Tony LicuChairman of the Conference
Michael ConstantinidesDeputy Chairman of FSF/SE.Europe-M.East-Cyprus
Dmtry Tarasevich    FSFI-Russia
Catalin RaduPresident of ECAC
Eleni GeroudakisMinistry of Communications and Works of Cyprus
Bogdan DonciuMinister Personal Counselor Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure of Romania
Tony LicuChairman of the Conference
1st SESSION
The ICAO policies on contingency and emergency           response planning            Carole Stewart      Regional officer...
International Civil Aviation OrganizationICAO Policies on Emergency Response     and Contingency Planning                C...
ICAO Policies• Standards and Recommended Practices  (SARPS) detailed in Annexes to the Convention  on International Civil ...
References• Annex 2 - Rules of the Air  – Together with the SARPS of Annex 11, govern the    application of the Procedures...
References• Annex 6 – Operation of Aircraft  – operation of aeroplanes by operators authorized    to conduct international...
References• Annex 11 - Air Traffic Services  – Air Traffic Control Service, Flight Information    Service and Alerting Ser...
References• Annex 14 - Aerodromes   – Volume 1 – Aerodrome Design and Operations   – Includes SARPS related to aerodrome e...
References• Annex 17 - Security  – Safeguarding international civil aviation against    acts of unlawful interference     ...
References• Procedures of Air Navigation Services – Air  Traffic Management (PANS ATM, Doc 4444)  – complementary to the S...
References• Safety Management Manual (SMM)  (Doc 9859)  – provides States with guidance to develop the    regulatory frame...
References• Emergency response planning is mainly  addressed in Annex 6, Annex 11, Annex 14,  the Safety Management Manual...
Emergency Response Planning• Annex 11 requires States to establish a State  safety programme (SSP)• Part of SSP is to requ...
Emergency Response Planning• Annex 6 requires operators and approved  maintenance organizations to develop an  Emergency R...
Emergency Response Planning• Safety Management Manual applicable to all  service providers  – approved training organizati...
Emergency Response Planning• Emergency Response Plan(ERP) outlines what  actions should be taken following an accident and...
Emergency Response Planning• ERP should be in the form of a manual• Safety Management Manual, Appendix B  provides detaile...
Emergency Response Planning• Operators’ ERPs should be coordinated with  airport emergency plans• Checklists should form a...
Emergency Response Planning•   Airports develop airport emergency plans•   ATS providers develop contingency plans•   Airl...
Contingency Procedures• Annex 2, Annex 11 and the PANS ATM include detailed  procedures related to contingency events rela...
Contingency Planning• Annex 11 requires ATS authorities to develop and  promulgate contingency plans – detailed  guidance ...
Contingency Planning• To assist in providing for the safe and orderly  flow of international air traffic in the event of  ...
Contingency Planning• Disruptions in one portion of airspace affect  adjacent areas• International coordination required• ...
Contingency Planning• State(s) responsible for providing ATS and related  supporting services is (are) also responsible, i...
Contingency Planning• Timely introduction of contingency arrangements  essential if hazards to air navigation are to be av...
Contingency Planning• Contingency plan may include  – Procedures for avoiding airspace  – Current and alternative routes  ...
Contingency Planning• Contingency plan may include (continued)  – Procedures for temporary re-assignment of    responsibil...
Contingency Planning• NOTAM of anticipated or actual disruption of  air traffic services and/or related supporting  servic...
Regional Resources• Volcanic Ash Contingency Plan – EUR and NAT  Regions (www.paris.icao.int)• ATM Operational Contingency...
Thank you!                               Questions?                      Carole Stewart-Green                     cstewart...
Regulatory Framework of the European Union        Jose-Luis Penedo          Policy Officer EASA
National oversight of contingency and emergency plans      at national, European and global level           Mrs. Claudia V...
ROMANIAN CIVIL AERONAUTICAL AUTHORITY                             National oversight of                     contingency an...
Motto:“PREPARE FOR THE WORST BUT HOPE         FOR THE BEST”                            Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881),     ...
Content   Our national environment;   Oversight of contingency plans;   Oversight of emergency plans;   Global and reg...
Our national environment   Ministry of Transport                    Service and/or Product Provider Organizations under   ...
Our national environment   The Romanian CAA was established by    Government Decision no. 405/1993;   The role according...
Oversight of contingency plans• Capability to  continue with the  provision of air  navigation  services whatever  the cir...
Oversight of contingency plansThe requirements for Air Traffic Services are setby national regulations:   ICAO Annex 11 –...
Oversight of contingency plansThe requirements for Air Navigation Services areset at European level:   Regulation (EU) No...
Oversight of contingency plansMechanisms to ensure acceptability andconformity with the defined requirements:     existen...
Oversight of contingency plans   The approval of the contingency plan is part of    the certification process and ongoing...
Oversight of emergency plans• Incidents, accidents  or medical  emergencies  interfere with the  normal functioning  of th...
Oversight of emergency plansThe requirements for Airports are set by nationaland European regulations:   ICAO Annex 14 – ...
Oversight of emergency plansMechanisms to ensure acceptability andconformity with the defined requirements:     existence...
Oversight of emergency plansMechanisms to ensure acceptability andconformity with the defined requirements:   verificatio...
Oversight of medical emergency              plans   The procedures regarding medical emergencies, either    in-flight or ...
Oversight of medical emergency              plans   Every international airport in Romania has an agreement    with regio...
Global and regional approach   The scale of the event impose global or    regional preparedness:      pandemics, terrori...
Global and regional approachFor the medicalemergencies,includingcommunicabledisease outbreaks,the internationalframework i...
Global and regional approach   The European Aviation    Crisis Coordination Cell    (EACCC):     Facilitate management o...
Global and regional approach   FAB operation:     Relations or conclusion of      agreements with      neighbouring Stat...
Conclusions   Contingency/Emergency policies, concepts and    plans can provide a view of what the situation may    look ...
ROMANIAN CIVIL AERONAUTICAL AUTHORITY                                          Thank you!                                 ...
2nd SESSION
Developing and deploying contingency and emergency    plans at national, European and global level               Sid Lawre...
Training needs for an effective contingency and         emergency response planning               Andre Auer        JAA Tr...
JAA TO’s Approach to Training on Emergency Response PlanningJAA Training OrganisationAndré Auer, Special AdvisorOn behalf ...
Content• About JAA TO• EU regulation 996/2010• JAA TO ERP Workshop  • Workshop Content  • Participants and Instructors  • ...
About JAA TO: Who we are• ECAC Associate Body                                       (since 1 July 2009)• Dutch Foundation ...
Mission and Goals of    JAA Training Organisation• Remain the leading Aviation Safety Training  Provider in Europe• Being ...
About JAA TO: Our Courses                                                                   Maintenance       Nominated Po...
Emergency ResponsePlanning• EU regulation 996/2010 (investigation and  prevention of accidents and incidents in civil  avi...
Emergency Response Planning• In preamble of EU regulation   – New rules for list of persons on board   – New rules for pro...
Emergency Response Planning• In preamble of EU regulation   – New rules for emergency plans for:      – States      – Airp...
Emergency Response  Planning• New regulation always means need for training• This is especially valid for contingency and ...
Emergency ResponsePlanning• JAA TO provides a 3-day workshop scheduled  throughout the year in all 12 Training Centers  as...
Emergency ResponsePlanning• Contents of workshop (1)   – Emergency and crisis   – Why an ERP (the advantage)   – Steps in ...
Emergency ResponsePlanning• Contents of workshop (2)   – Building a response framework   – Handling the media and the gene...
Emergency ResponsePlanning• Contents of workshop (2)   – Skills of persons in organisation   – Tasks of persons in organis...
Emergency ResponsePlanning• Contents of workshop (3)   – Additional info from a real life case will be     given       – E...
Emergency ResponsePlanning• Participants of workshop   – From the mentioned organisations (State,     airport, airlines)  ...
Emergency ResponsePlanning• JAA TO Workshop Instructors   – Experience with investigations of accident     and incident in...
Emergency ResponsePlanning• Feedback from workshop   – “A very good and clear course. …. The     instructor gave us all in...
“I hated every minute of training         but I said : Don’t quit.Suffer now and live the rest of your life           as a...
Thank you foryour Attention!www.jaato.com
Contingency Plans of the military: Perspective of the                Romanian Airforce   Major General Fanica CARNU       ...
