Introduction

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Introduction

  1. 1. Introduction Air is a primary essential element for all living organisms; without air there is no life.Many recent policy inventions have been undertaken to improve ambient air quality. But verylittle is known about indoor air quality (IAQ). People spend majority of their time indoor mostlyin domestic environment, where their health may be affected mostly by indoor air pollution. Air pollutants measured in the living rooms include Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide,Nitrogen dioxide, Sulphur dioxide, velocity of air, humidity etc. Air quality refers to the natureof conditioned air that circulates throughout the area where we work and live, that is the air webreathe during most of our lives. IAQ refers not only to comfort, which is affected bytemperature and humidity but also to harmful biological contaminants and chemicals present inthe conditioned space. Indoor air quality may be broadly defined as the nature of air that affectsthe health and well – being of occupants. It refers to the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of air in the indoorenvironment within a home, building, or an institution or commercial facility. Indoor airpollution is a concern in the developed countries, where energy efficiency improvementssometimes make houses relatively airtight, reducing ventilation and raising pollutant levels.Indoor air problems can be subtle and do not always produce easily recognized impacts onhealth. Different conditions are responsible for indoor air pollution in the rural areas and theurban areas. In the developing countries, it is the rural areas that face the greatest threat from indoorpollution, where some 3.5 billion people continue to rely on traditional fuels such as firewood,charcoal, and cowdung for cooking and heating. Concentration of indoor pollutants inhouseholds that burn traditional fuels are alarming. Burning such fuels produces large amount ofsmoke and other air pollutants in the confined space of the home, resulting in high exposure.Women and children are the groups most vulnerable as they spend more time indoors and areexposed to the smoke. In 1992, the World Bank designated indoor air pollution in the developingcountries as one of the four most critical global environmental problems. Daily average of 1
  2. 2. pollutant level emitted indoors often exceed current WHO guidelines and acceptable levels.Although hundreds of separate chemical agents have been identified in the smoke from biofuels,the four most serious pollutants are particulates, carbon monoxide, polycyclic organic matter andformaldehyde. Unfortunately, little monitoring has been done in rural and poor urban indoorenvironment in a manner that is statistically rigorous. In urban areas, exposure to indoor air pollution has increased due to a variety of reasons,including the construction of more tightly sealed buildings, reduced ventilation, the use ofsynthetic materials for building and furnishing and the use of chemical products, pesticides, andhousehold care products. Indoor air pollution can begin within the building or be drawn in fromoutdoors. Other than nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and lead, there are a number of otherpollutants that affect the air quality in an enclosed space. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are potent atmospheric pollutants that consist of fusedaromatic rings and do not contain hetero atoms Napthelene is the simples example of aPAH.They occurs due to incomplete combustion of fuels.eg:coal,tar and biomass.They are also found in cooked foods. List of Polyaromatic hydrocarbons • Acenapthalene • Chrysene • Acenapthene • Dibenzo(a,h) anthracene • Anthracene • Fluoranthene • Benzo(a) anthracene • Fluorene • Benzo(a) fluoranthene • Indeno(123-cd) pyrene • Benzo(a) pyrene • Napthalene • Benzo(ghi) pyrene • Phenanthrene • Benzo(k) fluoranthene • Pyrene 2
