Promoting Onlineteaching and learning with technologies<br />FeiGao<br />Instructional  Designer<br />Montclair  State  Un...
Statistics in Online Education<br />Over 4.6 million college and university students were taking at least one online cours...
Benefits<br />3<br />“It allows me to learn at anytime, from anywhere.”<br />“Course material is accessible 24 hours a day...
Problems<br />“I did not really get to know people in this course!”<br />“I would have liked to meet the professor face-to...
An Online Community of Inquiry<br />Garrison et al. (2000)<br />5<br />
An Online Community of Inquiry<br />“the degree to which a person is perceived as a ‘real person' in mediated communicatio...
An Online Community of Inquiry<br />“I did not really get to know people in this course!”<br />7<br />
An Online Community of Inquiry<br />“the design, facilitation and direction of cognitive and social processes”<br />Garris...
An Online Community of Inquiry<br />“I would have liked to meet the professor face-to-face to get more of her insights int...
An Online Community of Inquiry<br />“the extent to which the participants are able to construct meaning through sustained ...
An Online Community of Inquiry<br />“The discussions never got to a critical thinking level!”<br />11<br />
12<br />
Promoting Social Presence<br />“I did not really get to know people in this course!”<br />13<br />
Promoting Social Presence<br />(1) Incorporating Audio and Video Communication <br />14<br />       One-way/Two-way commun...
Promoting Social Presence<br />(2) Creating a Supportive Learning Environment<br />15<br />       Social networking, Resou...
Promoting Social Presence<br />(3) Share Personal Stories and Experiences<br />16<br />       Self-introduction, Group dis...
Promoting Social Presence<br />17<br />An Example<br />     Creating a Learning Community using Ning<br />
Promoting Social Presence<br />18<br />An Example<br />     Creating a Learning Community using Ning<br /><ul><li>    Shar...
    Share useful resources and news
    Share and comment on each other’s work
    Communicate with the instructor informally</li></li></ul><li>Promoting Teaching Presence<br />“I would have liked to h...
Promoting Teaching Presence<br />(1)  Designing a Variety of Learning Activities <br />20<br />       The needs from learn...
Promoting Teaching Presence<br />(2) Providing Guidance and Feedback<br />21<br />       Expectations and feedbacks on stu...
Promoting Teaching Presence<br />(3) Assessing Student Learning in Various Ways<br />22<br />       Formative assessment &...
Promoting Teaching Presence<br />An Example<br />23<br />Creating Interactive Lectures using VoiceThread<br />
Promoting Teaching Presence<br />24<br />An Example<br />Creating Interactive Lectures using VoiceThread<br /><ul><li> Ins...
 Learners can interact with the instructor
 Instructor can assess students’ understanding
 Instructor can provide timely feedbacks to learners’ ideas</li></ul>Click here to read my paper on VoiceThread and COI mo...
Promoting Cognitive Presence<br />“The discussions never got to a critical thinking level!”<br />25<br />
26<br />
(Collison, Elbaum, Haavind, & Tinker, 2000) <br />27<br />
“I agree”<br />“me too!”<br />“right on”<br />“nice post”<br />“I agree”<br />“I agree”<br />“that was a good post”<br />“...
A Text-Focused Discussion Environment <br />29<br />
A Text-Focused Discussion Environment <br />30<br />
A Text-Focused Discussion Environment <br />31<br />
A Comparative Study <br />New  Environment<br />Threaded Forum<br />32<br />
Total Number of Posts<br />33<br />
Total Number of Posts<br />P<.05<br />34<br />
Percentage of Text-Focused Posts<br />35<br />
Percentage of Text-Focused Posts<br />P<.05<br />36<br />
“ [The new environment] was much easier to stay on topic, ask any questions, or add any discussion points within the artic...
Percentage of Posts on General Issues<br />P<.05<br />38<br />
“[In the new environment,] we're a bit more restricted to what we are supposed to discuss. I mean in the forums, we had a ...