3rd SESSION
Contingency and emergency plans of Airlines       Dragos MunteanuHead of Safety & Quality-TAROM
The ANSP’s perspective on contingency and emergency                      planning            Mr.Adrian Serban         Dire...
Contingency and emergency plans of an airport         Miltos Miltiadous       Manager of Larnaca Airport
Hermes AirportsContingency and Emergency Plans     an Airport’s Perspective                             126
Hermes AirportsWhy do we need Emergency & Contingency Plans?  Fulfil regulatory, legal or contractual compliance  Look a...
Hermes AirportsKey difference:   Emergency Planning:    ICAO Requirement    Regulated from local CAAs    Contingency Pla...
Emergency PlanningAn ICAO requirement:   Annex 14 and   ASM part 5 - directions and guidelines   Needs to be developed ...
Emergency PlanningAirport’s Emergency Response &Preparedness Plan (ERPP)The plan to prepare the airport community to face...
Emergency PlanningFollows Specific Structure covering ICAOEmergency Scenarios  Alert for Aircraft Emergency (Standby Cras...
Emergency PlanningFollows Specific Structure covering ICAOEmergency Scenarios - Continued…  Medical Emergency (Pandemic) ...
Emergency PlanningFormalizes the conduct between all emergency andother services during each scenario:   Rescue & Fire Fi...
Emergency PlanningDescribes the flow of command during eachscenario:assumes role as On-Scene commander.    Who    How th...
Emergency PlanningLeaves no margin for guess-work & assumptions  Everybody involved needs to know:     What to do.     W...
Emergency PlanningPractise makes Perfect  Full Scale Exercise:     At least every two years.  Partial Exercise:     At l...
Emergency PlanningCriticism Helps  Examine what went wrong during each exercise   Built on exercise findings to clear up r...
Contingency PlanningRefers to a back up plan (set of plans) to cater for sustaining efficientoperations when loosing certa...
Contingency Planning                   Typically is in the form of:• Alternate systems that can be used.• Procedures that ...
Contingency PlanningThe PLAN BTo minimize impact on Operations and reduce customersinconvenienceTo keep the airport runnin...
Contingency Planning Caters for the interim period until the full recovery of a  primary system (actions required until t...
Contingency PlanningTypical Scenarios:   Baggage Handling System:    Partial Failure    Total Failure  Info Systems :  ...
Contingency PlanningCritical Systems such as Runway Lights                                         143
Contingency Planning Cookbook Approach - Everybody knows what to do. Clear allocation of duties between agencies &  depa...
Contingency Planning Access Control System (ACS) Failure       Hijack Alert Activating IVR and Website                ...
Emergency & Contingency PlanningEmergency Planning             Contingency Planning    Safety aspect first            Effi...
Emergency & Contingency PlanningEmergency Planning             Contingency Planning    Safety aspect first             Eff...
Emergency & Contingency Planning          THANK YOU          QUESTIONS?                                   148
4th Session
Contingency and emergency plans in Russian aviation: Isthere a need for harmonization with European policies?             ...
The IFATCA viewOreski ZeljkoIFATCA EVP Europe
Regional SeminarContingency and Emergency Plans in Aviation:
The IFATCA ViewIs there a need for common plansand coordination at industry level
IFATCA is the worldwideFederation     of    air    trafficcontrollers with more than         members representing13 countr...
The IFATCA View
emergency [ɪˈm ʒənsɪ]                   ɜˈdn pl -cies1.   a.      an unforeseen or sudden occurrence, esp of a danger dema...
The IFATCA View
con·tin·gen·cy (kn-tnjn-s)n. pl. con·tin·gen·cies1.    a. An event that may occur but that is not likely or intended; a po...
The IFATCA View
How to act during anemergency/incident/accident?Guidelines for Controller Training in theHandling of Unusual/Emergency Sit...
Controllers should be given initial and        recurrent training in the degraded mode        operations of their equipmen...
The IFATCA View
Difference between crisis vs. emergency, catastrophes and conflictsOne of the main differences is the way of management of...
A crisis is any event or situation that could hinder the ability of an air traffic control unit to operate effectively, or...
7 reasons why it is important to have an understanding of a crisis: 1. We can better cope with the challenges a crisis wil...
The IFATCA View
Can you prepare for a crises? YES! 1.   First step: Higher values and considerations, general interest and main      tasks...
Can you prepare for a crises? YES! 4.   Forth step: the grouping will now be associated to real potential damaging      ri...
Can you prepare for a crises? YES! 6.   Step six: where are we compared with where we should be with the      readiness of...
The IFATCA View
Reference :1. Leadership in Crisis (published in German and written by Laurent F.Carrel)   Guidelines for Controller Train...
The IFATCA ViewIs there a need for common plansand coordination at industry level
Thank you!The IFATCA View
Human factors in Contingency and emergency plans            Dr.Ioannis MarcouSecretary General of the Greek Society of Avi...
176             Human Factors in Contingency and Emergency Plans                          Dr Ioannis Markou, MD           ...
Definitions                                                                                               177        •    ...
SHELL MODEL                                                178                                  • Software:               ...
SHELL MODEL AND EMERGENCY PLANNING                  179      • Liveware-Environment (L-E)              – Adaptation       ...
SITUATIONAL AWARENESS                                                          180                                        ...
STRESS AND PERFORMANCE                                  181     •     Definition            – Stress is a condition or fee...
SOURCES OF STRESS OF ATM                                                                            182       • Peaks of t...
SOURCES OF STRESS OF ATM                               183      • Shift schedules (night      • Personal        work in pa...
STRESS MANAGEMENT                                         184     • Recognize the potential signs and symptoms of stress  ...
STRESS MANAGEMENT                                              185       • Physical Factors            • Psychological Fac...
CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT                                                      186       •    Critical Incident ...
187                 CISM increases the rate of normal                recovery, in normal people, who are                ha...
TERRORISM                             188        • "Nothing is easier         than to denounce the          evil doer; Not...
TERRORISM                                               189      • Physical profile          • Social profile         – He...
ASPECTS OF DEALING WITH TERRORIST                                                                                  190    ...
SHELL MODEL AND EMERGENCY PLANNING                    191                                               • Liveware-Hardwar...
192             SHELL MODEL AND EMERGENCY PLANNING     • Liveware-Software (L-S)             – Computer literacy          ...
193             SHELL MODEL AND EMERGENCY PLANNING                                    • Liveware-Liveware (L-L)           ...
FATIGUE                                                       194      • Fatigue is the general term   • Increased reactio...
BODY RHYTHM DISTURBANCES                  195Flight Safety Foundation, South           Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle ...
KEY AREAS FOR A HUMAN FACTORS-ORIENTED                  196            EMERGENCY PLAN      • An effective organisational •...
197Flight Safety Foundation, South       Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus    Bucharest 18 November 2011
198Flight Safety Foundation, South       Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus    Bucharest 18 November 2011
CONCUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
END OF THE SEMINAR
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  • The IFATCA ViewIs there a need for common plans and coordination at industry level
  • The IFATCA ViewIs there a need for common plans and coordination at industry levelFor those that are not familiar with IFATCA:IFATCA is the worldwide Federation of air traffic controllers with more than 50.000 members representing 134 countries. Among its goals are the promotion of safety,efficiency and regularity in International air navigation, and the protection andsafeguarding of the interests of the air traffic control profession.We have celebrate our 50th birthday on 20th October this year!
  • emergency [ɪˈmɜːdʒənsɪ]n pl -cies1.a. an unforeseen or sudden occurrence, esp of a danger demanding immediate remedy or actionb. (as modifier) an emergency exit2. (Medicine)a. a patient requiring urgent treatmentb. (as modifier) an emergency wardstate of emergency a condition, declared by a government, in which martial law applies, usually because of civil unrest or natural disaster4. NZ a player selected to stand by to replace an injured member of a team; reserveCollins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003emergency - Comes from Latin emergere (e-, "from," and mergere, "to dip, plunge") and first meant "unforeseen occurrence."
  • IFATCA policiy on TRNG.2.8. Emergency Training“2.8.1 Emergency training, including In Flight Emergency Response (IFER) andcoordination training and handling of Unlawful Interference situations should be partof ab-initio and refresher training.”Comes from ICAO doc 9897. Manual on In-flight Emergency Response, ICAO Doc 9897-AN/470.
  • con·tin·gen·cy (kn-tnjn-s)n. pl. con·tin·gen·cies1.a. An event that may occur but that is not likely or intended; a possibility.b. A possibility that must be prepared for; a future emergency.2. The condition of being dependent on chance; uncertainty.3. Something incidental to something else.
