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What is Marketing?
Marketing is the Process of Planning & Executing the
conception, pricing, promotion & distribution of ideas, goods, services to create
exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational goals.
Marketing mgmt is the art & science of choosing target markets and getting, keeping
and growing customers through creating, delivering and communicating superior
Today the word Marketing is not limited to
Advertisement but today marketing is start from before the production to sale the
production. Before some years ago the information of consumers related to the
product was not increased but after that information sources are increased,
consumer start to take the interest in the getting the information about the products.
As well as the global markets are grows companies are staring to promote their
products, improving the services before the sale & after the sale and starting to get
the feedback from the consumer.
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Consumer Buying Behaviour Process
Here we are taking Mobile Phone as a product
so we can evaluate process very well. And take a person named Mr. Patel as a
This is the first step of the Consumer Buying Behaviour Process.
First Mr. Patel thinks about their needs of the Mobile, whether he wants to use for
Communication like Calling or for games and entertainment or for surfing the internet
easily or whether all these.
Evaluation of Alternatives
Post Purchase Decision
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Now after deciding the needs of mobile for ex. Mr. Patel wants
to use mobile with all uses of it. So now he started to search about the types of
mobile available in the Market. Mainly 4 sources are there to get the information.
1) Personal Sources
2) Commercial Sources
3) Public Sources
In the Personal source Mr. Patel will get information from his Friends, family &
In the Commercial source Mr. Patel will get information from Net, TV Media, Print
In the Public source Mr. Patel will tried to get some information like Couliges,
In the past if Mr. Patel was bought any mobile than he knew the common or
special features of the some of the mobile mfg company.
Evaluation of Alternatives: As result of information search,
Mr. Patel gets the ideas regarding types of products, qualities of brands etc. So now
Mr. Patel evaluates competitive brands and makes a final value judgment.
There is no single process used by all consumers.
But there are some basic concepts.
1) Consumer is trying to satisfy a need.
2) Consumer is looking for certain benefits from the product solution.
3) Consumer sees each product as a bundle of expectations and compare wit
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Purchase Decision: In the evaluation stage, consumer may
also form an intention to buy the most preferred brand. Here, two factors can
intervene between the purchase intention and purchase decision.
1) Attitudes of others
2) Unanticipated situational factors
Before buying any product, consumer takes opinion from others & also
discusses with his partner. For ex. Before purchase a car person discussed with
his family & with his wife and takes their opinion. Here Mr. Patel can ask the
opinion of his wife also.
Many times because of unanticipated factors consumer changed his decision,
like family income, price increasing.
Manier times customer changed his decision of purchase at the last time. There are
some factors which are affects the consumer’s behavior to changed his decision.
For ex. Mr. Patel goes to purchase a new mobile of a particular brand & there is a
misunderstanding happens between them or they rude with the misbehave of
Post-Purchase Behavior: After purchasing the product, the
consumer will experience some level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The
marketer’s job thus, does not end when the product is brought. Marketers must
monitor post-purchase satisfaction, post-purchase actions and post-purchase
Consumer feel level of satisfaction/dissatisfaction by using the product. If he feels
dissatisfaction then he will not purchase that brand’s product again.
For ex. Mr. Patel bought a mobile of a brand say “Micromax”, now after
purchasing the mobile there is some software problem in the mobile & he has to go
at service centre then He will surely feeling dissatisfaction about purchasing of
“Micromax”. Now he will also advice others to not to buy the mobile of micromax.
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Factors Affecting Consumer Behaviour—
Culture, subculture & social class are important influences on consumer buying
behavior. It refers to the set of values, ideas, and attitudes that are accepted by
homogenous group of people.
Culture is the fundamental determinant of a person’s wants & behavior. It affects
what people buy, how they buy & when they buy.
In the society normally there are 3 types of class.
Now days every one can get the mobile very easily, & also in very flexible price.
Normally Cultural factors does not affect the buying decision to purchase a
Mobile, It is the different matter if a lower level person wants to purchase a very high
expensive mobile like “Apple”.
• Reference group- Every person is connected with any group, directly or
indirectly. These groups are influence on a person’s behavior or attitude. Many
times people does not belong with a particular group but if he want to be a part
of such group then he tried to behave like that.
For ex.- In office of Mr. Patel everybody has the phone of “Blackberry” then he might
be influenced to purchase the mobile of blackberry.