40<br />
41<br />
A Discussion Environment that Encourages Interactions  <br />42<br />
Survey Results from a Comparative Study <br />43<br />
The environment made it EASY<br />to see the growth and development of a thread of discussion<br />1.38 (0.81)            ...
The environment made it EASY<br />to extend and build ideas on a thread of discussion<br />1.38 (0.89)                    ...
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  • Rough idea how we are going to use the 3 hoursBefore the lunchAfter lunch, tutorials and questionsChoices are in your hand
  • I am gonna show you…Why I am standing here todayAccording to a Sloan report released in 2010,based on responses from more than 2,500 colleges and universities,If you are teaching, you are probably wonderingIf you have not taught, you may like to know how to get to know more about online teachingHopefully, this presentation will give you some ideas
  • Let’s hear what students say about the benefits of online learningTestimonyHighlight some advantagesOnline learning provides the learning experiences without time and space limits. This is a good news for students who work full timeAccessbility: in a f2f class, if you do not pay attention, you may miss sth important. In online class, stop the video. Demoncratic: f2f– remain silence. Online- have to post
  • Some comments from the students…Read, complete assignment, No relationshipHard to interact with the teacher, can not see the teacherGive examples
  • The model of this Community of Inquiry assumes that learning occurs within the Community through the interaction of three core elements. The figure shows the three essential elements: cognitive presence, social presence, and teaching presence.Let’s take a look at the definition of each element
  • Social Presence is described as “the ability of learners to project themselves socially and emotionally”the degree to which a person is perceived as a ‘real person&apos; in mediated communication feeling intimacy or togetherness in terms of sharing time and placeMore likely to enjoy staying with the communityIn face-to-face interaction, emotion, body language, non-verbal behaviors that can reduce the distance between you and others. In online environment, we are look for this kind of presence too.Greatly affected perceived learning and their feelings of being a part of the community (evaluation?)
  • In online environments, it is harder. if you just read the texts alone, respond to instructors’ questions alone… never know their classmates…Quote, is a problem
  • Address the instructor’s role in an online courseRefers to how the instructor design, facilitate, and direct the process of learning
  • Some online course, students don’t have opportunities to frequently interact with the instructor
  • Ultimate goal of learningWhat we want mostWe hope our students can think critically, have in-depth discussion – all cognitive processCognitive presence is a vital element for an successful online coursea process and outcome that is frequently presented as the ostensible goal of all higher education.
  • Now we know what are …presence, what are some of the problems related to…How technologies could help?Social &amp; teaching:Strategies to promote each type of presenceGive an example of how tech could be used to do so…Cognitive presence:Most interested in – two studies
  • Stop me at any point: technical questions, how to do this in my classroom
  • Face-to-face interactionEmotions, non-verbal behaviorFeel the existence of the other personAudio helps to create social presence by reflecting the emotions of the instructor to the students. At the beginning of the class, including a video of youCommunicate through video or audio asynchronously/synchronously: Voiceboard in blackboard, Elluminatesession
  • Safe, supportive environmentAsk questionsInteract or disagree with each otherBuild strong relationship with group membersSocial networking/bookmarking website Help build stronger connections among your students
  • Group discussion: a student share the problems in her live, and ask others to use what they have learned to solve the problem (may or may not be applicable based on the subject matter you are teaching)Self-revealing processIncrease the group cohesion, sense of belonging
  • Ning: the learners helped each other out by answering questions that related or not related to the course, and shared resources they thought others would find helpful. Share pictures…
  • Ning: the learners helped each other out by answering questions that related or not related to the course, and shared resources they thought others would find helpful. Share pictures…Personally, I found course management system better designed to deliver course content, while ning is a better environment for informal exchangesThings I like about Ning:The Presence, the feel of being in a group and belonging to the groupMultiple format: get online, I can see them; video, audio, forum, blog, flexible about how you want to present yourself
  • We have been talking about teaching presence (a lot are related to design)Let’s explore together how to…The central focus of teaching presence is to increase social presence and student learning. Effective online teachers take on the role as a facilitator of learning rather than an instructor
  • Activities that take into considerations those Learners with different learning styles: Several types of learners:Reading: texts, watching online presentations, search for useful resources on the Internet, Reflecting: writing papers, online discussionsDisplaying: producing diagrams, flowchart, concept mapsLearn by Doing: problem-based learning activities, use online simulations, create moviesChoose technologies based on the type and nature of activities
  • Tell students your expectationsProvide rubrics and guidelines to completeGive feedback to students No need for fancy tool here, in most occasions,Many of you may do these kinds of things without thinking. Be more aware of it, do more of them, more consistently
  • Both are importantSummative assessment: quiz, exam, gradebookFormative assessment (harder to accomplish): make sure that students understand the content, there is no misconceptions, and so on.