  • During emergency in the most European ANSPs there is developed system how to act during an emergency/incident/accident/ followed by reqomendations from Manual on In-flight Emergency Response, ICAO Doc 9897-AN/470.ASSIST:AcknowledgeSeparateSilenceInformSupportTimeExpect that crew will follow: Aviate – Navigate - Communicate
  • TRNG.2.9. Degraded Mode Operations“Controllers should be given initial and recurrent training in the degraded modeoperations of their equipment.”IFER Training, Chapter 88.2 The exposure of controllers to exercises in flight simulators is considered beneficial. It provides them with an insight into the challenges confronting flight crew, how malfunctions are displayed on aircraft instrumentation and flight deck response procedures.
  • To mention CISM http://www.eurocontrol.int/humanfactors/public/standard_page/CISM.html
  • In theory it is possible to make a difference between crisis vs other events such as anemergency, catastrophe or a conflict – though in practice the defining is not always thateasy. An emergency can lead to a crisis (e.g. a aircraft crash can lead an ATC Providerinto a crisis). - SkyguideOr a crisis can lead to an emergency or a very risky situation (e.g. Ifunmotivated staff were to boycott systems which could stall the entire ATC system for awhole area or region).One of the main differences is the way of management of a crisis vs. catastrophe,emergencies and conflicts.In emergencies, catastrophes etc., SKILLS, EDUCATION, KNOWLEDGE, TRAININGand CHECKLIST are importantIn crisis`` visions, moral and ethical principles, quality and competence and emotionalintelligence are important.
  • IFATCA Annual Conference in Arusha, Tanzania 2008. Presented Crisis Guide.the crisis guide for MA is something which could hit any member associations and therefore IFATCA felt the need to establish this. As some of the examples mentioned in the crisis guide are example which put a lot of stress on the aviation value chain and therefore can be looked as well as an emergency.Do not read this: A crisis is any event or situation that could hinder the ability of an air traffic controlunit to operate effectively, or damage the reputation of an air traffic control unit (orService Provider) with stakeholders, users and the public, all of whose support isessential for successful operations.YESIn today's society our highly connected world seems to be in a state of permanentcrisis – we are witnessing crisis’ in almost every facet of daily life. The InternationalFederation of Air Traffic Controllers’ Associations (IFATCA) has experienced severalmajor crisis’ develop within Member Associations in recent years, where someseemingly innocent events have turned into crisis situations.In light of a lack of educational and guidance material on the handling of crisis’ withinthe Federation the Executive Board of IFATCA feels the need to provide guidelines toour Member Associations to help in the process of preparing for, and dealing with eventswhich could be categorized as a crisis, or which could evolve into a crisis.A crisis is not easily defined. It is important to accept that there are very different types ofcrisis`` and that the facets of crisis`` depend on many elements which may not necessarilymatch one single definition. Crisis will typically lead to different outcomes, and canproduce the unwanted possibility of harm - but at the same time they can lead to apositive change. Also, we can identify elements of a crisis and change the outcome andnot just simply react to it. Crisis are very often defined as non predictable compared tocatastrophes though crisis`` do have a recurrent element which is not necessarily the casewith a catastrophe. As well crisis has different levels of impact on sub-parts of a system.E.g. an electronic virus (Trojan horse) can seriously affect or destroy only a part of anorganization and not the whole organization. The interactions between different parts ofthe organization in such a case can however lead to another crisis. Subjectivity is as wellan important part in a situation where people or organizations that are unprepared willenter a crisis situation where on the contrary another organization or group of people(prepared to detect what a crisis is) will continue to work as normal with the samesituation.
  • The International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers’ Associations (IFATCA) haswitnessed several major crisis affecting its Member Associations in recent years. Someseemingly innocent and or harmless events have turned into crisis situations due to anapparent lack of education and capability to analyze the possible impact of events on thepart of our membership.YESCrisis situations can develop fromemployment-related issues, health and security conditions in the workplace, the growingtrend of criminalization and the involvement of air traffic controllers in serious accidentsand or incidents.7 reasons why it is important to have an understanding of a crisis:1. We can better cope with the challenges a crisis will provoke2. We are motivated to determine the chances of a crisis occurring3. We are able to increase the crisis watch, improve our crisis prevention and betterprepare for an eventual crisis.We are able to learn and make informed conclusions in the future5. We are acquiring a solid basis for leadership during, after and before the crisis6. We develop leadership profile7. We start to understand leadership processes
  • Can you prepare for a crises (from IFATCA Crises guide)YES!science recommends 7 steps to prepare and preventcrisis situations:First step: Higher values and considerations, general interest and main tasks. The aimis to define a solid basis and a framework to establish a port-folio.There is a need to clearly identify what are main aspects of "business continuitymanagement.`` This can be outlined in a vision or mission document or code of conduct.This forms the basic principle of an organization. There is a need to define these values inorder that they do not get lost in a crisis situation. These binding values could be bestdescribed as: Risk has a multitude of dimensions, some of which involve ethicalconsiderations. A number of different views can thus be pertinent and legitimate, andconfronting this variety of standpoints is part of risk management.example ATC: As Member Association we will never go on strike aswe have not the right to do this.Second step: identify the risk and situation which could lead to a crisis. The aim is toidentify potential crisis situations.It is important that those risks and situations which could lead to a crisis for anorganization or a company are listed in a brainstorming session by the leaders andmanagement of such an organization or company. As a second step in this work it isimportant to assess the risk in an objective and subjective manner.example ATC: One of our members is being jailed after an incidentor suspended without pay.3. Third step: formal risk assessment with the aim to gather crisis situation or differentcrisis types into a grouping.The importance of this step is that the grouping of a crisis can lead to better responsepreparation. Such a matrix will typically have 4 categoriesa) high probability of occurring with less important consequencesb) high probability of occurring with potential important consequencesc) low probability of occurring with less important consequencesd) low probability of occurring with potential important consequencesThe classification discussion will then as well lead to a potential cost benefit analysis ofinvestment into some of the risk mitigation. (acceptable risk).example ATC: MA goes on strike – and the association/union wasdissolved.
  • Can you prepare for a crises (from IFATCA Crises guide)YES!science recommends 7 steps to prepare and preventcrisis situations:First step: Higher values and considerations, general interest and main tasks. The aimis to define a solid basis and a framework to establish a port-folio.There is a need to clearly identify what are main aspects of "business continuitymanagement.`` This can be outlined in a vision or mission document or code of conduct.This forms the basic principle of an organization. There is a need to define these values inorder that they do not get lost in a crisis situation. These binding values could be bestdescribed as: Risk has a multitude of dimensions, some of which involve ethicalconsiderations. A number of different views can thus be pertinent and legitimate, andconfronting this variety of standpoints is part of risk management.example ATC: As Member Association we will never go on strike aswe have not the right to do this.Second step: identify the risk and situation which could lead to a crisis. The aim is toidentify potential crisis situations.It is important that those risks and situations which could lead to a crisis for anorganization or a company are listed in a brainstorming session by the leaders andmanagement of such an organization or company. As a second step in this work it isimportant to assess the risk in an objective and subjective manner.example ATC: One of our members is being jailed after an incidentor suspended without pay.3. Third step: formal risk assessment with the aim to gather crisis situation or differentcrisis types into a grouping.The importance of this step is that the grouping of a crisis can lead to better responsepreparation. Such a matrix will typically have 4 categoriesa) high probability of occurring with less important consequencesb) high probability of occurring with potential important consequencesc) low probability of occurring with less important consequencesd) low probability of occurring with potential important consequencesThe classification discussion will then as well lead to a potential cost benefit analysis ofinvestment into some of the risk mitigation. (acceptable risk).example ATC: MA goes on strike – and the association/union wasdissolved.
  • Can you prepare for a crisesYES!Forth step: the grouping will now be associated to real potential damaging risks whichcould lead to crisis assessed and grouped in a crisis portfolio.It is important to focus in this step on priorities in the group of risk which can lead tocrisis. The portfolio will then typically focus on risk watch and crisis watching of thisgroup of risk. The seriousness of a potential crisis has as well to be measured against themain values (step 1) and goals. The aim is to address those crisis groups with the mostdestructing potential first in a crisis portfolio.example ATC: all crisis related to collective bargaining are groupedunder one `heading``5. Fifth step: how do you prepare yourself to cope with the chosen crisis portfolio? Howfar is your crisis preparedness?Simply ask the question: `` how do we prepare for the crisis``. What are theorganizational and logistical steps to be taken?
