSTRUCTIVIST "STYLES" IS CHARACTERIZED BY UNPREDICTABILITY AND CONTROLLED CHAOS. AND THE 1989 OPENING OF THE WEXNER CENTER FOR THE ARTS IN COLUMBUS, DESIGNED BY PETER EISENMAN. ARCHITECTS PRACTICING DECONSTRUCTIVISM AREFRANK GEHRY, DANIEL LIBESKIND, REM KOOLHAAS, PETER EISENMAN, ZAHA HADID, COOP HIMMELB(L)AU, AND BERNARD TSCHUMI. CHARACTERISTICS DECONSTRUCTIVISM ATTEMPTS TO MOVE AWAY FROM THE SUPPOSEDLY CONSTRICTING 'RULES' OF MODERNISM SUCH AS "FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION," "PURITY OF FORM," AND "TRUTH TO MATERIALS.― IT WAS INFLUENCED BY THE FORMAL EXPERIMENTATION AND GEOMETRIC IMBALANCES OF RUSSIAN CONSTRUCTIVISM.
    • FRANK OWEN GEHRY ARCHITECTURAL STYLE  DECONSTRUCTIVISM IS FOLLOWED IN HIS BUILDINGS.  THE STRUCTURES DOES NOT REFLECTS SOCIAL OR UNIVERSAL IDEAS LIKE SPEED OR UNIVERSALITY OF FORM. FRANK OWEN GEHRY, (BORN FEBRUARY 28, 1929) IS A CANADIAN-AMERICAN PRITZKER PRIZEWINNING ARCHITECT BASED IN LOS ANGELES. POST-STRUCTURALISM AS HIS DESIGNS HAS ABILITY TO GO BEYOND CURENT MODALITIES OF STRUCTURAL DEFINITION. • HIS BUILDINGS, INCLUDING HIS PRIVATE RESIDENCE, HAVE BECOME TOURIST ATTRACTIONS. • HIS WORKS ARE CITED AS BEING AMONG THE MOST IMPORTANT WORKS OF CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE IN THE 2010 WORLD ARCHITECTURE SURVEY, WHICH LED VANITY FAIR TO LABEL HIM AS "THE MOST IMPORTANT ARCHITECT OF OUR AGE".  GEHRY‘S STYLE AT TIMES SEEMS UNFINISHED OR EVEN CRUDE. EARLY CAREER: BUT HIS WORK IS CONSISTENT WITH THE CALIFORNIA "FUNK" ART MOVEMENT IN THE 1960S AND EARLY 1970S. INTRODUCTION  IT WAS HIS PRIVATE RESIDENCE IN SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA, THAT JUMP-STARTED HIS CAREER, LIFTING IT FROM THE STATUS OF "PAPER ARCHITECTURE"—A PHENOMENON THAT MANY FAMOUS ARCHITECTS HAVE EXPERIENCED IN THEIR FORMATIVE DECADES THROUGH EXPERIMENTATION ALMOST EXCLUSIVELY ON PAPER BEFORE RECEIVING THEIR FIRST MAJOR COMMISSION IN LATER YEARS. THE MOVEMENT FEATURED THE USE OF INEXPENSIVE FOUND OBJECTS AND NON-TRADITIONAL MEDIA SUCH AS CLAY TO MAKE SERIOUS ART. SOME FAMOUS WORKS THE GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM IN BILBAO, SPAIN THE TOWER AT 8 SPRUCE STREET IN LOWER MANHATTAN WALT DISNEY CONCERT HALL DANCING HOUSE IN PRAGUE
    • FRANK OWEN GEHRY GEHRY‘S RESIDENCE INTRODUCTION THE GEHRY RESIDENCE IS FRANK GEHRY'S OWN HOUSE. IT WAS ORIGINALLY AN EXTENSION, DESIGNED BY GEHRY, BUILT AROUND THE EXISTING HOUSE. THE GEHRY RESIDENCE IS LOCATED IN SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA. IN 1977, FRANK AND BERTA GEHRY BOUGHT A PINK BUNGALOW THAT WAS ORIGINALLY BUILT IN 1920.  