  3. 3. Factors affecting Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)The factors affecting the IAQ mainly are the air conditioning system, indoor pollutants anddeterioration of outdoor air. Temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, amount of fresh air,carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, formaldehyde, benzene, respirable particles, volatileorganic compounds (VOC’s) and Radon are the particles affecting indoor air quality Theoutdoor air usually enters through doors, windows and fresh air system. At present in the airconditioning system, air filters trap the dust but it can’t purge harmful gas and germs.Air pollution is a major environmental health problem affecting the developing and developedcountries. The concentration and duration of air contamination causes observable effects onhuman health, animals, plants & materials. The greatest health impacts from air pollutionworldwide occur among the poorest and most vulnerable populations. It is a significant cause ofmorbidity and mortality (Smith, 1993). In addition, they may be natural or man-made. Pollutants can be classified as primary or secondary pollutants. The primary pollutantsare directly emitted from sources into the atmosphere, cause harm to people, monuments,buildings etc. The following primary pollutants are also known to cause harm in high enoughconcentrations: • Carbon compounds, such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane , and volatile organic compounds. • Nitrogen compounds, such as oxides of nitrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. • Sulphur compounds, such as hydrogen sulphide and sulphur dioxide. • Halogen compounds, such as chlorides, fluoride and bromides • Particulate Matter Secondary pollutants are not directly emitted from sources but instead form in theatmosphere from primary pollutants. • Nitrous acid and nitric acid formed from oxides of nitrogen. • Ozone (O3) formed from Sulphur dioxide and nitric acid droplets formed from nitrous oxide. • Sulphate and nitrate aerosols 3
  4. 4. Indoor Air Pollutants The table shows some of the indoor air pollutants, there source and their potential healtheffects. Pollutant Indoor Sources Potential Health Effects Polycyclic Aromatic Cooking, wood burning and other Cancer. Hydrocarbons (PAHs) combustion . Benzene and other organic Solvents, glues, cleaners, building Cancer, respiratory effects, air toxics materials, moth repellents, dry- liver, kidney and brain cleaned clothing, air fresheners. damage. Particulate Matter Wood stoves, fireplaces, cooking, Lung cancer, cardiovascular candles, aerosol sprays. effects, respiratory effects.Sources of Indoor Air Pollution Air pollutants are invisible and odorless. So detecting indoor air pollutants is difficult.The four major sources of indoor air pollution are• Combustion byproducts, such as smoke and carbon monoxide.• Building materials, including carpets, wood products and paints.• Household products and chemicals, such as cleaning solvents, adhesives and Paint strippers.• Biological contaminants such as molds, animal dander, germs, dust and mites. 4
  5. 5. Impact of Indoor Air Pollutants The health effects caused by air pollution may include difficulty in breathing, wheezing,coughing and aggravation of existing respiratory and cardiac conditions. These effects can resultin increased medication use, increased doctor or emergency room visits, more hospitaladmissions and premature death. The human health effects of poor air quality are far reaching,but principally affect the bodys respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Individualreactions to air pollutants depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to, the degree ofexposure, the individuals health status and genetics. 5
  6. 6. STUDY AREA BHADRAVATHI Bhadravathi is an industrial town in Shivamogga District of Karnataka state, India. It is situated at a distance of about 255 kilometres (158 mi) from the state capital, Bangalore and at about 20 kilometres (12 mi) from the district headquarters, Shivamogga. Bhadravathi Taluk has a total area of 675.08 square kilometres. Population of Bhadravathi according 2011 Census is approximately 160,392. The latitude and longitude coordinates of Bhadravathi town are 13°50′24″N 75°42′07″E / 13.840°N 75.702°E / 13.840; 75.702. Bhadravathi is at an altitude ofGonibeedu 597 mts (1,959 ft) above sea level.It derives the name from the Bhadra River which flows through the city. It was earlier known as Benkipura. The present study was conducted in different areas of Bhadhravathi. In several residences, the residents still use the age old method of heating water by using firewood and coconut husk for bathing which causes health problems in women and chidern. 6
  7. 7. Objectives of the Study The main objective of the study is to assess the status of total suspended particulates andPoly aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor environment of different houses in Bhadhravathi IndustrialTown.Objectivesa) Assessment and evaluation of total suspended particulate matter in indoor environment of different houses in Bhadhravathi Industrial Town.b) Estimation of poly aromatic hydrocarbon level in the air borne particulates using High power liquid chromatography.c) To assess the health status of different families in Bhadhravathi Industrial Town. 7