  • Can you prepare for a crisesYES!6. Step six: where are we compared with where we should be with the readiness of ourpreparedness.example ATC: have create an emergency phone list with all themembers of the Board. Do we have selected a spokesperson from the Board?7. Step seven: develop crisis scenarios and add new and future potential ideas into thisthinking.By imagining crisis scenarios you create a good exercise for what could happen and howit can happen. The "by-product" of such simulation or scenario description is that all theactors involved will become more alert on potential crisis development.example ATC: Scenario of the president of the association beingaccused of criminal charges – by giving an interview. How will we react to this?mention that IFATCA has developed a Crisis Guide for our MAs as this demonstrates that we agree that with the general question about contingency planning;
  • This guide is intendedto assist IFATCA Member Associations in the development of a “customized” actionplan that will prepare you for a wide range of emergencies that could occur at any time.Quality of Service:- Allegations of inappropriate, inadequate or sub-standard operational procedures leveledagainst an air traffic control unit or Service Provider - Serious operational error(s), accidents or incidents.- Health/safety and/or workplace violations exposing staff to potential harm.Management Issues:- Sensitive political issues, legislative or regulatory concerns- Governmental inquiries or allegations.- Employee protests, unrest and/or industrial action- Acute staff shortages impacting on levels of service.- Other high-profile events.
  • Reference : Leadership in Crisis (published in German andwritten by Laurent F.Carrel) and Emerging Risks for the 21st Century a publication ofthe Organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD).IFATCA Crisis Guide, Arusha 2008.
  • The IFATCA ViewAnd to answer to your semunar’s question:Is there a need for common plans and coordination at industry levelYES!
  • The IFATCA ViewAnd to answer to your semunar’s question:Is there a need for common plans and coordination at industry levelYES!
  • Regional Seminar

    1. 1. Tony LicuChairman of the Conference
    2. 2. Michael ConstantinidesDeputy Chairman of FSF/SE.Europe-M.East-Cyprus
    3. 3. Dmtry Tarasevich FSFI-Russia
    4. 4. Catalin RaduPresident of ECAC
    5. 5. Eleni GeroudakisMinistry of Communications and Works of Cyprus
    6. 6. Bogdan DonciuMinister Personal Counselor Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure of Romania
    7. 7. Tony LicuChairman of the Conference
    8. 8. 1st SESSION
    9. 9. The ICAO policies on contingency and emergency response planning Carole Stewart Regional officer ICAO Europe
    10. 10. International Civil Aviation OrganizationICAO Policies on Emergency Response and Contingency Planning Carole Stewart-Green Regional Officer, ANS Implementation (ATM) 18 November 2011 Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar Bucharest, Romania
    11. 11. ICAO Policies• Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) detailed in Annexes to the Convention on International Civil Aviation• Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS) which complement SARPS• Regional Air Navigation Plans, including procedures documented in Regional Supplementary Procedures• Manuals to assist States to implement SARPS Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 13
    12. 12. References• Annex 2 - Rules of the Air – Together with the SARPS of Annex 11, govern the application of the Procedures for Air Navigation Services — Air Traffic Management (PANS-ATM, Doc 4444) and the Regional Supplementary Procedures – Applies without exception over the High Seas Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 14
    13. 13. References• Annex 6 – Operation of Aircraft – operation of aeroplanes by operators authorized to conduct international commercial air transport operations – Includes scheduled international air services and non-scheduled international air transport operations for remuneration or hire Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 15
    14. 14. References• Annex 11 - Air Traffic Services – Air Traffic Control Service, Flight Information Service and Alerting Service – Establishment of airspace, units and services necessary to promote a safe, orderly and expeditious flow of air traffic – Together with Annex 2, purpose is to ensure that flying on international air routes is carried out under uniform conditions designed to improve the safety and efficiency of air operation Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 16
    15. 15. References• Annex 14 - Aerodromes – Volume 1 – Aerodrome Design and Operations – Includes SARPS related to aerodrome emergency planning• Airport Services Manual (Doc 9137) Part 7 Emergency Planning – pre-planning for airport emergencies – co-ordination between the different airport agencies (or services) and those agencies in the surrounding community that could be of assistance in responding to the emergency – material on how an agency is to carry out its particular functions such as those of the rescue and fire fighting services or air traffic control service are in specific documents concerning these specialties Project title (Insert, Header & Footer) 17
    16. 16. References• Annex 17 - Security – Safeguarding international civil aviation against acts of unlawful interference Project title (Insert, Header & Footer) 18
    17. 17. References• Procedures of Air Navigation Services – Air Traffic Management (PANS ATM, Doc 4444) – complementary to the SARPS contained in Annex 2 and Annex 11 – supplemented when necessary by regional procedures contained in the Regional Supplementary Procedures (Doc 7030) – mainly directed to ATS personnel, but flight crews should be familiar with some of the procedures Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 19
    18. 18. References• Safety Management Manual (SMM) (Doc 9859) – provides States with guidance to develop the regulatory framework and the supporting guidance material for the implementation of safety management systems (SMS) by service providers – provides guidance for the development of a State safety programme (SSP), in accordance with the SARPs contained in Annex 1, Annex 6, Annex 8, Annex 11, Annex 13, Annex 14 Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 20
    19. 19. References• Emergency response planning is mainly addressed in Annex 6, Annex 11, Annex 14, the Safety Management Manual and the Airport Services Manual• Contingency planning and procedures are mainly addressed in Annex 2, Annex 11, Annex 17 and the PANS ATM• Numerous ICAO documents and circulars on specific subjects and functions Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 21
    20. 20. Emergency Response Planning• Annex 11 requires States to establish a State safety programme (SSP)• Part of SSP is to require ATS providers implement a Safety Management System (SMS)• Framework for implementation of SSP and SMS is provided in the Safety Management Manual• Minimum requirements for SMS include coordination of emergency response planning Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 22
    21. 21. Emergency Response Planning• Annex 6 requires operators and approved maintenance organizations to develop an Emergency Response Plan (ERP)• ERP provides for the orderly and efficient transition from normal to emergency operations and the return to normal operations• ERP shall be properly coordinated with the emergency response plans of those organizations it must interface with during the provision of its services Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 23
    22. 22. Emergency Response Planning• Safety Management Manual applicable to all service providers – approved training organizations – aircraft operators – approved maintenance organizations – organizations responsible for type design and/or manufacture of aircraft – air traffic service providers – certified aerodromes Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 24
    23. 23. Emergency Response Planning• Emergency Response Plan(ERP) outlines what actions should be taken following an accident and who is responsible for each action• ERP should ensure an orderly and efficient transition from normal to emergency operations• Overall objective is the safe continuation of operations or the return to normal operations as soon as possible• Any organization supporting flight operations should have an ERP Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 25
    24. 24. Emergency Response Planning• ERP should be in the form of a manual• Safety Management Manual, Appendix B provides detailed guidance concerning the following areas which should be addressed in the ERP: – Governing policies, Organization, Notifications, Initial response, Additional assistance, Crisis Management Centre, Records, Accident site, News media, Formal investigations, Family assistance, Post-critical incident stress counselling, Post-occurrence review Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 26
    25. 25. Emergency Response Planning• Operators’ ERPs should be coordinated with airport emergency plans• Checklists should form an integral part of the operations manual or emergency response manual• Training and exercises necessary to ensure capabilities match the plan and to reveal gaps or deficiencies Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 27
    26. 26. Emergency Response Planning• Airports develop airport emergency plans• ATS providers develop contingency plans• Airlines develop an emergency response plan• The coordination of these plans should be described in the SMS manual of each organization Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 28
    27. 27. Contingency Procedures• Annex 2, Annex 11 and the PANS ATM include detailed procedures related to contingency events related to flight operations• Includes flight crew procedures and ATS procedures• Flight crews should be aware of the detailed procedures in Chapter 15 of the PANS ATM related to – Unlawful interference and aircraft bomb threat – Emergency descent – Special procedures for in-flight contingencies in oceanic airspace – Weather deviation procedures – Air-ground communications failure Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 29
