ApertureThe lens opening inside a photographic lens. The sizeof the opening in a camera lens CONTROLS amount of light passingthrough onto the sensor inside the camera during the exposure processAperture is sometimes referred to as the f-number or f-stop andsymbolised as f/number (ie - f/1.4, f/5.6, f/8)The LARGER the number, the SMALLER the opening. Therefore anaperture of 5.6 < f/2Smaller openings let in LESS light
ApertureThe Aperture size is one of the factors affecting DEPTH OF FIELDDepth of Field (DOF) refers to how much of the entire picture is infocus from foreground (front) to background (rear).An image where the the foreground & background are blurred but thearea where the camera focuses on is in focus is one with a shallow DOF
Telephoto lenses (long range lenses) also compressesperspective, giving an illusion of shallow DOF
Wide angle lenses (shorter focal length) &small aperture causes great DOF whereimage is sharp throughout
Using a large aperture & creative focus, you can choose which areas of the image to drawyour viewer’s eyes to. In this instance, the viewers’ eyes are naturally drawn to the area infocus (centre)
In this instance, the viewers’ eyes are naturally drawn to the foreground, which is in focus
LARGE APERTURE Good for: Separating subject from background such as in portraiture Selective focusing of a small area within photograph When you need to use high shutter speeds Handheld photography in low light (indoors, dawn, dusk) Not good for: Showing entire photograph in focus SMALL APERTURE Good for: When light is extremely bright (e.g. mid-day) When you need to use slow shutter speeds Showing entire photograph in sharp focus (landscape photos) Not good for: Selective focusing of a small area within photographUSE A TRIPOD/SUPPORT WHEN SHUTTER SPEEDIS BELOW 1/FOCAL LENGTH OF YOUR LENS
SHUTTER SPEEDThe speed in which the camera’s shutter curtain opens and closes.This CONTROLS amount of light passing through the camera body,onto the sensor inside the camera during the exposure processShutter speed is measured in Seconds or Fractions of Seconds(ie - XX seconds or 1/XXX seconds)The LARGER the fraction number, the FASTER the shutter speed.Therefore 1/250 > 1/60Faster shutter speeds let in less light.
SHUTTER SPEEDWhen taking photographs without an artificial light source (ie flash), afaster shutter speed is preferred when you are hand holding your camera.However….. FASTER IS NOT ALWAYS BETTER!
High shutter speeds allow youto freeze moving objects such asthe water.
Here, using high shutter speed works in showing the plane in focus, but the plane looks suspendedin mid air!
Using slower shutter speeds and a tripod has allowed the capture of passing cars as lightstreaks in the evening.
Slower shutter speeds allow you to capture the ambient (available light in anenvironment) that look natural.
Panning with a slightly slower shutter speed gives a sense of motion to the car.
FAST SHUTTER SPEEDSGood for:Freezing moving objectsHandheld photographyIndoor photography where flash is not allowed but there issufficient lightingNot good for:Suggesting movementSLOW SHUTTER SPEEDSGood for:Suggesting movementIf you have a tripodLowlight photography with tripod to allow more ambient light inNot good for:Freezing objects
ISOISO is the sensitivity of the sensor to light.Normally, when there is low light, we use a high ISO. If there is a lot oflight, we use a low ISO.ISO is measured by doubling the initial number. It usually starts at ISO100, next is ISO 200, ISO 400 and so forth.Higher ISO means the sensor is more sensitive to light.
ISOWhen the light is low (night time, low light), we use high ISO. However….Higher ISO is not always better!
ISOSelecting a low ISO with tripod allows you to take pictures that are less“noisy”.
ISOWe use high ISO only when there is no support for the camera.Where possible, always use a low ISO to take photographs.Photographs come up sharper & colours are more vibrant.
Putting it all together Taking a photograph1. Select an ISO you wish to use - recommend setting between ISO 100 -400.2. Focus (half-press on the shutter release button) on the subject andensure exposure is correct (you will hear a sound that tells you focused isconfirmed)3. Recompose by moving the camera to place your subject where you want(your finger is still half-pressed on the shutter release button).4. Take the shot by pressing fully on the shutter release button. When composing the shot, ask yourself, “have you fulfilled the basic rules of composition? (rule of thirds, visual elements)?” before you fully press the shutter.
Putting it all together Taking a photographFocus confirmed by the red light in viewfinder. In some cameras, the light is green.
Putting it all together Taking a photographExposure - circled in red. + means over exposed (picture will be too bright).- means underexposed (picture will be too dark). You should aim for 0 (correct exposure)
Putting it all togetherTaking a photograph Picture will be too bright - OVEREXPOSED Increase the shutter speed or close the aperture. Picture will be too dark - UNDEREXPOSED Lower the shutter speed or open the aperture. Picture will be properly exposed Take the shot!