  8. 8. Review of LiteratureAccording to WHO report( 2002) indoor air is becoming more hazardous than outdoor air. Indoor air pollution is responsible for 2.7% of the global burden of disease. Indoor smoke ranks tenth as a risk factor of disease. But more than three billion people worldwide continue to depend on solid fuels, including biomass fuels (wood, cow dung, crop waste, agricultural residues) and coal for their energy needs (Bilkis et al., 2008).In the World Health Report (2002) it was estimated that 1.6 million premature deaths are causedannually by indoor air pollution. Certain population groups, like women and small children, arevulnerable to the effects of indoor air pollution because their daily activities include exposure toindoor air pollutants 90% of rural households in developing countries still rely on unprocessedbiomass fuels for most of the day. The amount of exposure in terms of the number of people,exposure intensity and time is greater in developing world (Smith, 1993); approximately 76% ofall global particulate matter air pollution occurs indoors in the developing world.Eye and respiratory symptoms have been attributed to indoor air pollutants in developingcountries (Ellegard, 1997; Ezzati and Kammen, 2001; Smith et al., 2000; Ellegard, 1996). Eyeirritation during cooking was studied in Lusaka, Maput and Hanoi in Zambia, Mozambique, andVietnam respectively; along with respiratory symptoms, it was found to be associated withbiomass use (Ellegard, 1997). The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was significantlyassociated with the use of open fires in comparison to use of wood stoves with chimneys inGuatemalan study (Bruce et al., 1998). A study from India observed the occurrence ofrespiratory symptoms over six months and reported that a greater proportion of biomass userssuffered from respiratory symptoms with decreased pulmonary function compared to kerosene orLPG users (Dutt et al., 1996).Chronic bronchitis, an important public health problem of developing countries, has been shownto be related to domestic biomass use in rural Bolivian villages (Albalak et al., 1999) and hillregion villages of Nepal (Pandey, 1989). The impact of such exposures is further aggravated bypoor ventilation combined with continuous and prolonged exposure to such sources, especially inwomen and children (Bruce et al., 2002). 8
  9. 9. Household indoor air pollution concentration was measured during unvented burning (chimneysblocked) and vented burning (chimneys open) of bituminous coal in Xuan Wei, China.Concentration of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10μm or less (PM10) andof Benzo[a]pyrene(BaP) were measured in 43 homes during normal activities.The use of chimneys led to a significant decrease in indoor air concentration of particulate matterwith an aerodynamic diameter of 10μm or less (PM10) by 66% and Benzo[a]pyrene(BaP) by84% with the installation of the chimneys. The reduction of indoor pollution levels by theinstallation of a chimney supports the epidemiology finding on the health benefits of stoveimprovement. However, even in the presence of a chimney, the indoor air concentration for bothPM10 and BaP still exceeded the indoor air quality standards of China. (Linwei Tian et al.,2009).Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) belong to the group of persistent organic pollutants(POPs). These are organic contaminants that are resistant to degradation, can remain in theenvironment for long period and have the potential to cause adverse environmental effects.Some of them are susceptible to dispersion on a global scale because, in addition to havingenvironmental persistence, they are "semi-volatile", i.e. under environmental conditions theymove between the atmosphere and the earths surface in repeated, temperature-driven cycles ofdeposition and volatilization (Wania and Mackay, 1996).There are thousands of PAH compounds in the environment but in practice PAH analysis isrestricted to the determination of 6 to 16 compounds. Individual PAHs differ substantially intheir physical and chemical properties (Subramanium et al., 1994, Van Jaarsveld et al., 1997,Maliszewska-Kordybach, 1998). PAHs are listed by the Unites States Environmental ProtectionAgency (EPA) and the European Commission as priority pollutants.PAHs emitted to the air can be transported over long distances before they are deposited withatmospheric precipitation on soils, vegetation or sea and inland waters (Wild and Jones, 1995;Van Jaarsveld et al., 1997). The presence of PAHs in all these elements of the environment maycreate a risk not only to humans but also to all living organisms. 9
