What is Industrial Relation?
There is no unanimity as to the meaning and
scope of Industrial Relations, since different
terms such as labour management Relations,
Employer & Employee Relations, Union &
Management Relations, personnel Relations,
Human Relation etc are in use or used. In its
strictest sense, the term “Industrial Relation”
Means the relationship between Management
& Workmen in an unit or an Establishment or
an Industry. In wider sense, it means the
relationship between the workers &
Management union & workers and Union and
management in an Industry.
The four main parties who are actively
associated with any industrial relations
system are the Managements
Organisation of managements,workmen,
workmen and the state. Fundamentally
term industrial relation Refers to an
organised relationship between two
organised parties representing employers
and employees regarding matters of
Objectives and Aims
Apart from the primary objective of bringing
about sound and healthy relations between
employers and employees, Industrial
1. To facilitate production and productivity
2. To safe guard the rights and interests
of both labour and management by
enlisting their co- operation.
3. To achieve a sound, harmonious and
mutual beneficial Labour - Management
4.To avoid unhealthy atmosphere in the
industry especially work Stoppage , go
slows, gheraos, Strikes, lockouts etc
5.To establish and maintain industrial
The problem posed in the field of
Relations cannot be solved within the
of a single discipline and hence it is
Grievance Function in
• There is hardly a company where the
employees do not have grievance of one
kind or other. A grievance produces
unhappiness, discontent, indifference, low
morale, frustration etc. Ultimately it
affects employees’ concentration,
efficiency and productivity. A large
number of work stoppage, shop floor
incidents and strike could be attributed to
the faulty handling of grievances. Prompt
and effective handling of grievances is the
key to industrial peace.
• Grievance is a rust on human relations.
Grievance can be conceived in several
stages. Dissatisfaction may or may not
articulated. When it takes some shape
and brought to the notice of some
authority then it is seen as complaint.
A Compliant is a formal representation
of a grievance. An individual grievance
if not settled under the Grievance
process it assumes the form of an
Industrial disputes and attracts
disputes settlement provisions.
Basically grievance is a complaint of
one or more workers covering such
areas of wages, allowances, conditions
of work, over time, leave, transfer,
• Informal and formal presentation of grievance
have their advantages and disadvantages.
Informal less important, less attention etc.
Formal gets more serious attention.
• Grievance must be settled as early as possible
to the point of origin and on merit only. Hasty
actions without properly ascertaining facts
helps to aggregate the situation hence it is
better only to have a systematic grievance
redressal procedure which would (i) be simple,
fair and easy to understand (ii) encourage
employees to put forth their grievance (iii)
function promptly and expediously (iv) gain
employees confidence and (v) promote healthy
relations between employees and the
Discipline function in
• In any industry, discipline is an
useful tool for developing,
Improving and stabilizing the
personality of workers.
Industrial discipline is essential
for smooth running of an
organization, for increasing
production and productivity for
maintenance of Industrial
Dictionary meaning of
1.First it is the training that corrects, moulds,
strengthens or perfects individual
2.It is control gained by enforcing obedience.
3.It is punishment.
Discipline is the force that prompts an individual
or a group to observe/adhere rules, regulations and
procedures which are deemed to be necessary to
the attainment of an objective.
Aims and Objectives of
The main Aims and Objectives of discipline
are1.To obtain willing acceptance of rules,
regulations and procedures of an
organization so that organizational
objectives can be attained.
2.To develop among employees a spirit of
tolerance and a desire to make
3.To give and seek directions and
4.To create an atmosphere of respect of
human personality and human relations.
5.To increase the working efficiency and
morale of employees.
6. To impart an element of certainty despite
several differences in informal behaviours
patterns and other related changes in an
Disciplinary actions have serious repercussions
on the employees and on the industry and
therefore must be based on certain principles in
order to be fair, just, and acceptable to the
employees and their Union.
Indiscipline often arises from frustration and
absence of a service of responsibility. The
cause of indiscipline among workers are
several and varied and can often be traced
their ignorance and illiteracy, non-
to the industrial culture, no-redressal of
grievance, lack of commitment of worker,
absence of occupational status, low wages,
unfair labour practice, bad working
and lack of effective management practice
Discipline is a two way traffic and reach
discipline as the part of either party in
industry will cause unrest. The concept
positive discipline promotion aims at the
generation of a sense of self discipline
disciplined behaviour in all human beings
in a dynamic organizational setting
of discipline improved by force or
1. Conciliation :
The conciliation Officer is appointed by
Government. He is charged with duty of
mediating in and promoting settlement of
industrial disputes.Sometimes Government
may also constitute a Board of Conciliation
for promoting the settlement of Industrial
disputes. It consists of independent
Chairman and two or four other members
representing the parties to disputes.While
conciliation is compulsory in all public
utility service and optional in non-public
utility service. In conciliation, the ultimate
decision rests with the parties themselves
but the conciliation may offer a solution to
the dispute acceptable to both the parties
and serve as a channel of communication.
The parties may accept his recommendation
for settlement of any dispute or reject
altogether. If conciliation fails, the next
stage may be compulsory adjudication or
the parties may be left to other own choice.
They have no power to decide the disputes
or ass a final or binding order on parties.
In case where a settlement is arrived at,
they can record the settlement and
incase of failure of a conciliation
negotiations, they can only send a failure
report to appropriate government. The
concerned authority after scrutinizing the
failure report and
the confidential note submitted by
conciliation officer may refer or
to refer the dispute to the Industrial
Tribunal or Labour Court as the case
may be for adjudication. If the
at the time of Conciliation
2. Adjudication :
The Govt. generally refer an Industrial dispute
for adjudication on failure of conciliation
proceedings. Adjudication means a
settlement of industrial disputes by Labour
Courts or Industrial Tribunals or National
Tribunals under the Industrial Disputes Act.
and large, the ultimate legal remedy for the
settlement of an unsolved dispute is its
reference to adjudication by the appropriate
3. Voluntary Arbitration
Voluntary arbitration is one of the
recognized and democratic ways
for settling Industrial disputes. It
is to be borne in mind that good
industrial relations are a mixture
of idealism and realism.
Trade Union and Industrial
1.To secure for workers fair wages.
2.To safeguard security of tenure and
Improve conditions of service
3.To enlarge opportunities for promotion
4.To improve working condition and
5.To provide for educational, cultural
and recreational facilities.
6.To promote identity of interests of
the workers within their industry.
7.To offer responsive co-operation in
improving levels of production and
8.To promote individual and collective
Collective bargaining is the process of
decision making and basically represents
democratic way of life in an Industry. It
establishes a culture of bipartition and
consultation in industry and a flexible
method of adjustment to economic and
technical charges. In an industry. It
Legal frame works – Labour
Constitution of India – Rights
Directive principles - Though not
in Court, it shall be
duty of State to
protect the interest of
Labour – Concurrent List – Centre & State
Centre rules would prevail upon State
In I.D. Act there is no provision for
providing any review, revision or appeals
against actions, orders or awards of
authority. Section 17(2) of the I.D. Act
makes the award of the adjudication
authorities as final. The only remedy is
that aggravated party can resort to
constitution remedies, namely, writ
under Articles 32, 226 & 227 and appeals
under Articles 133 and 134 of the
Constitutional of India.
Disciplinary Proceedings in
An enquiry held by the Management against
its employees for certain acts of alleged
misconduct is called a “Domestic Enquiry “ or
1. Framing and issuing of charge sheet.
2. Service of charge sheet.
3. Enquiry Proceedings.
c). Withholding or stoppage of
d). Demotion or reduction in