GEHRY WANTED TO EXPLORE WITH THE MATERIALS HE WAS ALREADY USING: METAL, PLYWOOD, CHAIN LINK FENCING, AND WOOD FRAMING. IN 1978, HE CHOSE TO WRAP THE OUTSIDE OF THE HOUSE WITH A NEW EXTERIOR WHILE STILL LEAVING THE OLD EXTERIOR VISIBLE. HE HARDLY TOUCHED THE REAR AND SOUTH FACADES AND TO THE OTHER SIDES OF THE HOUSE HE WEDGED IN TITLED GLASS CUBES. VIEW OF GEHRY RESIDENCE GENERAL INFORMATION CHARACETRISTICS: TYPE HOUSE ARCHITECTURAL STYLE DECONSTRUCTIVIST LOCATION SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA IT MAKES USE OF UNCONVENTIONAL MATERIALS SUCH AS CHAIN LINK FENCES AND CORRUGATED STEEL.  IT IS SOMETIMES CONSIDERED ONE OF THE EARLIEST DECONSTRUCTIVIST BUILDINGS, ALTHOUGH GEHRY HIMSELF DENIES THAT IT WAS DECONSTRUCTIVISM. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ARCHITECT FRANK GEHRY CONSTRUCTION 1978 GROUND FLOOR PLAN OF THE GEHRY‘S RESIDENCE 3D VIEW OF THE HOUSE AXNOMETRIC VIEW OF THE HOUSE FIRST FLOOR PLAN ELEVATION OF THE HOUSE
    • FRANK OWEN GEHRY GEHRY‘S RESIDENCE  GEHRY ACTUALLY DID KEEP THE EXISTING HOUSE ALMOST COMPLETELY IN TACT, BUT NOT IN A CONVENTIONAL MANNER. THE DUTCH COLONNIAL HOME WAS LEFT IN TACT AND THE NEW HOUSE WAS BUILT AROUND IT. HOLES WERE MADE, WALLS WERE STRIPPED, TORN DOWN AND PUT UP, AND THE OLD QUIET HOUSE BECAME A LOUD SHRIEK OF CONTEMPORARY STYLE AMONG THE NEIGHBORING MANSIONS.  NEIGHBORS HATED IT, BUT THAT DID NOT CHANGE THE FACT THAT THE HOUSE WAS A STATEMENT OF ART ENTWINED WITH ARCHITECTURE. DESIGN OF THE RESIDENCE  THE ENTRANCE IS BARELY DISCERNIBLE AMIDST THE JUTTING ANGLES OF THE EXTERIOR, WHICH GEHRY CREATED FROM WOOD, GLASS, ALUMINUM, AND CHAIN-LINK FENCING.  THE APEX OF THE OLD HOUSE PEEKS OUT FROM WITHIN THIS MIX OF MATERIALS, GIVING THE IMPRESSION THAT THE HOUSE IS CONSISTENTLY UNDER CONSTRUCTION. EVEN THOUGH GEHRY TRIED TO MAINTAIN THE SAME STYLE OF THE HOUSE, ALLOWING THE ORIGINAL DESIGN TO DETERMINE THAT OF THE ADDITION, THE HOUSE WENT THROUGH SIGNIFICANT CHANGES. THE RESIDENCE BECAME MUCH MORE ―FINISHED‖. GEHRY‘S IDEAS ABOUT THE RESIDENCE ―I LOVED THE IDEA OF LEAVING THE HOUSE INTACT… I CAME UP WITH THE IDEA OF BUILDING THE NEW HOUSE AROUND IT. WE WERE TOLD THERE WERE GHOSTS IN THE HOUSE… I DECIDED THEY WERE GHOSTS OF CUBISM. THE WINDOWS… I WANTED TO MAKE THEM LOOK LIKE THEY WERE CRAWLING OUT OF THIS THING. AT NIGHT, BECAUSE THIS GLASS IS TIPPED IT MIRRORS THE LIGHT IN… SO WHEN YOU‘RE SITTING AT THIS TABLE YOU SEE ALL THESE CARS GOING BY, YOU SEE THE MOON IN THE WRONG PLACE… THE MOON IS OVER THERE BUT IT REFLECTS HERE… AND YOU THINK IT‘S UP THERE AND YOU DON‘T KNOW WHERE THE HELL YOU ARE…‖ – FRANK GEHRY VIEWS OF GEHRY RESIDENCE
    • FRANK OWEN GEHRY WALT DISNEY CONCERT HALL INTRODUCTION LOCATION LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA U.S.A. TYPE CONCERT HALL BUILT 1999–2003 OPENED OCTOBER 24, 2003 CONSTRUCTION COST $130 MILLION (PLUS $110 MILLION FOR PARKING GARAGE) SEATING TYPE RESERVED CAPACITY 2,265 ARCHITECT  THE WALT DISNEY CONCERT HALL IN DOWNTOWN OF LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, IS THE FOURTH HALL OF THE LOS ANGELES MUSIC CENTER AND WAS DESIGNED BY FRANK GEHRY.  