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The Foundations of Individual Behavior
The Foundations of Individual Behavior
The Foundations of Individual Behavior
The Foundations of Individual Behavior
The Foundations of Individual Behavior
The Foundations of Individual Behavior
The Foundations of Individual Behavior
The Foundations of Individual Behavior
The Foundations of Individual Behavior
The Foundations of Individual Behavior
The Foundations of Individual Behavior
The Foundations of Individual Behavior
The Foundations of Individual Behavior
The Foundations of Individual Behavior
The Foundations of Individual Behavior
The Foundations of Individual Behavior
The Foundations of Individual Behavior
The Foundations of Individual Behavior
The Foundations of Individual Behavior
The Foundations of Individual Behavior
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The Foundations of Individual Behavior

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  • 1. The Foundations of Individual Behavior Prepared by: GREGAR DONAVEN E. VALDEHUEZA, MBA Lourdes College Instructor
  • 2. Objectives: <ul><li>Identify two types of ability </li></ul><ul><li>Define the key biographical characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how to shape the behavior of others </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between the four schedules of reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify the role of punishment in learning </li></ul>
  • 3. ABILITY <ul><li>- Refers to an individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. </li></ul>
  • 4. Types of ability <ul><li>Intellectual abilities – the capacity to do mental activities - thinking, reasoning, and problem solving. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical abilities – the capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics. </li></ul>
  • 5. Dimensions of Intellectual Ability Salesperson : remembering the names of customers Ability to retain and recall past experiences Memory Interior decorator : redecorating an office Ability to imagine how an object would look if its position is space were changed Spatial visualization Supervisor : choosing between two different suggestions offered by employees Ability to use logic and assess the implications of an argument Deductive reasoning Market researcher : forecasting demand for a product in the next time period Ability to identify a logical sequence in a problem and then solve the problem Inductive reasoning Fire investigator : identifying clues to support a charge of arson Ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately Perceptual speed Plant manager : following corporate policies on hiring Ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other Verbal comprehension Accountant : computing the sales tax on a set of items Ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic Number aptitude Job Example Description Dimension
  • 6. Ability to continue maximum effort requiring prolonged effort over time 9. Stamina Ability to maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance 8. Balance Ability to coordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the body 7. Body coordination Other Factors Ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movements 6. Dynamic flexibility Ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible 5. Extent flexibility Flexibility Factors Ability to expend a maximum of energy in one or a series of explosive acts 4. Explosive strength Ability to exert force against external objects 3. Static strength Ability to exert muscle strength using the trunk (particularly abdominal) muscles 2. Trunk strength Ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time 1. Dynamic strength Strength Factors Nine Basic Physical Abilities
  • 7. The ability-job fit <ul><li>jobs make differing demands on people and that people differ in their abilities </li></ul><ul><li>employee performance in enhanced when there is high ability-job fit </li></ul><ul><li>poor ability-job fit, employees will likely to fail </li></ul>
  • 8. BIOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>- Personal characteristics that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records. </li></ul>
  • 9. <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>effect of age on turnover: </li></ul><ul><li>- older you get, less likely to quit </li></ul><ul><li>reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>- fewer job opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>- higher benefits </li></ul><ul><li>effect of age on absenteeism: </li></ul><ul><li>- older employees, lower rates on unavoidable absence </li></ul><ul><li>effect of age on productivity: </li></ul><ul><li>- unrelated </li></ul><ul><li>reason: </li></ul><ul><li>- some decay due to age, offset by gains due to experience </li></ul><ul><li>effect of age on satisfaction: </li></ul><ul><li>- tends to increase among professionals </li></ul><ul><li>- tends to decrease among nonprofessionals during middle age and rises in later years </li></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>- no consistent male-female differences in problem- solving ability, analytical skills, competitive drive, motivation, sociability, or learning ability </li></ul><ul><li>- women are more willing to conform with authority </li></ul><ul><li>- men are more aggressive and more likely to have expectations of success </li></ul><ul><li>- women with pre-school children prefer part-time work, flexible work schedules, and telecommuting to accommodate family responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>- issue on absenteeism, no significant difference </li></ul>
