Security. By joining a group, individuals can reduce the insecurity of “standing alone”. People feel stronger, have fewer self-doubts, and are more resistant to threats when they are part of a group.
Status. Inclusion in a group that is viewed as important by others provides recognition and status for its members.
Self-esteem. Groups can provide people with feelings of self-worth. That is, in addition to conveying status to those outside the group, membership can also give increased feelings of worth to the group members themselves.
Affiliation. Groups can fulfill social needs. People enjoy the regular interaction that comes with group membership. For many people, these on-the-job interactions are their primary source for fulfilling their needs for affiliation.
Power. What cannot be achieved individually often becomes possible through group action. There is power in numbers.
Goal Achievement. There are times when it takes more than one person to accomplish a particular task – there is a need to pool talents, knowledge, or power in order to complete a job. In such instances, management will reply on the use of a formal group.
Adjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group.
Reference Group – important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform.
Deviant Workplace Behavior
( antisocial behavior or workplace incivility )
Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in doing so, threatens the well-being of the organization or its members.
Typology of Deviant Workplace Behavior Stealing from the organization Lying about hours worked Sabotage Property Wasting resources Intentionally working slowly Leaving early Production EXAMPLES CATEGORY Stealing from coworkers Verbal abuse Sexual harassment Personal aggression Blaming coworkers Gossiping and spreading rumors Showing favoritism Political EXAMPLES CATEGORY
Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group.
Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness, Performance Norms, and Productivity Low productivity Moderate to low productivity High productivity Moderate productivity Low High High Low C O H E S I V E N E S S P E R F O R M A N C E N O R M S
Group members rationalize any resistance to the assumptions they have made. No matter how strongly the evidence may contradict their basic assumptions, members behave so as to reinforce those assumptions continually.
Members apply direct pressures on those who momentarily express doubts about any of the group’s shared views or who question the validity of arguments supporting the alternative favored by the majority.
Members who have doubts or hold differing points of view seek to avoid deviating from what appears to be group consensus by keeping silent about misgivings and even minimizing to themselves the importance of their doubts.
There appears to be an illusion of unanimity. If someone doesn’t speak, it’s assumed that he/she is in full accord. In other words, abstention becomes viewed as a ‘YES’ vote.
Typical groups, in which members interact with each other face-to-face.
An idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives.
Nominal Group Technique
A group decision-making method in which individual members meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion.
A meeting in which members interact on computers, allowing for anonymity of comments and aggregation of votes.
Evaluating Group Effectiveness Low Moderate High High Development of group cohesiveness Moderate Moderate Not applicable High Commitment to solution Low Moderate Low High Potential for interpersonal conflict High High High Low Task orientation Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Speed High Low Low Low Money costs Low Moderate Low High Social pressure High High Moderate Low Number and quality of ideas Electronic Nominal Brainstorming Interacting EFFECTIVENESS CRITERIA TYPE OF GROUP
- END - Clarifications? Suggestions? Violent reactions? If none, then you may go. Take care everyone.