INCLUSION & MAINSTREAMING TIPS Exceptional Lives, 3 rd Edition By: Turnbull, Turnbull, Shank, Smith, Leal Prepared by: GREGAR DONAVEN E. VALDEHUEZA, MBA Lourdes College Instructor
LEARNING DISABILITIES Collaborate with the school counselor or resource teacher to plan ways to teach her needed social skills. Point out the misinterpretation and tell him/her how to do it “right”. The students misinterprets social cues. The student misinterprets facial gestures and/or verbal inflections. Social Interactions Check to be sure he/she understands and is able to do assignments. Develop a behavior management plan to reinforce on-task behavior. Move the student away from peers or put out of the class. The student continually disrupts other students when he/she needs to be working independently on assignments. Behavior Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
Promote success with appropriate learning tasks that can be accomplished, and then provide a strong reward system. Excuse him/her from some assignments or reprimand him/her for his/her unwillingness to try. The student easily give up in areas of weakness to get out of work. Classroom Attitudes Collaborate with special educators to teach him/her learning strategies. Provide extra time to complete. Grade him/her for poor or incomplete work. His/her work is inconsistent or generally poor. Educational Performance Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
EMOTIONAL OR BEHAVIORAL DISORDER Give him/her time to calm down. Then teach appropriate social skills using modeling, videos, and social skills programs. Separate him/her from other students to prevent fights. He/she fights with other students and is always on the defensive. Social Interactions Building on his/her strengths, try an approach based on catching him/her being good. Also try contingency contracting. Respond in anger and send him/her out of the classroom. Place him/her in “time-out” for extended periods of time. The student refuses to follow directions and uses inappropriate language. Behavior Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
Recognize the warning signs. Refer him/her for help. Collaborate with the school counselor. Discipline him/her for nonparticipation, and instruct him to “cheer-up”. He/she is depressed or sad all the time and does not speak or interact with others. Classroom Attitudes Collaborate with special educators to teach him/her learning strategies. Provide extra time to complete. Give poor grades and require him/her to remain until all work is done. The students is rarely on-task and appears to have an inability to learn. Educational Performance Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
ATTENTION DEFICIT / HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (AD/HD) Inattentive type : Recognize the student’s presence daily in a positive way. Hyperactive / Impulsive and Combined type : Catch the student being good. Look for opportunities to praise. Work with parents on consistent behavior management plan. Inattentive type : Overlook the student Hyperactive / Impulsive and Combined type : Be critical and punitive. Inattentive type : Student inattentive, withdrawn, forgetful, a day-dreamer and/or lethargic. Hyperactive / Impulsive type : Student is restless, talkative, impulsive, and/or easily distracted. Combined type : Features of both Behavior Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
Use the five principles of relevance, novelty, variety, choices, and activity in your teaching. Give up on the student. Student motivation is inconsistent or lacking. Classroom Attitudes Teach students how to organize their materials. Help them find a coach. Make punitive or sarcastic comments. Work is incomplete and/or sloppy. Homework is lost or forgotten. Materials are disorganized. Educational Performance Role play friendship skills. Help students discover their strengths, and encourage group participation in those activities. Start with small groups. Encourage membership in a support group for students with AD/HD. Inattentive type : Call attention to child’s isolation in front of other students; try to force students to play. Hyperactive / Impulsive and Combined type : Pull student out of social situation for inappropriate behavior. Inattentive type : Student withdraws from social situations. Hyperactive / Impulsive and Combined type : Student bursts into social situations and may be gregarious or inappropriate and annoying. Social Interactions Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
MENTAL RETARDATION Give him/her an alternative: “Give me five” instead of hugging. Tell him/her that hugging is not appropriate behavior in school. The student tries to hug a peer who does not want to hug. Social Interactions Model your acceptance of the student. Help him/her identify an alternative acceptable behavior, such as quiet laughter. Role play the new behavior. Tell the student to stop behavior (laughter) and be quiet or leave the room. The student demonstrates potentially distracting behavior such as loud laughter. Behavior Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
Give him/her many opportunities to do well on parts that he/she can successfully accomplish. Provide him/her with appropriate leadership opportunities. Let him/her be excused from the activity. The student demonstrates learned helplessness with new activities or work. Classroom Attitudes Maintain high expectations but modify the curriculum; same topic, different focus. Discipline him/her for lack of cooperation. The student shows an apparent lack of interest and boredom with class activities. Educational Performance Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