  10. 10. PAHs enter the atmosphere from the combustion and from volatilization. They are present in theambient air as vapours or adsorbed into airborne particulate matter (Subramanyam et al. 1994;Van Jaarsveld et al., 1997; Wild and Jones, 1995). 10
  11. 11. Methodology1. Measurement of total suspended particulate matter in air was done by gravimetric method using Handy sampler (HDS-8).2. Extraction of poly aromatic hydrocarbons by High performance liquid chromatography,3. Assesment of health status of the residents through survey and questionnaires method. Six areas comprising thirty residences were selected randomly for the study purposedepending upon the use of biomass for heating and frequency of use.Handy Sampler HDS-8 Handy sampler HDS-8 is a basic instrument used primarily for measuring concentrationof suspended time. These particulates usually range from 1 micron to 100 microns in size andmay be caused by a variety of process, such as incomplete combustion of solids, liquids orgaseous fuels. In the Handy sampler HDS-8, the air is passed through filter paper which is placed infilter holder kept near sampling point. The flow rate capacity of air is 0-5 L.P.M per minute. It isalso used for the analysis of gases such as chloride, hydro chlorines, bromine, ammonia andnitrous oxide. Impinger is used in which suitable solvent is filled. When the sampled air is passedthrough, impinger the gases are dissolved in solvent. The solvent is then analyzed by appropriatemethods for respective gas.Filter PaperCollection of Airborne Suspended Particulate Matter: The samples were collected in different houses of Bhadravathi industrial town. Thecollected samples were transferred to clean polythene and analyzed in the laboratory as perprocedure. Gravimetric method was used to determine the concentration of suspended particulate matter. Aknown volume of air is drawn through a glass fiber filter of pore size 0.7 µm of known weightand the filter paper is reweighed after sampling under controlled condition. This gives direct 11
  12. 12. measurement of particulate mass. During sampling, air flow rate is monitored through Rotameter. Glass fiber filter was exposed to the light source and inspected for pinhole and particlesof any other importation. Good and perfect filters are selected and weighed accurately in thefourth decimal of a gram (in order to facilitate weighing it was necessary to hold the filterloosely without producing any cramps over it) weight and serial number of the filter paper wasrecorded on the field data sheet. The filter was unfolded after weighing and placed in plasticfolder for any man-handling. Before mounting the glass fibre filter paper on the sampler, thesampler was carefully cleaned with a dust cloth. The sampler area of the equipment was properlywiped out and kept clean before starting the sampler. The pre-weighed filter paper was placed inthe filter paper holder. The glass fiber has two sides, rough surface and smooth surface, rough surface is thereverse side of the filter. The sampler was switched on for its operation. The Rota meter level(flow rate) was checked and recorded in the field data sheet. In the present study, samples werecollected over a 1-3 hours run. The rota meter reading and the corresponding flow rate and timeof closure data were recorded in the data sheet. The filter samples were dried in hot air oven(1030-1050c) for an hour. After one hour the filter sample was cooled and to desiccated. Thefiltered sample was weighed accurately by nearest to the fourth decimal of gram and recorded inthe data sheet. Replacing it back into the sample cover for further studies preserved the filterpaper.Calculation:Flow rate (v) = Flow rate in cubic meter per minute.Period of sampling (T) = Total period of net running minutesVolume of air sampled = Flow rate (V) x Sample period (T)Weight of the dust (W) = Difference in final & initial weight of filter Paper in gramsConcentration of dust = W x 106 microgram/Cu.m/V x T (mg/m3) 12
