Construction of Secular and Sacred ReligionPresentation Transcript
CONSTRUCTION OFSECULAR & SACRED RELIGION ABDULGAPHOR M. PANIMBANG
Secularization is the transformation of a society from close identification with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious (or irreligious) values and secular institutions
Sacred the state of being holy (perceived by religious individuals as associated with the divine) or sacred (considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspiring awe or reverence among believers in a given set of spiritual ideas)
Secularization• Social theorists such as Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Max Weber, and Émile Durkheim, postulated that the modernization of society would include a decline in levels of religiosity• In Catholic canon law, the term can also denote the permission or authorization given for a member of a religious Order to live outside his or her religious community or monastery, either for a fixed or permanent period
Background Secularization is sometimes credited both to the cultural shifts in society following the emergence of rationality and the development of science as a substitute for superstition Max Weber called this process, "the disenchantment of the world"
Two consequences1. The collective conscience as defined by Durkheim is diminished; and2. Through the fragmentation of communal activities, religion becomes more a matter of individual choice rather than an observed social obligation.
Islam and Secularization Abdel Wahab Elmessiri (2002) outlined two meanings of the secularization term Partial Secularization: "The separation between religion and state". Complete Secularization: "The separation between all (religion, moral, and human) values, and (not just the state) but also to (the human nature in its public and private sides), so that the holiness is removed from the world, and this world is transformed into a usable matter that can be employed for the sake of the strong".
Secularism has no place in Islam Islam is the religion that Allah sent down to replace the previous manifestations of the faith and to govern all aspects of life Throughout the history of Islam, it never experienced any amendment or alteration
Secularist movements In 1924 ,Mustafa Kemal Atatürk led a political and cultural revolution • The abolition of the Caliphate. • Religious lodges and Sufi orders were banned. • A secular civil code was adopted to replace the previous codes based on Islamic law (shari’a) outlawing all forms of polygamy, annulled religious marriages, granted equal rights to men and women, in matters of inheritance, marriage and divorce. • The religious court system and institutions of religious education were abolished. • The use of religion for political purposes was banned. • The article that defined the Turkish state as Islamic was removed from the constitution. • The alphabet was changed from Arabic to Roman. • A portion of religious activity was moved to the Turkish language, including the Adhan (call to prayer) which lasted till 1950
POLYGAMYIslam Christianity “Marry women of your Many Hindu religious choice, two, or three, or personalities, according to their scriptures, had multiple wives four; but if ye fear that In earlier times, Christian men ye shall not be able to were permitted as many wives deal justly (with them), as they wished, since the Bible then only one.” puts no restriction on the [Al-Qur’an 4:3] number of wives Polygyny is permitted in Judaism
PORK FORBIDDENChristianity Islam “Of their flesh shall ye not “Forbidden to you (for eat, and their carcass shall food) are: dead meat, ye not touch, they are unclean to you.” [Leviticus blood, the flesh of 11:7-8] swine, and that on “And the swine, because it which hath been divideth the hoof, yet invoked the name of cheweth not the cud, it is other than Allah.” unclean unto you. Ye shall not eat of their flesh, nor [Al-Qur’an 5:3] touch their dead carcass.” [Deuteronomy 14:8]
PROHIBITION OF ALCOHOLCHRISTIANITY ISLAM “Wine is a mocker, “O ye who believe! strong drink is raging; Intoxicants and and whosoever is Gambling, (dedication deceived thereby is not of) stones, and wise.” [Proverbs 20:1] (divination by) arrows, are an Abomination – of “And be not drunk with Satan’s handiwork; wine.” [Ephesians 5:18] eschew such (abomination), that ye may prosper.” [Al- Qur’an 5:90]