• Family- Family is the most important buying organization of the society. A person
like to purchase that type of product which are liked by his/her family and it
Age & Life-
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satisfied the need of the family. Like, a person wants to buy a Santro but if his
family is big then he will changed his decision.
For example, If wife of Mr. Patel likes then mobile of Samsung then he might be
purchase mobile of the same.
• Age & Life style- A person might be buy product as per his age and as per
the life style of his/her family. Like if a person live a very simple life then he
likes to buy a very simple mobile rather than smart phone.
Mr. Patel is a manager in a reputed co. and elder age then there is a chances
of purchasing a smart phone but a simple.
• Occupation & economic circumstances- The economic situation of a person is
also very effective factors for the purchase decision. Say, if a person is very
simple employed and in his company camera phone is not allowed then he
has to purchase a very simple mobile. And if a person is a businessman & he
has to high use of e-mails, and manage his schedule then he like to purchase
a “Windows” mobile or “Blackberry”, so that he can work easily. & faster.
• Personality- Each person has his own personality characteristic that
influences his or her buying behavior. Personality can be useful variable in
analyzing brand choices. People always choose & use the product which suit
• Life style & values- People from the same subculture, social class & occupton
may lead quite different lifestyle. Different lifestyle means different activities,
interest, and opinion.
If Mr. Patel is a manager of a reputed co. then it is normal thing that he lives
an high life degree of life style & his opinion are also as per his interest &
activities. So he might be like to purchase mobile that type of mobile which suits
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The process of dividing a market into groups of similar consumer & selecting
the most appropriate groups of individuals for the firm to serve.
Market segmentation can be defined as the process of dividing a potential
market into distinct subset of consumer with common needs or characteristics &
selecting one or more segments to target with a distinct marketing mix.
Geographic Segmentation : Segmentation of consumer based on factors
like climate zone, country, region, state, district, and urban/rural area, constitutes
geographic segmentation. National markets within a country like India, often
segment the market by Region, State, District and Urban or Rural area, first, and
then go for segmentation on other bases.
Rural & urban markets differ on a number of important parameters such as income,
spending power, mobile networks. They both have different social and cultural.
Example There are so many mobile networks
in India, but people of interial area of India or people who leave in
Himalaya area, they has to use the network of BSNL because
private players did not reach there.
Demographics Geographic Socio-Cultural
Buying Behavior Psycho-graphics
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Demographic Segmentation : Segmentation of consumer based on
variables such as religion, community, language, age, stage in family cycle,
gender, marital status, family size, occupation, economic position/income, and
social status, of the consumer demographic segmentation.
Example “ Amul” has segmented his product in different Age
For kids: Amul kool, Chocolate milk, Nutramul energy drink.
For Youth: Amul cool kafe
For women’s and older people: Amul calci+, Amul Shakti
Psychographic Segmentation : Psychographic Segmentation groups
customers according to their life-style and buying psychology. Many businesses
offer products based on the Attitudes, Beliefs and Emotions of their target market.
In psychographic segmentation, elements like life style, attitude, self-concept and
value system, form the base
Example, “Life style”: Life style forms a major base under
Café Coffee Day
They choose lifestyle oriented, urban consumers as target
with youth. They make coffee an ‘experience’ and provide a
special experience to chosen segment.
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Behavioural Segmentation : Behavioral segmentation is based on user
behaviors, including patterns of use, price sensitivity, brand loyalty and benefits
sought. A company may have customers with a similar demographic makeup but
distinct behavior. Some may use the product daily or weekly or monthly. So buyer’s
characteristics are reflected by their geographic, demographic and psychographic
Usage rate: - Heavy user / moderate user / light user of a product.
User status: - Regular / potential / first time user / irregular /occasional.
Loyalty status: - Hard core loyal / split loyal / shifting / switchers.
Occasion: - Consumer buy product only on special occasion or every time.
⇒ Target market of “Dairy Milk Silk” of Cadbury company.
The main Target of Dairy Milk Silk is the young generation. They mostly tried to
attract the youth for the product.
Task to be done to target the youth.
@Select the Wrapper for the product- They tried to make the cover of Dairy
Milk Silk attractive, with combination of Dark & Light colour. And they make the cover
fat to attract the people.
@Design the Advertisement- The target of the company is the young
generation, so they tried to make Romantic advertisements with couple. They add
English music in the all advertisement, to attract the youth of 16-30.