What is the importance of attitudes to workplace diversity?
the components of attitudes Cognitive = evaluation My superior gave a promotion to a coworker who deserved it less than me. My supervisor is unfair. Affective = feeling I dislike my supervisor! Behavioral = action I’m looking for other work; I’ve complained about my supervisor to anyone who would listen. Negative attitude toward supervisor
Research has generally concluded that people seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behavior.
This means that individuals seek to reconcile divergent attitudes and align their attitudes and behavior so they appear rational and consistent.
ex: a certain college girl believes that sororities are good and that pledging a sorority is important. If she fails to make a sorority, however, she may say, “I recognized that sorority life isn’t all good anyway.”
When there is inconsistency, forces are initiated to return the individual to an equilibrium state in which attitudes and behavior are again consistent. This can be done by altering either the attitudes or the behavior, or by developing a rationalization for the discrepancy.
However, in the late 1960s, this assumed relationship between attitudes and behavior was challenged by a review of the research. Based on an evaluation of a number of studies that investigated the attitude-behavior relationship, the reviewer concluded that attitudes were unrelated to behavior or, at best, only slightly related.
More recent research has demonstrated that attitudes significantly predict future behavior and confirmed Festinger’s original belief that the relationship can be enhanced by taking moderating variables into account.
A positive feeling about one’s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.
The degree to which a person identifies with a job, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self-worth.
Closely related concept is psychological empowerment which is employees’ belief in the degree to which they impact their work environment, their competence, the meaningfulness of their job, and the perceived autonomy in their work.
a person’s job is more than just the obvious activities of shuffling papers, writing programming code, waiting on customers, or driving a truck. Jobs require interaction with coworkers and bosses, following organizational rules and policies, meeting performance standards, living with working conditions that are often less than ideal, and the like.
Is a method nothing more than asking individuals to respond to one question, such as “All things considered, how satisfied are you with your job?”
Summation of job facets
More sophisticated method. It identifies key elements in a job and asks for the employee’s feelings about each. Typical factors that would be included are the nature of the work, supervision, present pay, promotion opportunities, and relations with coworkers.
people are on average satisfied with their jobs overall, with the work itself, and with their supervisors and coworkers. However, they tend to be less satisfied with their pay and with promotion opportunities.
the major job satisfaction facets (work itself, pay, advancement opportunities, supervision, coworkers), enjoying the work itself is almost always the facet most strongly correlated with high levels of overall job satisfaction.
personality plays a role. Research has shown that people who have a negative personality are usually less satisfied with their jobs.
how about pay? people who are poor or who live in poor countries, pay does correlate with job satisfaction and with overall happiness. But once an individual reaches a level of comfortable living, the relationship virtually disappears. What motivates us is not necessarily the same as what makes us happy.
the impact of dissatisfied and satisfied employees on the workplace
Dissatisfaction expressed through behavior directed toward leaving the organization.
Dissatisfaction expressed through active and constructive attempts to improve conditions.
Dissatisfaction expressed by passively waiting for conditions to improve.
Dissatisfaction expressed through allowing conditions to worsen.
When satisfaction and productivity data are gathered for the organization as a whole, we find that organizations with more satisfied employees tend to be more effective than organizations with fewer satisfied employees.
job satisfaction & organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) Satisfied employees would seem more likely to talk positively about the organization, help others, and go beyond the normal expectations in their job. More recent evidence however, suggests that satisfaction influences OCB, but through perceptions of fairness.
Satisfaction is also negatively related to turnover, but the correlation is stronger than what we found for absenteeism. Evidence indicates that an important moderator of the satisfaction-turnover relationship is the employee’s level of performance. Level of satisfaction is less important in predicting turnover for superior performers.
job satisfaction & workplace deviance
Job dissatisfaction predicts a lot of specific behaviors, including unionization attempts, substance abuse, stealing at work, undue socializing, and tardiness.
If employers want to control the undesirable consequences of job dissatisfaction, they had best attack the source of the problem – dissatisfaction – rather than trying to control the different responses.