The embrace of ancient Dravidian culture, Tamil Nadu is the southern-most state of India. It is a beautiful state nestled in the southern Indian peninsula, on the shores of the Bay of Bengal and the deep blue Indian Ocean. The state extends from the Coromandel Coast in the east to the forested Western Ghats in the west.
The state lies at the southern tip of India, surrounded by Pondicherry, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. It is the second most industrialized state in the country after Gujarat.
The arrogance of the state is the language Tamil itself. Scholars recognize Tamil to be one of India's two languages of antiquity. The cultural ambiance of the state has given it a separate position on the cultural map of the country.
This land has a vibrant culture, a rich tapestry of history, a nature's Paradise of extended beaches, clear skies and many more to rediscover…Feel and touch this spectacular land with passion.
HISTORY Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
Tamil Nadu has a glorious history and great civilization that flourished in the region during the Sangam Age with developments in the fields like art, literature and occultism. The subsequent periods were associated with Pallava, Pandya, Chola, Vijayanagara and then came the British.
The British established their first trade centre in the Madras State at Peddapali (now Nizampatnam) in 1611 and then at Masulipatnam. In 1639, they were permitted to make more settlements in the region and as an outcome the Fort St. George was founded (present Chennai). By 1801, the whole of the territory from the northern Circars to Cape Comorin (with the exception of certain French and Danish settlements) were controlled by the British.
After India got her independence in 1947, Madras Presidency became Madras State, comprising of present day Tamil Nadu, coastal Andhra Pradesh, northern Kerala, and the southwest coast of Karnataka. The state was later divided on the basis of linguistic lines. Under the States Reorganization Act, 1956, Madras State lost its western coastal districts. The Bellary and South Kanara districts were given to Mysore state, and Kerala was formed from the Malabar district, the former princely states of Travancore and Cochin. Finally, in 1968, when the Central Government imposed Hindi as the national language, the state of Madras was renamed as Tamil Nadu.
MILESTONES Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
Pre-Historic Period30,000 BC : Paleolithic industries in north Tamil Nadu.8000-3000 BC : Pre-pottery microlithic industries.3000-1000 BC : Neolithic and fine microlithic industries.
Pre-Sangam Period1000-300 BC : Megalithic age.600 BC : Tamil Brahmi prevalent as the Tamil script.250 BC : Asoka's inscription recording the four kingdoms (Chera, Cholas, Pandya and Satyaputra) of the ancient Tamil country.200 BC : Elara, a Tamil prince and contemporary of Dutte Gamini, rules Lanka.
MILESTONES Continue…. Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
British Rule1892 - British Government passes the Indian Councils Act.1909 - 'Minto-Morley Reforms'. Madras Legistlative Council formed.1921 - First regional elections held in Madras. Justice party forms government.1927 - Madras Congress passes a resolution for 'Full Independence'.1928 - Simon Commission visits Madras. mass protests results in several deaths.1937 - Congress party under C. Rajagopalachari wins provincial elections and forms government in Madras.1938 - E.V. Ramasamy Naicker organises a separatist agitation demanding Dravidanadu consisting of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.1941 - Indian Muslim League holds its congress in Madras. Muhammad Ali Jinnah delivers keynote speech.1944 - E.V. Ramasamy Naicker and C. N. Annadurai organises Dravidar Kazhagam.
MILESTONES Continue…. Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
Post-independence Period1947 - Madras Presidency, comprising of Tamil Nadu and parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka established.1953 - Madras state comes into being along linguistic lines.1968 - Widespread agitations in response to the Federal Government's directive of Hindi being the National Language.1969 - Madras state is renamed as Tamil Nadu (Land of the Tamils).
GEOGRAPHY Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
Tamil Nadu is located in the southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula bordered by Kerala to the west, Karnataka to the northwest, Andhra Pradesh to the north and Bay of Bengal to the east. The total area covered by the state is 130058 sq. kms of which 22933.79 sq. kms is under forests..