    28. 28. Contingency Planning• Annex 11 requires ATS authorities to develop and promulgate contingency plans – detailed guidance is in Attachment C• Annex 17 requires States to develop contingency plans to safeguard civil aviation against acts of unlawful interference• Appropriate measures must be taken for the safety of passengers and crew of an aircraft, which is subjected to an act of unlawful interference, while on the ground until their journey can be continued Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 30
    29. 29. Contingency Planning• To assist in providing for the safe and orderly flow of international air traffic in the event of disruptions of air traffic services and related supporting services• To preserve the availability of major world air routes within the air transportation system in such circumstances• To ensure access to designated aerodromes for humanitarian reasons Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 31
    30. 30. Contingency Planning• Disruptions in one portion of airspace affect adjacent areas• International coordination required• International organizations such as IATA and IFALPA are valuable advisors• ICAO’s role is to facilitate or initiate the necessary coordination Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 32
    31. 31. Contingency Planning• State(s) responsible for providing ATS and related supporting services is (are) also responsible, in the event of disruption or potential disruption of these services, for instituting measures to ensure the safety of international civil aviation operations• Where possible, provisions must be made for alternative facilities and services• Contingency plans should be developed in consultation with other States and airspace users concerned and with ICAO, as appropriate, whenever the effects of the service disruption(s) are likely to affect the services in adjacent airspace Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 33
    32. 32. Contingency Planning• Timely introduction of contingency arrangements essential if hazards to air navigation are to be avoided• States should: – Prepare general contingency plans for foreseeable events (industrial action, labour unrest) – Assess risks due to military conflict or unlawful interference – Review likelihood and possible consequences of natural disasters or public health emergencies – Monitor developments – Designate or establish a central full time agency to provide up to date information Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 34
    33. 33. Contingency Planning• Contingency plan may include – Procedures for avoiding airspace – Current and alternative routes – Simplified route network – Procedures to cope with degraded navigational capability – Procedures to cope with degraded communications or surveillance capability Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 35
    34. 34. Contingency Planning• Contingency plan may include (continued) – Procedures for temporary re-assignment of responsibility for providing ATS – Special in-flight procedures – Increased separation standards – Procedures for controlling access to contingency area(s) Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 36
    35. 35. Contingency Planning• NOTAM of anticipated or actual disruption of air traffic services and/or related supporting services• NOTAM should include the associated contingency arrangements• If disruption is foreseeable, advance notice should not be less than 48 hours• NOTAM of discontinuance of contingency measures and reactivation of normal services Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 37
    36. 36. Regional Resources• Volcanic Ash Contingency Plan – EUR and NAT Regions (www.paris.icao.int)• ATM Operational Contingency Plan – NAT Region (www.paris.icao.int)• EUROCONTROL Guidelines for Contingency Planning of ANS (Including Service Continuity) and associated Reference Guide (www.eurocontrol.int) Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 38
    37. 37. Thank you! Questions? Carole Stewart-Green cstewart@paris.icao.int Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar – 18 November 2011 - Bucharest, Romania 39
    38. 38. Regulatory Framework of the European Union Jose-Luis Penedo Policy Officer EASA
    39. 39. National oversight of contingency and emergency plans at national, European and global level Mrs. Claudia Virlan Director General of Romanian CAA
    40. 40. ROMANIAN CIVIL AERONAUTICAL AUTHORITY National oversight of contingency and emergency plans at national, European and global level Presented by Claudia VÎRLAN, Director general Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 42
    41. 41. Motto:“PREPARE FOR THE WORST BUT HOPE FOR THE BEST” Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881), British prime minister and novelist Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 43
    42. 42. Content Our national environment; Oversight of contingency plans; Oversight of emergency plans; Global and regional approach; Conclusions Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 44
    43. 43. Our national environment Ministry of Transport Service and/or Product Provider Organizations under and Infrastructure the authority of Ministry of Transport • Air Operators – TAROM (State Authority for Civil • Airports – LROP, LRBS, LRTR, LRCK Aviation) • Air Navigation Service Providers – ROMATSA Air Club of RomaniaROMANIAN CIVIL (Sports and Leisure Aviation)AERONAUTICAL Superior Aviation School AUTHORITY (Approved Training Center)(Safety Authority for Civil Aviation) Aeronautical Industry Private Service and/or Product Provider Organizations Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 45
    44. 44. Our national environment The Romanian CAA was established by Government Decision no. 405/1993; The role according to the aforementioned decision is to assure the application of national regulations, to issue procedures and instructions for the application of these regulations; The CAA became the technical specialized body of the MoT by delegation of competences. Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 46
    45. 45. Oversight of contingency plans• Capability to continue with the provision of air navigation services whatever the circumstances;• Readiness to act in the unfortunate event; Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 47
    46. 46. Oversight of contingency plansThe requirements for Air Traffic Services are setby national regulations: ICAO Annex 11 – Air Traffic Services (RACR-ATS)  cap. 2.30 – Contingency arrangements  Attachment C - Material relating to contingency planning ICAO Doc. 4444 – PANS-ATM (PIAC – ATM)  cap. 8 - ATS surveillance services, 8.8 – Emergencies, hazards and equipment failures  cap. 15 – Procedures related to emergencies, communications failure and contingencies Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 48
    47. 47. Oversight of contingency plansThe requirements for Air Navigation Services areset at European level: Regulation (EU) No 1035/2011- common requirements:  Annex 1, pct. 8.2 – Contingency plans Regulation (EC) No 1108/2009:  Annex Vb – Service provision shall not be undertaken unless the service provider shall establish and implement a contingency plan covering emergency and abnormal situations that may occur in relation to its services; Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 49
    48. 48. Oversight of contingency plansMechanisms to ensure acceptability andconformity with the defined requirements:  existence of contingency plans;  verification if refers to all provided services;  verification if the contingency and emergency plans comply with applicable regulatory requirements  objective evidences about the implementation;  verification if the personnel is aware about the contingency arrangements;  verification if the personnel is trained in regard to contingency arrangements; Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 50
    49. 49. Oversight of contingency plans The approval of the contingency plan is part of the certification process and ongoing supervision; It is treated in a specific chapter of the audit report; The State can be held liable for lack of proper oversight. Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 51
    50. 50. Oversight of emergency plans• Incidents, accidents or medical emergencies interfere with the normal functioning of the airport• A plan is needed for every type of emergency, accident or incident possible Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 52
    51. 51. Oversight of emergency plansThe requirements for Airports are set by nationaland European regulations: ICAO Annex 14 – Aerodromes, vol. 1: Aerodrome Design and Operation (RACR-AD-AAC)  cap. 9, Section 9.1 – Aerodrome emergency planning Regulation (EC) No 1108/2009:  Annex Va –The aerodrome operator shall establish and implement an aerodrome emergency plan, covering emergency scenarios that may occur at the aerodrome or in its surroundings. This plan shall be coordinated, as appropriate, with the local community emergency plan; Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 53
    52. 52. Oversight of emergency plansMechanisms to ensure acceptability andconformity with the defined requirements:  existence of Airports emergency plans;  verification if the emergency plans comply with applicable regulatory requirements  objective evidences about the implementation (including exercises records);  verification if the personnel is aware about the emergency arrangements;  verification if the personnel is trained in regard to emergency arrangements; Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 54
    53. 53. Oversight of emergency plansMechanisms to ensure acceptability andconformity with the defined requirements:  verification if the Airport Emergency Plan is coordinated with the Airport Security Plan and the Regional/Community Emergency Plan;  Evaluation of the operational activities;  Evaluation of the rescue and fire fighting sevices;  SMS implementation analysis (Coordination of emergency response planning) Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 55