  • Many of them can be realized with tools in course management systems: email, threaded forum, announcement,gradebookVoiceThread is a Web2.0 tool to make multimedia presentations. VoiceThread allows viewers to leave comments in different ways. VoiceThread allows users to share the presentations with others, and control to what degree the presentations are shared.
  • Many of them can be realized with tools in course management systems: email, threaded forum, announcement,gradebookInteract with your students: learn what they thinkAssess their understanding: stop at a certain point – ask question – control which comment will be displayed at certain timeTeacher-centered, student-centered, or both
  • The model of this Community of Inquiry assumes that learning occurs within the Community through the interaction of three core elements. The figure shows the three essential elements: cognitive presence, social presence, and teaching presence.
  • Problem number 1: The students don’t focus on the readings. The discussion sometimes digresses from the reading to some chit-chat. (reference)
  • Problem number 2:Students do respond to each other.But many times, they are superficial. They forget to connect the ideas back to the readings. So, my question is: how can I help students focus more directly on the texts in their discussion?&gt;&gt;&gt;&gt;&gt;(Someone may argue that focus on the text is not important as long as students are able to talk about the major concepts. But I would say, read and have a deep understanding of the text is the first step for being able to talk about the concepts. I want to make sure students understand the text before moving on to more abstract ideas.
  • To do this, I designed this new online discussion environment. (I know that you cannot see those words clearly. That’s fine. I only want to let you know that…) It is built in the Google Docs, an environment that allows multiple users to work on a document collaboratively. As you can see, I put the text in the left column. Students are expected to comment on the text in the right column as they read.
  • In addition, I inserted discussion questions in the text.This is to direct student attention to important issues in the text and to prompt students to process the information in a deeper level.
  • During the discussion, students worked in small groups.Each one used a unique color to comment on the text, respond to the discussion questions inserted in the text, and reply to each other’s posts.
  • Then, I conducted a study to compare the two environments (in an online undergraduate course).
  • Here is what I found. students produced MUCH MORE number of posts in the new environment.As you can see, it almost tripled that in the threaded forum. When you looked at the discussion, you will see thatOne or two substantive postsMore back and forth, more questions raised and answered
  • Here is what I found. students produced MUCH MORE number of posts in the new environment.As you can see, it almost tripled that in the threaded forum. When you looked at the discussion, you will see thatOne or two substantive postsMore back and forth, more questions raised and answered
  • Here are some more interesting findings.I coded the student posts according to the focus of discussion, that is whether it is a response to the text, to discussion questions, to other students’ comments, or to some general issues.I found that the percentage of posts that were directly focused on the text was much higher in the new environment. Meaning students did focus more
  • Here are some more interesting findings.I coded the student posts according to the focus of discussion, that is whether it is a response to the text, to discussion questions, to other students’ comments, or to some general issues.I found that the percentage of posts that were directly focused on the text was much higher in the new environment. Meaning students did focus more
  • Student also reported in the survey that they put a lot more thinking into the text in the new environment. One student wrote that in the threaded forum, she sometimes asked less questions about the text, because by the time she got to the forum, she had forgotten the questions she wanted to ask while reading the text. In contrast, she thought the new environment are much better for them to engage in MORE conversation and ask MORE questionsbecause the text was presented RIGHT there.
