The Turn of the Century
By: Skyler Martinez
Lesson 1:The Cattle Kingdom
From 1867 to the 1880s,became known as the cattle kingdom . After the civil war Texas economy
continued to depend on the cotton industry. Cattle ranching became the main business and way of life
in south and western Texas. The first longhorns were developed in Texas. They were called longhorns
because of their large horns. In Texas longhorns were often sold for $6 to $10 but in northern cities
they were sold for $40. Richard King owned one of the largest ranches in Texas. This ranch is called
the King Ranch. In 1874 Joseph Glidden invented barbed wire or twisted wire with sharp points called
barns. By the 1880s, Texans used the railroads both for moving and for travel. This was the end of the
cattle drives in TX.
Lesson 2:Railroads and Industry
In the early days Texans used to love the sound of the train because this sometimes meant that
new settlers , badly needed supplies or letters from their family members in the eastern u.s. early
travels in Texas were slow, difficult and often dangerous. the main forms of transportation were
horse-drawn and wagons. the buffalo bayou , Brazos and Colorado railway company began
building the first railroad in TX. the railroad helped small communities to grow quickly and also
helped cities grow in the eastern part of texas.in 1860 on 77s people lived in Dallas and by 1873
the population of Dallas was more than 7,000.on December 25 , 1871 the first train arrived in
Austin and in five years the city’s population more than doubled. Sometimes the noise from
locomotives frightened horses and cattle, causing pieces of coal and ash flew from the engines and
burned people and for that reason some people didn’t want the railroads to come to their town.
with the railroads , goods such as clothing , seeds and farm tools could be ordered from catalogs
and be delivered to costumers by trains . railroads brought businesses to small communities. The
oil industry was one business that grew big during the railroad era. The oil became one of Texas
most important natural resources.
Lesson 3: Oil
Oil came to be worth so much money that many Texans called it ” Black gold”. It brought billions of dollars into the
sate and created new jobs. The Pennsylvania oil wells were the first ones to be drilled 1859. In 1859 ,oil was
discovered in east Texas. Lune Barrettes was the first known oil well in Texas. In the 1880s oil did not have as many
uses as it does today. It was only used to make grease for machines and to make kerosene to burn in lumps. The
states first big oil refinery was built in Corsicana after accidently discovering oil in 1894. Lucas built a drilling tower
on the hill it became known as Spindletop produced more than 100,000 barrels of oil a day . By 1902 Spindeltop was
producing one-fourth of all the oil sold in the U.S. the price of the oil .the price of oil dropped to just three cents a
barrel because three cents a barrel because there was more oil than the people needed . Railroads were the first
ones to invent new uses for oil . They used it as a fuel for their locomotives factories. Stop using coal and started
using oil to run their machines. The Texas oil industry boom in the early 1900s after the first cars were sold. As more
people drove the need for gasoline and other oil products grew. Two of the largest boom towns in Texas were
Corsicana and Beaumont. It became to dangerous to live in these towns because they were overpopulated. There
were not enough houses, hotels , the streets were muddy, the schools were crowded, and the food and other goods
were very expensive and there was so little clean water. Many died from the spread of diseases through the crowded
cities. By 1928 Texans had became the country’s leading oil-producing state. On Sep.5,1930, Joiner discovered the
largest oil field in the world up to that time. The oil field produced 121 millions barrels of oil in its fist year. Oil
went into marketing paint , rubber , plant fertilizer and polyester fabric. These products let to the growth at new
Lesson 4:Texas in a Changing World
In 1910 a civil war began in Mexico . In 1916,the united states recognized Carranza as Mexico’s
president. A Mexican revolutionary fighter, Pancho Villa and his soldiers killed some Americans.
The U.S.A Army sent General John J. Pershing and some Texas. Soldiers after Pancho Villa .In 1924
Miriam “Ma” Ferguson was the first women elected governor of Texas. Christia Adair was
determined to help women gain the right to right to vote. The members of the Texas Equal Suffrage
association would not let Adair join because she was African American. In 1929-1932, hard times
came to many people in Texas and the rest of the united states . There were very little jobs to get in
the Great Depression.
Lesson 5: Texas In World War 2
Dec. 7,1941 world war 2 started with Japan bombing the U.S Navy ships. Also U.S got help from
Britain , France , and the soviet Union. Eisenhower became the 34 president of the united states.
Only 33 Texans won the Congressional Medal of Honor. This medal is only given to the men or
women who have risked their lives for others. Audie Murphy of Farmersville, TX received more
medals than any other American. Cleto was the 5th Mexican to receive the Congressional Medal. At
the end 22,000 Texans had died in battle . The war caused shortage of food and other goods.
Texans had to put rations on books like any other American. The war also changed Texas from a
rural state to a leader industry. Half of the oil got used during the war, for plains , ships ,and
tanks came from Texas. Also women were allowed to work in jobs like men . The war also
brought new industry’s to Texas. The number of how many people workers in factories increased
and tripled to 500,000 workers.