According to the Basel Convention: "Substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national law" (Basel Convention).
Produced by the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD): "Wastes are materials that are not prime products (that is products produced for the market) for which the generator has no further use in terms of his/her own purposes of production, transformation or consumption, and of which he/she wants to dispose. Wastes may be generated during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, and other human activities. Residuals recycled or reused at the place of generation are excluded."
The European Union defines waste as an object the holder discards, intends to discard or is required to discard.
Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994 defines waste as: any substance or object which the producer or the person in possession of it, discards or intends or is required to discard but with exception of anything excluded from the scope of the Waste Directive.
Municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated from households, offices, hotels, shops, schools and other institutions. The major components are food waste, paper, plastic, rags, metal and glass, although demolition and construction debris is often included in collected waste, as are small quantities of hazardous waste, such as electric light bulbs, batteries, automotive parts and discarded medicines and chemicals.
Industrial solid waste in the Asian and Pacific Region, as elsewhere, encompasses a wide range of materials of varying environmental toxicity. Typically this range would include paper, packaging materials, waste from food processing, oils, solvents, resins, paints and sludges, glass, ceramics, stones, metals, plastics, rubber, leather, wood, cloth, straw, abrasives, etc.
Nuclear waste is the radioactive waste left over from nuclear reactors, nuclear research projects, and nuclear bomb production. Nuclear waste is divided into low, medium, and high-level waste by the amount of radioactivity the waste produces.
Recycling involves processing used waste materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to virgin production.
‘ Bio-medical waste’ means any solid and/or liquid waste including its container and any intermediate product, which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals or in research pertaining thereto or in the production or testing thereof.
It differs from other hazardous waste because of its source of generation.
Computer wastes that are landfilled produces contaminated leachates which eventually pollute the groundwater. Acids and sludge obtained from melting computer chips, if disposed on the ground causes acidification of soil.
Incineration of e-wastes can emit toxic fumes and gases, thereby polluting the surrounding air.
Improperly monitored landfills can cause environmental hazards.
The most dangerous form of burning e-waste is the open-air burning of plastics in order to recover copper and other metals.
Waste prevention is perhaps more preferred to any other waste management option including recycling. Donating electronics for reuse extends the lives of valuable products and keeps them out of the waste management system for a longer time. But care should be taken while donating such items i.e. the items should be in working condition.
Reuse, in addition to being an environmentally preferable alternative, also benefits society. By donating used electronics, schools, non-profit organizations, and lower-income families can afford to use equipment that they otherwise could not afford.
E-wastes should never be disposed with garbage and other household wastes. This should be segregated at the site and sold or donated to various organizations.
While buying electronic products opt for those that:
are made with fewer toxic constituents
use recycled content
are energy efficient
are designed for easy upgrading or disassembly
utilize minimal packaging
offer leasing or take back options
have been certified by regulatory authorities. Customers should opt for upgrading their computers or other electronic items to the latest versions rather than buying new equipments.
The waste hierarchy refers to the 3Rs of reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability. The 3Rs are meant to be a hierarchy, in order of importance.
The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste.
Reduce - to buy less and use less. Incorporates common sense ideas like turning off the lights, rain barrels, and taking shorter showers, but also plays a part in Composting/Grasscycling (transportation energy is reduced), low-flow toilets, and programmable thermostats. Includes the terms Re-think, Precycle, Carpool, Efficient, and Environmental Footprint/Foodprint.
Reuse - elements of the discarded item are used again. Initiatives include Hand-Me-Downs, Garage Sales, Quilting, and Composting (nutrients). Includes the terms Repair, Regift, and Upcycle.
Recycle - discards are separated into materials that may be incorporated into new products. This is different from Reuse in that energy is used to change the physical properties of the material. Initiatives include Composting, Beverage Container Deposits and buying products with a high content of post-consumer material.
Generate - capturing useful material for waste to energy programs. Includes Methane Collection, Gasification and Digestion, and the term Recover.
Incinerate - high temperature destruction of material. Differs from Gasification in that oxygen is used; differs from burning in that high temperatures consume material efficiently and emissions are controlled.
Anaerobic digestion is a series of processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen, used for industrial or domestic purposes to manage waste and/or to release energy.
Anaerobic digestion is widely used as a renewable energy source because the process produces a methane and carbon dioxide rich biogas suitable for energy production, helping to replace fossil fuels. The nutrient-rich digestate which is also produced can be used as fertilizer.
Gasification is a process that converts carbonaceous materials, such as coal, petroleum, biofuel, or biomass, into carbon monoxide and hydrogen by reacting the raw material, such as house waste, or compost at high temperatures with a controlled amount of oxygen and/or steam. The resulting gas mixture is called synthesis gas or Syn-gas and is itself a fuel. Gasification is a method for extracting energy from many different types of organic materials.
solid waste treatment that utilizes heat, steam and pressure of an industrial autoclave in the processing of waste.
waste autoclaves process waste in batches. Saturated steam is pumped into the autoclave at temperatures around 160°C. The pressure in the vessel is maintained at 5 bar gauge for a period of up to 45 minutes to allow the process to fully 'cook' the waste.
The autoclave process gives a very high pathogen and virus kill rate.