  • 11. <ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>- some scholars argue that it is not productive to discuss race for: </li></ul><ul><li>1. policy reason (divisive issue or can cause disagreement) </li></ul><ul><li>2. biological reason (large percentage are a mixture of races) </li></ul><ul><li>3. genetic & anthropological reason (anthropologists & evolutionary scientists reject concept of distinct racial categories) </li></ul><ul><li>- Department of Education classifies individuals according to five racial categories: African American , Native American (American Indian/Alaskan Native), Asian/Pacific Islander , Hispanic , and White </li></ul><ul><li>- racial differences in cognitive ability tests continues to be hotly debated. </li></ul>
  • 12. <ul><li>Tenure </li></ul><ul><li>- most recent evidence demonstrates a positive relationship between seniority and job productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>- tenure (work experience) appears to be a good predictor of employee productivity </li></ul><ul><li>- in terms of both frequency of absence and total days lost at work, tenure is the single most important explanatory variable. </li></ul><ul><li>- potent (strong) variable in explaining turnover </li></ul><ul><li>- longer a person in a job, less likely to quit </li></ul><ul><li>- past behavior is the best predictor of future behavior </li></ul><ul><li>- tenure and job satisfaction are positively related </li></ul><ul><li>- stable predictor of job satisfaction than chronological age </li></ul>
  • 13. LEARNING <ul><li>Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Almost all complex behavior is learned. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning is a continuous, life-long process. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The principles of learning can be used to shape behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 14. Theories of learning <ul><li>Classical conditioning (Ivan Pavlov) </li></ul><ul><li>– a type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response. </li></ul><ul><li>4 key concepts: </li></ul><ul><li>- unconditioned stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>- unconditioned response </li></ul><ul><li>- conditioned stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>- conditioned response </li></ul>
  • 15. <ul><li>Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- The theory that behavior is a function of its consequences and is learned through experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Operant behavior: voluntary or learned behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors are learned by making rewards contingent to behaviors. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior that is rewarded (positively reinforced) is likely to be repeated. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior that is punished or ignored is less likely to be repeated. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 16. <ul><li>Social learning </li></ul><ul><li>- the view people can learn through observation and direct experience. </li></ul><ul><li>- Attributes of models that influence learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attentional: the attractiveness or similarity of the model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retention: how well the model can be recalled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motor reproduction: the reproducibility of the model’s actions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement: the rewards associated with learning the model behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 17. Shaping: A Managerial Tool <ul><li>Shaping behavior – systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response. </li></ul>Methods of shaping behavior <ul><ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement: rewarding desired behaviors. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement: removing an unpleasant consequence once the desired behavior is exhibited. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment: penalizing an undesired behavior. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extinction: eliminating a reinforcement for an undesired behavior. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 18. Schedules of reinforcement Commissioned sales Very high performance with slow extinction Reward given at variable amounts of outputs Variable ratio Piece-rate pay High and stable performance attained quickly but also with rapid extinction Reward given at fixed amounts of output Fixed ratio Pop quizzes Moderately high and stable performance with slow extinction Reward given at variable time intervals Variable-interval Weekly paychecks Average and irregular performance with rapid extinction Reward given at fixed time intervals Fixed-interval Compliments Fast learning of new behavior but rapid extinction Reward given after each desired behavior Continuous Example Effect on Behavior Nature of Reinforcement Reinforcement Schedule Schedules of Reinforcement
  • 19. Organizational behavior modification (OB Mod) <ul><li>- application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting. </li></ul>
  • 20. Five steps in OB Mod: <ul><li>1. identifying critical behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>2. developing baseline data </li></ul><ul><li>3. identifying behavioral consequences </li></ul><ul><li>4. developing & implementing an intervention strategy </li></ul><ul><li>5. evaluating performance improvement </li></ul>

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