  13. 13. Extraction of PAH’s:High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons were identified and evaluated in different residences. Theywere extracted from the filter paper collected from the pollution source. The Glass fiber filter was used to determine the amount of particulate collected. Aftercollection, filters were wrapped with aluminum foil and stored at 4 0C in refrigerator until theywere sent to the laboratory for analysis by HPLC.Results and Discussion 13
  14. 14. Indoor air pollution caused by burning traditional fuels such as firewood, crop residueand dung causes considerable damage to the health particularly,women and children. There isevidence associating the use of biomass fuel with acute respiratory tract infection in children,chronic obstructive lung disease and pneumoconiosis. The indoor air monitoring was carried outin different residences in Bhadhravathi Industrialtal Town,Shimoga district using glass fiberfilter paper in Handy Sampler. The Total Suspended Particulate Matter (TSPM) is collected and analyzed. The PAHswere analyzed using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The observation of TotalSuspended Particulate Matter (TSPM) is presented in Table 1. The average Total SuspendedParticulate Matter (TSPM) showed a wide variation ranging from 83 mg/m3to 9722 mg/m3 .According to National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) , it was found that the SPMlevels at all the monitored locations were higher than the prescribed limits in Indoors. The high concentration of the suspended particulates in the residences may be due to theuse of mixed type of firewood and coconut husk. The incomplete combustion of firewood andcoconut husk emits suspended particulate matter, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur,Polyorganicmaterial (POM), Polyaromatichydrocarbon (PAH), formaldehyde, etc (Bruce et al.,2000). The suspended particulate matter was analyzed for its concentration and identification ofvarious PAHs. The range of PAH concentration in different houses has been shown in tableTable.3. It was found that PAHs concentration was maximum in house no-4 where 8 PAH weredetected. From the survey it was revealed that the economic condition of some houses is poorand they use more quantity of bio fuels for heating purposes. The high concentration of PAH inthese houses as compared to others is due to insufficient ventilation in these houses.Table 1- Sampling location, duration and total suspended particulate matter. 14
  15. 15. Sl House no Location Samling Flow Total Initial Final Difference TSPMno duration rate volume weight weight (g) in weight (µg/m3) (minutes) LPM of air (g) (g) LPM 15
  16. 16. 1 House no 1 Jannapura 60 2 120 0.05896 0.05906 0.0001 8332 House no 2 Jannapura 60 2 120 0.05872 0.05898 0.00026 21673 House no 3 Jannapura 60 2 120 0.05789 0.05797 8.00E-03 6674 House no 4 Jannapura 60 2 120 0.0585 0.05868 0.00018 15005 House no 5 Jannapura 60 2 120 0.0581 0.05828 0.00018 15006 House no 6 Hutha colony 60 2 120 0.05602 0.05607 5.00E-05 4177 House no 7 Hutha colony 60 2 120 0.05506 0.05508 2.00E-05 1678 House no 8 Hutha colony 60 2 120 0.05924 0.05925 1.00E-05 839 House no 9 Hutha colony 60 2 120 0.05796 0.05804 8.00E-05 66710 House no 10 Hutha colony 60 2 120 0.05838 0.05846 8.00E-05 66711 House no 11 Bandaralli 60 2 120 0.05935 0.05939 4.00E-05 33312 House no 12 Bandaralli 60 2 120 0.05852 0.0586 8.00E-05 66713 House no 13 Bandaralli 60 2 120 0.05876 0.0588 4.00E-05 33314 House no 14 Bandaralli 60 2 120 0.05958 0.06 0.00042 350015 House no 15 Bandaralli 60 2 120 0.05822 0.05858 0.00036 300016 House no 16 Upper Hutha 60 2 120 0.05844 0.05949 5.00E-05 41717 House no 17 Upper Hutha 60 2 120 0.05884 0.05891 7.00E-05 58318 House no 18 Upper Hutha 60 2 120 0.0584 0.05854 0.00014 116719 House no 19 Upper Hutha 60 2 120 0.05894 0.05899 5.00E-05 41720 House no 20 Upper Hutha 60 2 120 0.05758 0.05782 0.00024 200021 House no 21 Zincline 180 2 360 0.0588 0.0594 0.0006 166722 House no 22 Zincline 180 2 360 0.05832 0.0.5997 0.00165 458323 House no 23 Zincline 180 2 360 0.05828 0.05852 0.00024 66724 House no 24 Zincline 180 2 360 0.05875 0.05892 0.00017 47225 House no 25 Zincline 180 2 360 0.05888 0.06132 0.00244 677826 House no 26 Lower Hutha 180 2 360 0.05965 0.0601 0.00045 125027 House no 27 Lower Hutha 180 2 360 0.0579 0.05854 0.00064 177828 House no 28 Lower Hutha 180 2 360 0.0585 0.05956 0.00106 294429 House no 29 Lower Hutha 180 2 360 0.05946 0.06296 0.0035 972230 House no 30 Lower Hutha 180 2 360 0.059 0.05918 0.00018 500 TSPM= Total suspended particulate matter. Table-2. Minimum, maximum, average and range of TSPM. N TSPM (µg/m3) Min Max Average Range 30 83 9722 1725 83-9722 16