Municipal solid waste management / N.N. Bandela, D.G. Tare
Integrated solid waste management model / Rudy S. Prawiradinata
The practical guide to waste management law [electronic resource] / R.G.P. Hawkins, H.S. Shaw
Electronic waste management / editors, R.E. Hester and R.M. Harrison
Waste management for the food industries / authored by Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis
Nuclear waste management : accomplishments of the Environmental Management Science Program / Paul W. Wang, editor, Tiffany Zachry, editor ; sponsored by the ACS Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology
Municipal solid waste management : strategies and technologies for sustainable solutions / Christian Ludwig, Stefanie Hellweg, Samuel Stucki, editors
Handbook of solid waste management and waste minimization technologies / Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff
Environmental and health impact of solid waste management activities / editors, R.E. Hester and R.M. Harrison
Economics of solid waste management / by Mabel Ho Swee Ing
Ho, Mabel Swee Ing.
The economics of residential solid waste management / Thomas C. Kinnaman, Don Fullerton
Solid waste management : technology assessment / / by the General Electric Company
Handbook on hospital solid waste management / [by] Frank L. Cross, Jr. and George Noble
A quarterly peer-reviewed journal focusing on management techniques to improve compost process control and product quality, with special emphasis on utilization of composted materials. Must reading for professionals seriously involved in the composting process — project managers, planners, researchers, consultants, municipal officials, and libraries.
Waste Management World
'Waste Management World”, ISWA’s official newsmagazine is published by ISWA and PennWell, UK, 6 times a year. One issue a year will incorporate the International Directory of Solid Waste Management with a listing of ISWA Members as well as a classified listing of waste management companies.
MSW Management is written for professionals working in the solid waste management industry. Our readers are those who plan, site, build, engineer, maintain, monitor and operate private or public-sector solid waste landfills, solid waste and recycling collection and disposal systems, composting operations, yard waste processing operations, incinerators, and all other operations and facilities that are used to manage our solid wastes. MSW Management was established in 1991 and is published 7 times each year, reaching about 25,000 subscribers with each issue.
Waste Management & Research
Waste Management Research satisfies the growing demand for essential information that can be practically applied by those who are responsible for the management of solid waste. The journal publishes results from a broad cross section of researchers and practitioners in the field, from academic institutions, governments and the private sector.
International Journal of Integrated Waste Management, Science and Technology
Waste Management is an international journal devoted to the presentation and discussion of information on the generation, prevention, characterization, monitoring, treatment, handling, reuse and ultimate residual disposition of solid wastes, both in industrialized and in economically developing countries. The journal addresses various types of solid wastes including municipal (e.g., residential, institutional, commercial, light industrial), agricultural, and special (e.g., C and D, health care, household hazardous wastes, sewage sludge).
Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
The Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management is an official publication of the Japan Society of Waste Management Experts. The aim of the journal is to reflect the role of the Society, which is to develop solutions and prescriptions for material cycles. The focus of the journal is twofold: research in technical, political, and environmental problems of material cycles and waste management, and information that contributes to the development of an interdisciplinary science of material cycles and waste management.
International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (IJEWM)
The objectives of IJEWM are to establish an effective channel of communication between policy-makers, government agencies, academics and research institutions, and professionals working in the field, and to provide a forum for them to disseminate information. The international dimension is emphasized in order to overcome cultural and national barriers and to meet the needs of accelerating technological change and changes in the global economy. It will serve as a vehicle for the documentation and dissemination of what government bodies, research agencies, international bodies, universities, aid agencies, industries, and environmental scientists and professionals are doing in the areas of environmental and waste management.
The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management
It is an international peer-reviewed journal covering landfill, recycling, waste-to-energy, waste reduction, waste policy, waste economics, composting, waste transfer, waste collection, municipal waste, industrial waste, residual waste and other MSW - municipal solid waste management and technology subjects.
Enterprises and waste management solution providers
ENVIRO SOLUTIONS & SERVICES - undertakes Design, Engineering, Manufacturing, Installation of Water/Waste Water Treatment plants and Air Pollution Control Systems. We offer environmental consulting services (EIA/EMP)
0/2, Fifth Cross Extension, Bharathi Nagar, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu - 641 006, India
Email : [email_address] , [email_address]
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ENVIRO CARE INDIA PVT LTD - engaged in offering valuable consultancy in the field of Environmental Management. Committed to serve clients with operation and maintenance services of water treatment plants, effluent treatment plants and sewage treatment plants along with environmental laboratory analysis, waste disposal land filling, maintenance of treatment plant, pollution control system analysis, air pollution monitoring system, process stack monitoring system, treat ability studies. http://www.indiamart.com/envirocare/
Mr. S. T. Moorthy No. 22, Ist Cross Street,, West CIT Nagar, Near Nanthi Statue, Chennai, Tamil Nadu - 600 035,
Email : [email_address] , [email_address]
Telephone :+(91)-(44)-42867084/ +(91)-(452)-4355103 Mobile :+(91)-9994896263/ 9003923702
VNS Enviro Biotechq Pvt. Ltd - envisions a safer ecological environment which has led to the development and integration of cost effective, highly efficient and secured solutions rendering the Earth Clean and Green and Water on this Planet Pure & Safe.
Plot No. 69-B, Subiksha Flats, Daniel Street, Puzhuthivakkam Chennai, Tamil Nadu - 600 091, India
Email : [email_address] , [email_address]
Telephone :+(91)-(44)-65392874 Mobile :+(91)-9940189452