AUTISM Collaborate with the inclusion specialist to establish a method of communication. Isolate him/her from other students and discipline his/her behavior. He/she bites others who try to work with him/her and may repeat their language. Social Interactions Collaborate with the inclusion specialist. Suggest a preferred activity that builds on his/her strengths and interests. Ignore the behavior and tell him/her to stop. The student often rocks back and forth over and over during class activities he/she is not interested in. Behavior Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
Use social stories to help him/her predict activities and plan attitudes and responses for difficult situations. Remove him/her from class to work alone. The student has an inability to focus and may become antagonistic during activities in which there is much noise or confusion. Classroom Attitudes Use visual images and music to teach abstract concepts. Expect less and make the requirements less structured. The student learns very slowly and needs a great deal of extra help to learn simple concepts. Educational Performance Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
GIFTEDNESS Build his/her leadership by using “Reciprocal Teaching”, giving him responsibility for leading a class discussion of major concepts. Keep the student separated from other students to avoid potential problems. The student might be a leader who gets along with everyone, or he/she might look like an “instigator” or a “manipulator” who cannot see another’s point. Social Interactions Begin a dialogue journal. Ask him/her to write down his/her questions, using wither paper, computer, or a tape recorder. Then research and discuss the answers together. Tell the student to be quiet and pat attention to his/her work. The student might be the perfect student; or you might see “know-it-all”, the “put-down-artist”; or he/she may ask so many questions that there is time for nothing else. Behavior Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
Try giving him/her the opportunity to use the learning in areas of his/her own interest, working on individual projects with the teacher. Discipline him/her for his/her poor attitude. If it continues, you might be tempted to refer him/her for AD/HD testing. You might see attentive curiosity and creativity, or you might see the student who’s into everything, the “stubborn mule”, the “cut-up”, and the one who can’t leave anything alone. Classroom Attitudes As the dreamer to design a better way to teach the content being covered. Discipline the student for inattentiveness is give additional work to reinforce the lesson. You might see academic aptitude in any area, or you might see the “dreamy doodler” or the student who can’t change from one subject to another. Educational Performance Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
SEVERE & MULTIPLE DISABILITIES Use assistive technology to enable him to make his/her needs and wants known. Allow him/her to remain a class “observer” rather than a participant. The student is unable to communicate needs or wants using words. Social Interactions Learn to identify cues that trigger positive behaviors. Reward appropriate behaviors. Discipline and isolate him/her from the rest of the class. The student may have temper tantrums and hit himself/herself or others. Behavior Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
Use tomes of alertness to give him/her choices for ways to respond and interact during instruction. Ignore him/her and focus on other more attentive students. The student may appear bored or unresponsive and may sleep during class instruction. Classroom Attitudes Create opportunities for students participate in cooperative learning groups. Give up and let him/her color or do something quiet. The student is unable to read or write and his/her functional skills may be extremely limited. Educational Performance Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
OTHER HEALTH IMPAIRMENTS Structure situations that encourage him/her to share his/her ideas and thoughts and allow other to recognize his/her strengths. Allow him/her to work alone, assuming he/she is merely low on energy or needs to be by him/herself. He/she may be self-conscious or embarrassed about his/her illness so that he/she withdraws from others. Social Interactions Call or visit him/her during times of absence. Provide extra support and help to complete needed work. Treat the student as though he/she is not able to do the work. The student may be absent a great deal with major health impairments. Behavior Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
Give him/her the benefit of the doubt. Check how he/she is feeling, then clarify, repeat instructions, or get needed help. Ignore his/her behavior or make an issue in front of the class. May appear bored, confused, or overwhelmed with class activities when not feeling well. Classroom Attitudes Encourage him/her and offer extra help. Adjust assignments to create meaningful tasks. Call him/her down for not paying attention or excuse him from completing assignments. With some illnesses, lack of strength and alertness hinder him/her capacity for full participation. Educational Performance Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
PHYSICAL DISABILITIES Use direct eye contact and AAC devices. Socialize with him/her, and treat him/her as other students. Avoid bringing him/her into situations with other students. He/she may not be able to speak except with his/her eyes and gestures. Social Interactions Collaborate closely with the nurse, the aide, the inclusion specialist, and the physical therapist to strive for his/her full potential. Allow him/her to be excused from many classes activities or treat him/her an “invisible”. The student may have restricted movements, needs special physical care or use a wheelchair. Behavior Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