    54. 54. Oversight of medical emergency plans The procedures regarding medical emergencies, either in-flight or in the airport, are implemented both in the airport’s emergency plans and in the airliners manual; These procedures are being reviewed yearly or even more frequently, if the situation demands it, by the CAA’s inspectors for aeronautical medicine and human factors; The stakeholders are requested to test this plans through either real life or just table top exercises, for constant improvement; Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 56
    55. 55. Oversight of medical emergency plans Every international airport in Romania has an agreement with regional public health authorities regarding the appropriate actions for prevention of spreading of communicable disease; The terms of the agreement are evaluated yearly by the public health authorities in regard with specific guidelines from WHO (World Health Organization); There are preliminary discussions to create a national plan for preventing of spreading of communicable disease through air travel with all the stakeholders involved Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 57
    56. 56. Global and regional approach The scale of the event impose global or regional preparedness:  pandemics, terrorist attacks (global);  volcanic ash, terrorist attacks (regional);  cross-border contingency; Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 58
    57. 57. Global and regional approachFor the medicalemergencies,includingcommunicabledisease outbreaks,the internationalframework is thebasis of a nationalpreparedness plan Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 59
    58. 58. Global and regional approach The European Aviation Crisis Coordination Cell (EACCC):  Facilitate management of crisis situations affecting aviation in Europe  Activated when circumstances beyond normal environment of ops are evident Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 60
    59. 59. Global and regional approach FAB operation:  Relations or conclusion of agreements with neighbouring States, for coordination purposes  NSAs agreement on oversight Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 61
    60. 60. Conclusions Contingency/Emergency policies, concepts and plans can provide a view of what the situation may look like following an event, but all actors must be ready and prepared to act in the unfortunate event; The values: assures customers, builds confidence, helps to protect and enhance reputation, protects people and assets, contributes to safeguarding national infrastructure and supports international networks. Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 62
    61. 61. ROMANIAN CIVIL AERONAUTICAL AUTHORITY Thank you! Any questions? Flight Safety Foundation Regional Seminar, Bucharest, ROMANIA, 18 November 2011 63
    62. 62. 2nd SESSION
    63. 63. Developing and deploying contingency and emergency plans at national, European and global level Sid Lawrence EUROCONTROL
    64. 64. Training needs for an effective contingency and emergency response planning Andre Auer JAA Training Organization
    65. 65. JAA TO’s Approach to Training on Emergency Response PlanningJAA Training OrganisationAndré Auer, Special AdvisorOn behalf of Joost Jonker, Director 18 November 2011, Bucharest, Romania Seminar of the Flight Safety Foundation SE Europe-Middle East-Cyprus, Bucharest
    66. 66. Content• About JAA TO• EU regulation 996/2010• JAA TO ERP Workshop • Workshop Content • Participants and Instructors • Feedback from Workshop• Questions? Seminar of the Flight Safety Foundation SE Europe-Middle East-Cyprus, Bucharest
    67. 67. About JAA TO: Who we are• ECAC Associate Body (since 1 July 2009)• Dutch Foundation (Non-Profit)• Mainly Regulatory Aviation Safety Training on: • Applicable JARs • Implementing Rules • EASA Syllabi; e-Examinations; SAFA Approvals ( • International Regulations Seminar of the Flight Safety Foundation SE Europe-Middle East-Cyprus, Bucharest
    68. 68. Mission and Goals of JAA Training Organisation• Remain the leading Aviation Safety Training Provider in Europe• Being fully supportive to ECAC, EASA, EU and ICAO in their aviation safety efforts within and outside Europe• Remain Independent and maintaining Non- Profit character• Forging Strategic Cooperations with National, Regional and Global organisations and institutions Seminar of the Flight Safety Foundation SE Europe-Middle East-Cyprus, Bucharest
    69. 69. About JAA TO: Our Courses Maintenance Nominated Postholder Dangerous Goods Licensing Intro to Aviation Regulations PRM • Over 100 Training Courses and Trainers Environmental International Aviation Law & Policy • Over 10 Regional Training Locations Worldwid • Over 10 Thousand Annual Participants Logistics ManagementCrisis Management Military Airworthiness Aerodrome & Ground Operations Seminar of the Flight Safety Foundation SE Europe-Middle East-Cyprus, Bucharest
    70. 70. Emergency ResponsePlanning• EU regulation 996/2010 (investigation and prevention of accidents and incidents in civil aviation) – Repealed previous EU rules – Stated new objectives – Came into force November 2010 Seminar of the Flight Safety Foundation SE Europe-Middle East-Cyprus, Bucharest
    71. 71. Emergency Response Planning• In preamble of EU regulation – New rules for list of persons on board – New rules for protection of this information – New rules for information about dangerous goods – New rules for contact persons of persons on board – New rules for victim and family assistance Seminar of the Flight Safety Foundation SE Europe-Middle East-Cyprus, Bucharest
    72. 72. Emergency Response Planning• In preamble of EU regulation – New rules for emergency plans for: – States – Airports – Airlines – Existing regulations for data protection are applicable Seminar of the Flight Safety Foundation SE Europe-Middle East-Cyprus, Bucharest
    73. 73. Emergency Response Planning• New regulation always means need for training• This is especially valid for contingency and emergency response• JAA TO reacted immediately in preparing a workshop
    74. 74. Emergency ResponsePlanning• JAA TO provides a 3-day workshop scheduled throughout the year in all 12 Training Centers as well as on client’s location (upon request). – Existing rules are explained – New rules are addressed
    75. 75. Emergency ResponsePlanning• Contents of workshop (1) – Emergency and crisis – Why an ERP (the advantage) – Steps in crisis management – How to start thinking about an ERP – Examples of real life accident and how to plan
    76. 76. Emergency ResponsePlanning• Contents of workshop (2) – Building a response framework – Handling the media and the general public – Assistance to victims and relatives – Business recovery Seminar of the Flight Safety Foundation SE Europe-Middle East-Cyprus, Bucharest
    77. 77. Emergency ResponsePlanning• Contents of workshop (2) – Skills of persons in organisation – Tasks of persons in organisation – Activation of ERP – Involvement of departments in organisation – Importance of logging information Seminar of the Flight Safety Foundation SE Europe-Middle East-Cyprus, Bucharest
    78. 78. Emergency ResponsePlanning• Contents of workshop (3) – Additional info from a real life case will be given – Experience from an airline, involved in a fatal accident and how this was handled – A short movie will be shown with experience from passengers who survived a crash Seminar of the Flight Safety Foundation SE Europe-Middle East-Cyprus, Bucharest
    79. 79. Emergency ResponsePlanning• Participants of workshop – From the mentioned organisations (State, airport, airlines) – Will receive: – Presentation book – Course book – Certificate of attendance Seminar of the Flight Safety Foundation SE Europe-Middle East-Cyprus, Bucharest
    80. 80. Emergency ResponsePlanning• JAA TO Workshop Instructors – Experience with investigations of accident and incident in the broad world of aviation (combined 50 years+ experience) – Are available for later assistance Seminar of the Flight Safety Foundation SE Europe-Middle East-Cyprus, Bucharest
    81. 81. Emergency ResponsePlanning• Feedback from workshop – “A very good and clear course. …. The instructor gave us all instructions needed for an ERP” – “I will be able to discuss and properly implement an ERP in our organisation” – “A good way of understanding what an emergency situation can be like” Seminar of the Flight Safety Foundation SE Europe-Middle East-Cyprus, Bucharest
    82. 82. “I hated every minute of training but I said : Don’t quit.Suffer now and live the rest of your life as a champion!” Mohammed Ali Seminar of the Flight Safety Foundation SE Europe-Middle East-Cyprus, Bucharest
    83. 83. Thank you foryour Attention!www.jaato.com
    84. 84. Contingency Plans of the military: Perspective of the Romanian Airforce Major General Fanica CARNU ROMANIAN AIR-FORCE
    85. 85. 3rd SESSION
    86. 86. Contingency and emergency plans of Airlines Dragos MunteanuHead of Safety & Quality-TAROM
    87. 87. The ANSP’s perspective on contingency and emergency planning Mr.Adrian Serban Director General of ROMATSA
    88. 88. Contingency and emergency plans of an airport Miltos Miltiadous Manager of Larnaca Airport
    89. 89. Hermes AirportsContingency and Emergency Plans an Airport’s Perspective 126
    90. 90. Hermes AirportsWhy do we need Emergency & Contingency Plans?  Fulfil regulatory, legal or contractual compliance  Look ahead and prepare than look back and regret  Things that can go wrong will go wrong at some point  Plan well and be prepared. Saves – lives & reputation 127
    91. 91. Hermes AirportsKey difference: Emergency Planning:  ICAO Requirement  Regulated from local CAAs Contingency Planning:  Operator developed & driven  Aims to maintain efficiency 128
    92. 92. Emergency PlanningAn ICAO requirement:  Annex 14 and  ASM part 5 - directions and guidelines  Needs to be developed into a Manual: Airport’s Emergency Response & Preparedness Plan (ERPP) States can develop own regulatory / legal framework over and above ICAO 129
    93. 93. Emergency PlanningAirport’s Emergency Response &Preparedness Plan (ERPP)The plan to prepare the airport community to face an emergency (life threatening) situation.Derives the procedures and guidelines on how individual agencies/organizations, of the airport community, are expected to respond in a crisis situation. 130
    94. 94. Emergency PlanningFollows Specific Structure covering ICAOEmergency Scenarios Alert for Aircraft Emergency (Standby Crash on Airport Crash off Airport Crash on Water Structural Fire Hazardous Material Handling Medical Emergency (General) 131