  • What is worth noting is that the percentage of posts on general issues is much lower in the new environment.
  • Here is one student’s comment regarding this. He felt it hard to bring up general issues into the discussion in the new environment. This is probably because of the setup of the new environment. In the new environment, it is easier for students to respond to a specific portion rather than the article as a whole.
  • Development of threadConnection of threadImportant:Sustained discussionInteraction
  • Connect, synthesize
  • Rate each environment on a variety of items using a scale of -2 to 2.Strongly agree, 2; strongly disagree -2
  • Minus: may not be friendly
  • Rate each environment on a variety of items using a scale of -2 to 2.Strongly agree, 2; strongly disagree -2
  • Previous examples: emphasis on cognitive presence, but affect all other types of presencesInteractingCovered three examples on how tech would help.
  • teachingonline

    1. 1. Promoting Onlineteaching and learning with technologies<br />FeiGao<br />Instructional Designer<br />Montclair State University<br />April 8th, 2010<br />
    2. 2. Statistics in Online Education<br />Over 4.6 million college and university students were taking at least one online course (Fall 2008)<br />17% growth rate for online enrollment in 2008<br />(1.2% growth of the overall higher education student population)<br />More than one-third of public university faculty have taught an online course.<br />Sloan (2010)<br />2<br />
    3. 3. Benefits<br />3<br />“It allows me to learn at anytime, from anywhere.”<br />“Course material is accessible 24 hours a day 7 days a week. I have the ability to read and re read lectures, discussions, explanations and comments.”<br />“ I think it makes you more open and get to hear EVERYONE’s opinion because you have to post to discussion boards/modules etc.”<br />
    4. 4. Problems<br />“I did not really get to know people in this course!”<br />“I would have liked to meet the professor face-to-face to get more of her insights into the material!”<br />“The discussions never got to a critical thinking level!”<br />4<br />
    5. 5. An Online Community of Inquiry<br />Garrison et al. (2000)<br />5<br />
    6. 6. An Online Community of Inquiry<br />“the degree to which a person is perceived as a ‘real person' in mediated communication”<br />Garrison et al. (2000)<br />6<br />
    7. 7. An Online Community of Inquiry<br />“I did not really get to know people in this course!”<br />7<br />
    8. 8. An Online Community of Inquiry<br />“the design, facilitation and direction of cognitive and social processes”<br />Garrison et al. (2000)<br />8<br />
    9. 9. An Online Community of Inquiry<br />“I would have liked to meet the professor face-to-face to get more of her insights into the materials!”<br />9<br />
    10. 10. An Online Community of Inquiry<br />“the extent to which the participants are able to construct meaning through sustained communication”<br />Garrison et al. (2000)<br />10<br />
    11. 11. An Online Community of Inquiry<br />“The discussions never got to a critical thinking level!”<br />11<br />
    12. 12. 12<br />
    13. 13. Promoting Social Presence<br />“I did not really get to know people in this course!”<br />13<br />
    14. 14. Promoting Social Presence<br />(1) Incorporating Audio and Video Communication <br />14<br /> One-way/Two-way communication, Asynchronous/Synchronous<br />
    15. 15. Promoting Social Presence<br />(2) Creating a Supportive Learning Environment<br />15<br /> Social networking, Resource sharing, Relation building<br />
    16. 16. Promoting Social Presence<br />(3) Share Personal Stories and Experiences<br />16<br /> Self-introduction, Group discussions<br />
    17. 17. Promoting Social Presence<br />17<br />An Example<br /> Creating a Learning Community using Ning<br />