Get to know him/her and spend time with him/her discussing his/her interests and what he/she is experiencing daily. Instruct him/her on appropriate ways to participate. His/her attitude may be poor or resistant because he/she is not treated in a typical way. Classroom Attitudes Provide him/her extra time to complete work, take advantage of available computer technology. Grade him/her down for work not completed on time. He/she may take more time to complete class assignments because of his/her physical disabilities. Educational Performance Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY Work with both the speech pathologist and the school counselor to plan the best ways to use language and social skills in successful situations. Ignore the student’s social difficulties and hope they go away. The student may have forgotten social skills and experience social misunderstandings because of his/her new identity struggles. Social Interactions Reward the student’s positive behaviors. Provide predictable routines that encourage normal behavior patterns while teaching new ways to respond within the school environment. Respond with strong disapproval and discipline the student’s new behavior. The student may show behavior and personality changes such as temper, outbursts, anxiety, fatigue, or depression. Behavior Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
Allow rest periods. Modify the amount and intensity of assignments. Reprimand his/her apparent lack of participation. Discipline him/her or excuse him/her from class activities. He/she may appear easily distracted, have headaches, or show a lack of motivation during instruction. Classroom Attitudes Capitalize on what is familiar to retrieve and develop memory, organization, and cognitive processes. Prioritize the academic skills he/she needed to learn. Require extra work in areas of difficulty rather than focus on holding skills and what he/she can accomplish. Learning new information may be difficult for him/her, or it may take him/her much longer to process information. Educational Performance Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
COMMUNICATION DISORDERS Give him/her responsibility in the classroom and other areas. Demonstrate that you value his/her contributions. Assume he/she is happy and let him/her be. The student may play alone. Social Interactions Ask for information in ways that do not emphasize his/her disability – for example single-word responses or rehearsed responses. Tell him/her to hurry up; the class is waiting. Do not allow him/her time to complete his/her idea and move to another student. Never call on him/her. The student may have difficulty expressing his/her ideas in a large group. Behavior Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
Give specific suggestions on how to initiate interaction with others. For example, if he/she asks for something, suggest he/she ask another student instead. Tell him/her to go play with others. Be flattered by the student’s friendship. The student may rely on the teacher as his/her role support, expecting him/her to intercede with other students. Classroom Attitudes Structure activities in which the correct forms are predictable and he/she has the opportunity to use the patterns successfully in different contexts. Constantly correct him/her with a red pen or ignore his/her written difficulties. Assume the speech language pathologist will remediate this problem. The student may not verbally use comparative forms such as big, bigger, biggest and may have same difficulties with written language. Educational Performance Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
HEARING LOSS Discuss the situation with the interpreter, deaf educator, or parents. Small group work is often more comfortable for students. Force him/her to be a part of a chosen group; assume the student is content with current social interaction. His/her speech may be difficult to understand, the other students may not know sign, and this may limit social interactions. Social Interactions Using an interpreter or written rules, be sure he/she understands the game. Tell him/her in front of the rest of the class to get in the game. He/she may not play games with others at recess. Behavior Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
Be sure his/her hearing aids are working and that interpreting needs are being met in class activities. Discipline him/her for inattentiveness. He/she may appear bored or inattentive because of not hearing all that is said or not watching the interpreter. Classroom Attitudes Be sure you are facing him/her so that your lips are easily seen and that the light falling on your face is good. For students using an interpreter, talk to the interpreter about the apparent communication problem. Tell him/her to read it in the textbook. He/she may miss some things you say and appear not to understand. Educational Performance Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
BLINDNESS OR LOW VISION Have entire class prepare autobiographies including life history, special interests, and photo or object identifiers for him/her to study. Assume he/she is stuck up and unfriendly. He/she doesn’t say hello to peers in hallways or acknowledge peers’ presence when entering the room. Social Interactions Teach her board or card games. Allow him/her to stay in class and read or do homework. He/she is a loner on the playground, choosing to walk or play alone. Behavior Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?
Make sure that she can “see” teacher’s materials by having copies of printed/brailled materials at his/her desk during lesson. Assume it is too difficult or simply ignore the inattention. He/she might seem bored or uninterested during class demonstrations or teacher-directed activities. Classroom Attitudes Create meaningful situations where use of a concept or idea is required by him/her in a variety of novel environments. Expect less from him/her or require him/her to practice difficult skills over and over. He/she is not learning new concepts or ideas as quickly as peers and needs experiences with concrete materials. Educational Performance Alternate responses? What you might be tempted to do? What you might see?