IT OPENED ON OCTOBER 24, 2003, IT SEATS 2,265 PEOPLE AND SERVES (AMONG OTHER PURPOSES) AS THE HOME OF THE LOS ANGELES PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA AND THE LOS ANGELES MASTER CHORALE. BOTH GEHRY'S ARCHITECTURE AND THE ACOUSTICS OF THE CONCERT HALL, DESIGNED BY YASUHISA TOYOTA, HAVE BEEN PRAISED, IN CONTRAST TO ITS PREDECESSOR, THE DOROTHY CHANDLER PAVILION. FRANK OWEN GEHRY INITIAL SKETCH OF THE HALL BY GEHRY SITE PLAN OF HALL  THE PROJECT WAS LAUNCHED IN 1987, WHEN LILLIAN DISNEY, WIDOW OF WALT DISNEY, DONATED $50 MILLION.  FRANK GEHRY DELIVERED COMPLETED DESIGNS IN 1991.  CONSTRUCTION OF THE UNDERGROUND PARKING GARAGE BEGAN IN 1992 AND WAS COMPLETED IN 1996. ADDITIONAL FUNDS WERE REQUIRED SINCE THE CONSTRUCTION COST OF THE FINAL PROJECT FAR EXCEEDED THE ORIGINAL BUDGET. PLANS WERE REVISED, AND IN A COST-SAVING MOVE THE ORIGINALLY DESIGNED STONE EXTERIOR WAS REPLACED WITH A LESS COSTLY METAL SKIN. SITE PLAN OF HALLSEATING PLAN OF THE HALL VIEW OF THE CONCERT HALL
    • FRANK OWEN GEHRY WALT DISNEY CONCERT HALL  THE STAINLESS STEEL CURVES OF THE WALT DISNEY CONCERT HALL BY FRANK GEHRY SHINE IN THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA SUN. THEY SHINE IN QUICK FLASHES GLIMPSED THROUGH NONDESCRIPT HIGHRISES, THROWING FORTUITOUS REFLECTIONS AMONG THE SHADOWS.  THE TALLER FORMS STRETCH UP AND OUT TOWARD THE CITY, WHILE THE LOWER FORMS BEND DOWN TOWARD PASSERS BY. THE BUILDING IS A STUNNING PIECE OF ARCHITECTURE, RIPE FOR METAPHORIC INTERPRETATIONS RANGING FROM BLOOMING FLOWER TO SAILING SHIP. THE MAIN AUDITORIUM, DESIGNED BY YASUHISA TOYOTA OF NAGATA ACOUSTICS, IS BEING LAUDED FOR ITS ACOUSTIC QUALITY. THE BUILDING'S VERY EXISTENCE IS A MIRACLE OF LOGISTICS AND PERSEVERANCE. FEW IMAGES OF THE HALL DESIGN AND ACOUSTICS OF THE HALL  THE WALLS OF THE THEATRE, JUST LIKE THE EXTERIOR, LACK RIGHT ANGLES AND FLAT SHAPES.  THE BACK OF THE HALL BEHIND THE STAGE IS MADE OF THE SAME WOOD AS THE SIDEWALLS AND THE ROOF BUT HAS DIFFERENT SHAPE AND DESIGN.  SOME OF THE WALLS OF THE HALL HAVE FABRIC ON THEM THAT ARE COVERED BY SMALL 1X1 WOOD SQUARES THAT ACT AS DIFFUSERS. THE COMBINATION OF REFLECTIVE AND ABSORPTIVE MATERIALS USED IN THE HALL MAKES FOR A CONVEX—OR OUTWARDLY BULGING—CURVES CAN BE VERY EFFECTIVE, BOUNCING AND DISPERSING ROOM THAT IS A PERFECT BALANCE. SOUND WAVES PRODUCED BY AN ORCHESTRA. THE FLOOR OF THE STAGE IS MADE OUT OF BEAUTIFUL CEDAR WOOD AND FEATURES FOUR CONCENTRIC CIRCLES THAT ARE SET ON RISERS, WHICH CAN BE RAISED OR LOWERED WITH LIFTS UNDER THE STAGE. THIS ALLOWS A GREAT DEAL OF FLEXIBILITY IN PERFORMANCES AS DIFFERENT SECTIONS OF THE ORCHESTRA CAN BE PLACED HIGHER THAN OTHERS SO THEY CAN BE HEARD MORE EASILY. THE BOTTOMS OF THE CHAIRS WERE SPECIFICALLY CREATED TO HAVE FABRIC ON THE BOTTOM PANELS RATHER THAN METAL.