    95. 95. Emergency PlanningFollows Specific Structure covering ICAOEmergency Scenarios - Continued… Medical Emergency (Pandemic) Natural Disaster (earthquake) Hijack Bomb Threat (Aircraft) Bomb Threat (Structural) Sabotage 132
    96. 96. Emergency PlanningFormalizes the conduct between all emergency andother services during each scenario:  Rescue & Fire Fighting  Police  Paramedics / Ambulance / Hospitals  Airline / Passenger Handler / Ramp Handler  Civil Aviation Authority / Accident Investigation Board  Airport Operator 133
    97. 97. Emergency PlanningDescribes the flow of command during eachscenario:assumes role as On-Scene commander.  Who  How this command cascades as time goes by.  Who assumes role as Emergency Coordination Centre (ECC) DirectorDescribes all relevant locations:  Rendezvous point (primary & secondary)  Media Room.  Friends & Relatives Assembly Area  Emergency Reception Area  Holding Treatment Area  Reunion Area 134
    98. 98. Emergency PlanningLeaves no margin for guess-work & assumptions Everybody involved needs to know: What to do. Where to do it. What means to use. 135
    99. 99. Emergency PlanningPractise makes Perfect Full Scale Exercise: At least every two years. Partial Exercise: At least one every year. Table top Exercise: At least one every 6 months except during the 6 months period of a full scale exercise. 136
    100. 100. Emergency PlanningCriticism Helps Examine what went wrong during each exercise Built on exercise findings to clear up roles 137
    101. 101. Contingency PlanningRefers to a back up plan (set of plans) to cater for sustaining efficientoperations when loosing certain commodities or systemsMaintain the running of the airport until full systems recovery 138
    102. 102. Contingency Planning Typically is in the form of:• Alternate systems that can be used.• Procedures that need to be followed – Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) 139
    103. 103. Contingency PlanningThe PLAN BTo minimize impact on Operations and reduce customersinconvenienceTo keep the airport running even at a reduced pace To avoid Chaos To avoid Criticism Not to be a “No Go” 140
    104. 104. Contingency Planning Caters for the interim period until the full recovery of a primary system (actions required until the return to normal functioning) Covers all major abnormalities which are likely to occur at the airport and might cause an infraction Prioritizes scenarios depending on the criticality and impact on operations Relies on input and assistance of all stakeholders / service providers 141
    105. 105. Contingency PlanningTypical Scenarios: Baggage Handling System:  Partial Failure  Total Failure Info Systems :  Flight Info Display (FIDS) Failure  Babbage Info Display (BIDS) Failure 142
    106. 106. Contingency PlanningCritical Systems such as Runway Lights 143
    107. 107. Contingency Planning Cookbook Approach - Everybody knows what to do. Clear allocation of duties between agencies & departments. List of cases can be quite tedious & non exhaustive Cluster cases based on common trunk approach: • Aircraft disabled on the runway • Low visibility Runway Closed • Problems affecting the Control Tower functioning 144
    108. 108. Contingency Planning Access Control System (ACS) Failure  Hijack Alert Activating IVR and Website  Inadmissible Passengers Contingency Announcements  Industrial Action Airfield Lighting Failure  Irregular Flight Operations (a/c return) Airport Operational Database (AODB)  Irregular Operations – Airport Closure Failure  Medical Calls Back up Ops Centre Activation  Public Announcement (PA) Failure Baggage Handling System (BHS)  Passenger Boarding Bridge (PBB) Failure malfunction BIDS Malfunction  Removal of Disabled a/c CCTV Failure  Runway Closure Complete Power Failure  Telephone failure CUTE Failure  VDGS Malfunction FIDS Malfunction  Vertical Transportation Failure Fire Detection and Protection System Failure Ground to Ground (G2G) Communication Failure High Risk Flights 145
    109. 109. Emergency & Contingency PlanningEmergency Planning Contingency Planning Safety aspect first Efficiency aspect first Common Goal Safeguard the functioning of the airport 146
    110. 110. Emergency & Contingency PlanningEmergency Planning Contingency Planning Safety aspect first Efficiency aspect first Common Goal Safeguard the functioning of the airport None of them will work out without PRACTISE EXERCISE TESTING 147
    111. 111. Emergency & Contingency Planning THANK YOU QUESTIONS? 148
    112. 112. 4th Session
    113. 113. Contingency and emergency plans in Russian aviation: Isthere a need for harmonization with European policies? Kusaev Abdul Novosibirsk Airport Russia
    114. 114. The IFATCA viewOreski ZeljkoIFATCA EVP Europe
    115. 115. Regional SeminarContingency and Emergency Plans in Aviation:
    116. 116. The IFATCA ViewIs there a need for common plansand coordination at industry level
    117. 117. IFATCA is the worldwideFederation of air trafficcontrollers with more than members representing13 countries. Among its goalsare the promotion of safety,efficiency and regularity inInternational air navigation, andthe protection and safeguardingof the interests of the air trafficcontrol profession.The IFATCA View
    118. 118. The IFATCA View
    119. 119. emergency [ɪˈm ʒənsɪ] ɜˈdn pl -cies1. a. an unforeseen or sudden occurrence, esp of a danger demanding immediate remedy or action b. (as modifier) an emergency exit2. (Medicine) a. a patient requiring urgent treatment b. (as modifier) an emergency ward state of emergency a condition, declared by a government, in which martial law applies, usually because of civil unrest or natural disaster . NZ a player selected to stand by to replace an injured member of a team; reserveCollins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003emergency - Comes from Latin emergere (e-, "from," and mergere, "to dip, plunge") and first meant "unforeseen occurrence."The IFATCA View
    120. 120. The IFATCA View
    121. 121. con·tin·gen·cy (kn-tnjn-s)n. pl. con·tin·gen·cies1. a. An event that may occur but that is not likely or intended; a possibility. b. A possibility that must be prepared for; a future emergency.2. The condition of being dependent on chance; uncertainty.3. Something incidental to something else.The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton MifflinCompany. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.The IFATCA View
    122. 122. The IFATCA View
    123. 123. How to act during anemergency/incident/accident?Guidelines for Controller Training in theHandling of Unusual/Emergency Situations byEUROCONTROLThe IFATCA View
    124. 124. Controllers should be given initial and recurrent training in the degraded mode operations of their equipment.The IFATCA View
    125. 125. The IFATCA View
    126. 126. Difference between crisis vs. emergency, catastrophes and conflictsOne of the main differences is the way of management of a crisisvs. catastrophe, emergencies and conflicts.In emergencies, catastrophesetc., SKILLS, EDUCATION, KNOWLEDGE, TRAINING and CHECKLISTare importantIn crisis visions, moral and ethical principles, quality andcompetence and emotional intelligence are important.The IFATCA View
    127. 127. A crisis is any event or situation that could hinder the ability of an air traffic control unit to operate effectively, or damage the reputation of an air traffic control unit (or Service Provider) with stakeholders, users and the public, all of whose support is essential for successful operations.The IFATCA View
    128. 128. 7 reasons why it is important to have an understanding of a crisis: 1. We can better cope with the challenges a crisis will provoke 2. We are motivated to determine the chances of a crisis occurring 3. We are able to increase the crisis watch, improve our crisis prevention and better prepare for an eventual crisis. 4. We are able to learn and make informed conclusions in the future 5. We are acquiring a solid basis for leadership during, after and before the crisis 6. We develop leadership profile 7. We start to understand leadership processesThe IFATCA View
    129. 129. The IFATCA View
    130. 130. Can you prepare for a crises? YES! 1. First step: Higher values and considerations, general interest and main tasks. The aim is to define a solid basis and a framework to establish a port-folio. 2. Second step: identify the risk and situation which could lead to a crisis. The aim is to identify potential crisis situations. 3. Third step: formal risk assessment with the aim to gather crisis situation or different crisis types into a grouping .The IFATCA View
    131. 131. Can you prepare for a crises? YES! 4. Forth step: the grouping will now be associated to real potential damaging risks which could lead to crisis assessed and grouped in a crisis portfolio. 5. Fifth step: how do you prepare yourself to cope with the chosen crisis portfolio? How far is your crisis preparedness?The IFATCA View
    132. 132. Can you prepare for a crises? YES! 6. Step six: where are we compared with where we should be with the readiness of our preparedness. 7. Step seven: develop crisis scenarios and add new and future potential ideas into this thinking.The IFATCA View
    133. 133. The IFATCA View
    134. 134. Reference :1. Leadership in Crisis (published in German and written by Laurent F.Carrel) Guidelines for Controller Training in the Handling of Unusual/Emergency Situations; EUROCONTROL, 2003 Emerging Risks for the 21st Century a publication of the Organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD).4. IFATCA Crisis Guide, Arusha . ICAO Doc 9897 – AN/470, Manual on In-flight Emergency ResponseThe IFATCA View
    135. 135. The IFATCA ViewIs there a need for common plansand coordination at industry level
    136. 136. Thank you!The IFATCA View
    137. 137. Human factors in Contingency and emergency plans Dr.Ioannis MarcouSecretary General of the Greek Society of Aviation Doctors
    138. 138. 176 Human Factors in Contingency and Emergency Plans Dr Ioannis Markou, MD Neurologist-Aviation Medicine Specialist Head of Hellenic Air Force General Staff Medical Directorate Emergency Planning Department Secretary Gen. Of Hellenic Aerospace Medicine SocietyFlight Safety Foundation, South Regional Seminar Seminar RegionalEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 20112011 Bucharest 18 November