  17. 17. N = Number of housesTSPM= Total suspended particulate matters. Table 3: Minimum and Maximum concentration of PAHs Identified. List of PAH Range in ng/m3 Acenapthalene BDL Acenapthene 96-2031 Anthracene 6-171 Benzo(a) anthracene 2-56 Benzo(a) fluoranthene 56-6033 Benzo(a) pyrene 375-14913 Benzo(ghi) pyrene BDL Benzo(k) fluoranthene 241-14898 Chrysene 1-15 Dibenzo(a,h) anthracene BDL Fluoranthene 28-170 Fluorene BDL Indeno(123-cd) pyrene BDL Napthalene BDL Phenanthrene 16-373 Pyrene 10-19BDL=Below detection levelPAHs specific to biomass smoke emissions (as listed in Table 3 ) are analyzed. It includedvolatile PAHs (acenaphthene), particle bound PAHs (chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene) plus PAHsoccurring in gas as well as in particle bound form (phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene). Theobserved PAHs exibit both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic activity. Among the observedPAH, Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is an important carcinogen (Miller et al., 1991). Anthracene is not acarcinogen but methyl addition renders them to be a carcinogen. 17
  18. 18. The obtained values were much higher than the prescribed value of 1ng/m 3 (0.001 µg/m3) set byWHO for ambient air PAH (WHO-Euro1987).Table 4: P A H compounds tested from the collected air samples Chemical Structural Structural formula Chemical compound formula compound 18
  19. 19. Acenapthene Benzo(a) anthracene Anthracene Benzo[a]pyrene Benzo(k) Benzo(a) fluoranthene fluoranthene Phenanthrene Chrysene Pyrene FluorantheneSummary and Conclusion The present study summarizes the health risk in the indoor environment of severalresidences In Bhadhravathi Industrial Town,Shimoga district, Karnataka. Evaluation of the airborne contaminant such as, total suspended particulate matter and poly aromatic hydrocarbon(PAHs) of suspended particles was carried out. 19
  20. 20. The concentration of the particulates was found to be higher than the permissible limitand the particulates contain various type of PAHs such as , Acenapthene, Anthracene, Benzo (a)anthracene, Benzo(a)fluoranthene, Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene, Chrysene,Fluoranthene, Phenanthrene & Pyrene . Among the observed PAHs Benzo[a]pyrene iscarcenogenic in nature. Indoor air pollution in India is responsible for a high degree of morbidity warrantingimmediate steps for intervention. The first and the most important step in the prevention ofillness resulting from the use of biomass fuels is to educate the public, administrators andpoliticians to ensure their commitment for the improvement of public health. Indoor air pollution can be minimized by reducing combustion products in homes. Theintervention programme should include (I) public awareness; (ii) change in pattern of fuel use;(iii) Using Solar water heaters (iv) Improvement in the ventilation. (v)Use modern heatingequipment which are non-pollutants.Control Measures  Improvement in ventilation  Discourage smoking in your homes.  Install and use exhaust fans that are vented to the outdoors in kitchens and bathrooms and vent clothes dryers outdoors. 20
  21. 21.  Ventilate the attic and crawl spaces to prevent moisture build-up.  If using cool mist or ultrasonic humidifiers, clean appliance according to manufacturer’s instructions and refill with fresh water daily.  Thoroughly clean and dry water-damaged carpets and building materials (within 24 hours if possible) or consider removal and replacement.  Keep the house clean. House dust mites, pollens, animal dander and other allergy-causing agents can be reduced, although not eliminated, through regular cleaning.  Take steps to minimize biological pollutants in basements.  Take special precautions when operating fuel-burning unvented space heaters.  Keep woodstove emissions to a minimum. Choose properly sized new stoves that are certified as meeting EPA emission standards.  Have central air handling systems, including furnaces, flues and chimneys, inspected annually and promptly repair cracks or damaged parts.  Throw away partially, full containers of old or unneeded chemicals safely.  Exposure to benzene to a minimum.  Exposure to perchloroethylene emissions from newly dry-cleaned materials to a minimum.  Unwanted pesticides disposed safely.  Leave lead-based paint undisturbed if it is in good condition – do not sand or burn off paint that may contain lead.  Do not remove lead paint yourself.Signature of Research Supervisor Signature of Research ScholarBibliography 21
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