    18. 18. Promoting Social Presence<br />18<br />An Example<br /> Creating a Learning Community using Ning<br /><ul><li> Share each other’s pictures and videos
    19. 19. Share useful resources and news
    20. 20. Share and comment on each other’s work
    21. 21. Communicate with the instructor informally</li></li></ul><li>Promoting Teaching Presence<br />“I would have liked to have met the professor face-to-face to get more of her insights into the materials!”<br />19<br />
    22. 22. Promoting Teaching Presence<br />(1) Designing a Variety of Learning Activities <br />20<br /> The needs from learners with different learning styles<br />Bonk & Zhang (2006)<br />
    23. 23. Promoting Teaching Presence<br />(2) Providing Guidance and Feedback<br />21<br /> Expectations and feedbacks on student participation and performance<br />
    24. 24. Promoting Teaching Presence<br />(3) Assessing Student Learning in Various Ways<br />22<br /> Formative assessment & Summative assessment<br />
    25. 25. Promoting Teaching Presence<br />An Example<br />23<br />Creating Interactive Lectures using VoiceThread<br />
    26. 26. Promoting Teaching Presence<br />24<br />An Example<br />Creating Interactive Lectures using VoiceThread<br /><ul><li> Instructor can use multimedia content in one presentation
    27. 27. Learners can interact with the instructor
    28. 28. Instructor can assess students’ understanding
    29. 29. Instructor can provide timely feedbacks to learners’ ideas</li></ul>Click here to read my paper on VoiceThread and COI model <br />
    30. 30. Promoting Cognitive Presence<br />“The discussions never got to a critical thinking level!”<br />25<br />
    31. 31. 26<br />
    32. 32. (Collison, Elbaum, Haavind, & Tinker, 2000) <br />27<br />
    33. 33. “I agree”<br />“me too!”<br />“right on”<br />“nice post”<br />“I agree”<br />“I agree”<br />“that was a good post”<br />“I could not have said it better”<br />“well done”<br />“me 3!”<br />(Larson & Keiper, 2002) <br />28<br />
    34. 34. A Text-Focused Discussion Environment <br />29<br />
    35. 35. A Text-Focused Discussion Environment <br />30<br />
    36. 36. A Text-Focused Discussion Environment <br />31<br />
    37. 37. A Comparative Study <br />New Environment<br />Threaded Forum<br />32<br />
    38. 38. Total Number of Posts<br />33<br />
    39. 39. Total Number of Posts<br />P<.05<br />34<br />
    40. 40. Percentage of Text-Focused Posts<br />35<br />
    41. 41. Percentage of Text-Focused Posts<br />P<.05<br />36<br />
    42. 42. “ [The new environment] was much easier to stay on topic, ask any questions, or add any discussion points within the article.”<br />37<br />
    43. 43. Percentage of Posts on General Issues<br />P<.05<br />38<br />
    44. 44. “[In the new environment,] we're a bit more restricted to what we are supposed to discuss. I mean in the forums, we had a general discussion board, where anything could be brought up.” <br />39<br />
    45. 45. 40<br />
    46. 46. 41<br />
    47. 47. A Discussion Environment that Encourages Interactions <br />42<br />
    48. 48. Survey Results from a Comparative Study <br />43<br />
    49. 49. The environment made it EASY<br />to see the growth and development of a thread of discussion<br />1.38 (0.81) 0.38 (0.89)<br />P<.05<br />44<br />
    50. 50. The environment made it EASY<br />to extend and build ideas on a thread of discussion<br />1.38 (0.89) 0.25 (0.93)<br />P<.05<br />45<br />
    51. 51. The environment made it EASY<br />to see how a post is connected to others<br />1.44 (0.96) 0.25 (1.06)<br />P<.05<br />46<br />
    52. 52. The environment made it EASY<br />to build within-thread and cross-thread connections<br />1.69(0.48) -0.38(0.89)<br />P<.05<br />47<br />
    53. 53. 48<br />
    54. 54. 49<br />Social Presence<br />Teaching Presence<br />Cognitive Presence<br />
    55. 55. 50<br />Tell us your story…<br />http://www.slideshare.net/gaofei9/teachingonline<br />
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