    139. 139. Definitions 177 • Emergency • Human Factors – an unforeseen or sudden occurrence, esp – is about people in their living and working of a danger demanding immediate situations; about their relationship with remedy or action machines, with procedures and with the environment about them; and also about their relationships with other people. • Human Factors Principles – principles which apply to aeronautical design, certification, training, operations and maintenance and which seek safe interface between the human and other • Emergency plan system components by proper consideration to human performance. – is the process of preparing the aerodrome to cope with an emergency occurring at • Stress the aerodrome or in its vicinity. The object – Stress is your mind and body’s of the emergency planning is to minimize response or reaction to a real or the effect of an emergency particularly in imagined threat, event or change respect of saving lives and maintaining aircraft operation.Flight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    140. 140. SHELL MODEL 178 • Software: documentation, procedure s, symbols, etc. • Hardware: machinery, equipment, etc. • Environment: both internal and external to the workplace • Liveware: the human element.Flight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    141. 141. SHELL MODEL AND EMERGENCY PLANNING 179 • Liveware-Environment (L-E) – Adaptation – Observation – Situational awareness – Stress management – Risk management – Prioritization and attention management – Coping/emotional control – Decision-makingFlight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    142. 142. SITUATIONAL AWARENESS 180 • personal factors • the perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of • weather time and space, the comprehension • airport infrastructure of their meaning, and the projection • individual differences of their status in the near future. • traffic • the most important Human Factors • operators and pilots issue in regards to human- • environment technology interface is the ability of • navigational aids the human operator to maintain situational/system awareness • aircraft performance • equipment • adjacent units.Flight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    143. 143. STRESS AND PERFORMANCE 181 • Definition – Stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives that demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize. • Manifestations – Poor decision making – Loss of situational awareness – Make errors of judgement – Become confused – Unable to cope with increase in workload – Absenteeism from workFlight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    144. 144. SOURCES OF STRESS OF ATM 182 • Peaks of traffic load • Time deficit • Operational procedures (often limited and need to be adapted) • Limitation and reliability of equipment • Abnormal/Emergency situationsFlight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    145. 145. SOURCES OF STRESS OF ATM 183 • Shift schedules (night • Personal work in particular) • Family • Management • Health • Role conflicts • Unfavourable working conditionsFlight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    146. 146. STRESS MANAGEMENT 184 • Recognize the potential signs and symptoms of stress • Be proactive in removing the cause of stress (e.g. assign more priority to the short term conflict first before controlling other aircraft etc.) • Removing yourself from the stressful situation by knowing ones own capabilities (e.g. calling out for help from colleagues if in a very complex ATC scenario) • Prioritise actions • Do not be over focused in finishing the mission at any cost and regardless of the situation • Be current with all existing procedures at the workplaceFlight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    147. 147. STRESS MANAGEMENT 185 • Physical Factors • Psychological Factors – Maintain good physical – Sound preparation with fitness regard to knowledge, skills and procedures – Have regular meals – Building confidence in own – Have sufficient sleep training and ability – Sound time management – Leading balanced social and – Control the physical family life (so that financial environment and domestic worries are not a problem) – Share and discuss problems so as not to bottle them up – Solve problems as soon as possible to prevent “the domino” effectFlight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    148. 148. CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT 186 • Critical Incident Stress • Minimize the emotional and physical affects nearly 90% of all impact of an event emergency personnel • Prevent burn-out • The effects of critical incident • Educate participants regarding normal stress can be intensified, influenced, or stress reactions mitigated by our personal, family, and • Mitigate stress responses developmental issues • Critical incident stress may occur • Help to keep careers, relationships, and hours, days, or even months after a physical/mental health intact with little critical event residual damage • Symptoms usually subside within a few • Was designed to assist in the weeks prevention, management, and recovery from a significant stress • No one is immune from responding to • Include pre-incident the stress of a critical incident education, defusing, debriefings, support • Suffering the stress effects following a services, follow-up services, individual critical incident stress is NORMAL consults, peer counseling, and disaster management • CISM interventions are provided be especially trained individualsFlight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    149. 149. 187 CISM increases the rate of normal recovery, in normal people, who are having normal reactions to abnormal eventsFlight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    150. 150. TERRORISM 188 • "Nothing is easier than to denounce the evil doer; Nothing more difficult than understanding him." • Fyodor DostoevskyFlight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    151. 151. TERRORISM 189 • Physical profile • Social profile – Healthy – Leaders – Strong • Higher education – Medium sized • Doctors, Lawyers, Professors etc – Absence of specific characteristics – Members – Well dressed • Basic or higher education – Normal behavior – Single – MotivatedFlight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    152. 152. ASPECTS OF DEALING WITH TERRORIST 190 • The first hour of hostage taking is usually the most dangerous for hostages, as the terrorists are both • Communication delivery must be deliberate, nervous and aggressive methodical, and, most importantly, nonjudgmental. • Most persons in crisis have a desire to be heard and – best described as accepting; understood – the subject perceives that his or her feelings, values, thoughts, and opinions are viewed as important. • Active Listening • ATC should not inject his or her values into the – Mirroring refers to repeating the last few words or gist of the person in crisis. situation; – Paraphrasing involves restating the content of what – this does not mean that he agrees with the values of the subject said in the ATC’s own words. the subject. – Summarizing offers a restating of both the content – “From what you’re saying, I can imagine how your and emotion expressed by the subject. wife could have made you angry enough to kill her. That would have made me angry too, but I don’t – In contact with the terrorists may develop some think I could have done what you did. empathy toward them, and may therefore be influenced by them • ATC must not be decision maker. • Follows strictly the emergency plan • The voice tone and intonation are at least as important as the content of the communication. – Stable – Specific vocabulary – Speech and breathing patternsFlight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    153. 153. SHELL MODEL AND EMERGENCY PLANNING 191 • Liveware-Hardware (L-H) – Scanning – Detection – Decision-making – Cockpit adjustment – Instrument interpretation/situational awareness – Manual dexterity – Selection of alternative procedures – Reaction to breakdowns/failures/defects – Emergency warnings – Workload; physical, allocation of tasks – VigilanceFlight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    154. 154. 192 SHELL MODEL AND EMERGENCY PLANNING • Liveware-Software (L-S) – Computer literacy – Self-discipline and procedural behaviour – Interpretation – Time management – Self-motivation – Task allocationFlight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    155. 155. 193 SHELL MODEL AND EMERGENCY PLANNING • Liveware-Liveware (L-L) – Communication skills – Listening skills – Observation skills – Operational management skills; leadership and followership – Problem solving – Decision-making – Error managementFlight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    156. 156. FATIGUE 194 • Fatigue is the general term • Increased reaction time used to describe physical • Reduced attentiveness and/or mental weariness • Impaired memory which extends beyond normal tiredness. • Withdrawn mood. • Mental • Poor desicion making • Physical • Slow reaction to changing situation • Failure to notice an impending confliction; • Loss of situational awareness • Forgetfulness.Flight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    157. 157. BODY RHYTHM DISTURBANCES 195Flight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    158. 158. KEY AREAS FOR A HUMAN FACTORS-ORIENTED 196 EMERGENCY PLAN • An effective organisational • Selection structure for implementing – “Best” or “Right” the emergency plan • Training • Clear and well rehearsed – ATC procedures procedures – Emergency plan • Planned and rehearsed interfaces – CISM • Efficient means of – Crisis management information handling • Assessment of the involved personnelFlight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    159. 159. 197Flight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    160. 160. 198Flight Safety Foundation, South Regional SeminarEast Europe–Middle East–Cyprus Bucharest 18 November 2011
    161. 161. CONCUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    162. 162. END OF THE SEMINAR

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