The state has been divided into 5 major physiographic divisions - the Kurinji or mountainous region, the Mullai or forest region, the Palai or arid region, the Marudham or the fertile plains and the Neidhal or coastal region. The Eastern and Western Ghats meet in this state and run along it’s eastern and western boarders
The hills of the Western Ghats have dense forests as compared to Eastern Ghats. This region receives maximum rainfall and hence favours plantations of tea, coffee and spices. However, the upper reaches of the Eastern Ghats are not without their share of beauty and Yercaud in the Shevaroy hills is famous for its fruit orchards and banana and coffee plantations. The most arid and desert like-area is in the Tirunelveli district and is known as Palai.
CLIMATE Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
The state of Tamil Nadu is located in the southeastern part of Indian peninsula between 8° 5' and 13° 35' North latitude and 76° 15' and 80° 20' East longitude. Hence the climate is tropical with little variation in temperatures during winter and summer. Summer season is felt between April and June when temperature reaches*40°C 40°C.
November – February are the months when Tamil Nadu experiences winter but temperature doesn't drop below 20 °C. But though these months are pleasant, Tamilnadu's Climate has another distinct feature that is it experiences winter rainfall, between the time period of October-December .Heavy rainfall accompanied by thunder and lightning occurs during this time. The best season to visit the state is between October and March.
CONNECTIVITY Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
Tamil Nadu is well connected by air, rail and road. The major cities like Chennai, Coimbatore, Tiruchi and Madurai are connected to other parts of the country.By Air :The Anna International Airport in Chennai is located 16 kms away from the centre . Regular and weekly flights are available to/from Sri Lanka, Maldives, Singapore, Saudi Arabia, Dubai, Jakarta England and Germany. Major cities of the country are also connected by domestic flights.By Rail :Chennai, the capital city of Tamil Nadu is well connected by network of rails. Chennai has two railway stations, one is Egmore station and the other is Chennai Central. Express and super fast trains are available to/from important parts of the country.By Road :The bus terminals in Chennai are on either side of Prakasham Road in George Town near the High Court building. There are regular buses available from Chennai to neighboring states. Ferry service is also available in Chennai.
NATURAL RESOURCES Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
Tamil Nadu has a wealth of flora and fauna and some of its major wildlife sanctuaries like Mudumalai and Anaimalai (Indira Gandhi W.S) are situated in the hills of the Western Ghats which is the habitat of elephants, tigers, bisons and a variety of monkey and deer.
Of the 3000 and more plant species found in Tamil Nadu, a majority are found in the mixed deciduous forests of this region. One of the most noteworthy flowers is the Kurinji of Kodaikanal which blooms once in 12 years. Cinchona from which quinine - a drug for treating malaria - is extracted and eucalyptus grow abundantly in the Nilgiris.
Forests of medicinal herbs are found in Palani hills and Courtallam. Palmyrah trees grow by the thousands in Tirunelveli and its products are used as raw materials for several cottage industries. Rubber is the main plantation crop in Kanyakumari and the more exotic sandalwood grows, though not in very large numbers, in the Javadhu hills of Vellore district.
The forest areas of Tiruvannamalai and Tirunelveli districts of the state are being regenerated and protected by the state forest Department. These forests not only provide large economy to the state but also the local livelihood.
Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
Tamil Nadu is blessed with a number of rivers of which Cauveri is the most important. This perennial river of the state originates in Coorg in the neighboring Karnataka state. The fertile Coromandel plains are irrigated by the Kaveri and its delta in Thanjavur - Nagapattinam region is known as the granary of Tamil Nadu. The other rivers in the state are the Palar, Pennar, Vaigai and Tamiraparani.
Mineral Deposits : The state is rich in mineral resources. The major mineral resources include Lignite, Vermiculite, Garnet, Zircon, Graphite, Ilmenite, Rutile, Monazite and Magnesite etc.
Government & AdministrationTamil Nadu’s legislature was bicameral till 1986 but later on it was replaced by a unicameral legislature with 234 members in the legislative assembly. Like all other states of India, the head of the state is the Governor, appointed by the President of India. His or her post is largely ceremonial. The Chief Minister is the head of government and is vested with most of the executive powers.Tamil Nadu has 39 seats in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of Parliament. The major administrative units in the state include 30 districts, 7 municipal corporations, 152 municipalities, 561 town panchayats and 12,618 village panchayats. Tamil Nadu is a prosperous state performing stable governance over decades. With the advancement of computer and information technology, the state has initiated e-Governance in the sectors like legislature, judiciary, or administration for improving internal efficiency in public services.
Chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu since 1920 1. Thiru A Subbarayalu 17-12-1920 to 11-07-1921 2. Thiru Panagal Raja 11-07-1921 to 03-12-1926 3. Dr. P Subbarayan 04-12-1926 to 27-10-1930 4. Thiru P Munuswamy Naidu 27-10-1930 to 04-11-1932 5. Thiru Ramakrishna Ranga Rao,Raja of Bobbili 05-11-1932 to 04-04-1936 6. Thiru P T Rajan 04-04-1936 to 24-08-1936 7. Thiru Ramakrishna Ranga Rao,Raja of Bobbili 24-08-1936 to 01-04-1937 8. Thiru Kurma Venkata Reddy Naidu 01-04-1937 to 14-07-1937 9. Thiru C Rajagopalachari 14-07-1937 to 29-10-1939 10. Thiru Tanguturi Prakasam 30-04-1946 to 23-03-1947 11. Thiru O P Ramaswamy Reddiyar 23-03-1947 to 06-04-1949 12. Thiru P S Kumaraswamy Raja 06-04-1949 to 09-04-1952 13. Thiru C Rajagopalachari 10-04-1952 to 13-04-1954 14. Thiru K Kamaraj 13-04-1954 to 02-10-1963 15. Thiru M Bakthavatsalam 02-10-1963 to 06-03-1967 16. Dr. C.N. Annadurai 06-03-1967 to 03-02-1969 17. Dr. Kalaignar M Karunanidhi 10-02-1969 to 04-01-1971, 15-03-1971 to 31-01-1976 18. Dr. M G Ramachandran 30-06-1977 to 17-02-1980, 09-06-1980 to 15-11-1984, 10-02-1985 to 24-12-1987 19. Thirumathi Janaki Ramachandran 07-01-1988 to 30-01-1988 20. Dr. Kalaignar M Karunanidhi 27-01-1989 to 30-01-1991 21. Dr. Selvi J Jayalalithaa 24-06-1991 to 12-05-1996 22. Dr. Kalaignar M Karunanidhi 13-05-1996 to 13-05-2001 23. Dr. Selvi J Jayalalithaa 14-05-2001 to 21-09-2001 24. Thiru O. Panneerselvam 21-09-2001 to 01-03-2002 25. Dr. Selvi J Jayalalithaa 02-03-2002 to 12-05-2006 26. Dr. Kalaignar M. Karunanidhi 13-05-2006 onwards Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
Tamil Nadu had taken active participation in the pre-independencepolitics of the nation. The budding desire for independence had generated numerous volunteers in the state who sacrificed their lives in the service of the nation. Several political leaders of the statefought against the British and French colonial power, notable among them are Tiruppur Kumaran, Aurobindo Ghosh (Pondicherry) and poet Subramanya Bharathi. Finally India got her freedom in 1947 and Tamil Nadu got the separate status of a state in the Indian Union.
The political scenario of Tamil Nadu was dominated by the Congress Party after 1947 which gave way to the Dravidian populist mobilization in the 1960s. Since 1967, the regional political parties took active participation in the state politics. The state has been under the control of either Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) or All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK). Mr. M. Karunanidhi is the party leader of DMK "since 1967" and the oldest politician in the country whose history begins right before from the country's independence
POLITICAL OVERVIEW Continue…. Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
M. G. Ramachandran, popularly known as MGR, "became the Chief Minister of the state in 1977" and remained in the power until his death. After his death then the party was taken over by Ms. J. Jayalalitha
This is a general overview of the political scenario of the state and how Tamil Nadu is marching towards a developed and prosperous state in the nation offering stable and well administration to the public.
LIST OF LOK SABHA CONSTITUENCIES…… Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
Tamil Nadu is one of the most industrialized states in the country; at present it is the fifth largest economy in India. The State Domestic Product at current prices is about US$ 36.78 billion and current exports are around US$ 5.5 billion. There has been visible change in the overall economic and industrial climate in the state. The state’s economy largely depends on industries and agriculture. The shares of economic activity in the state are given below. Economic Activity Manufacturing - 34% Services - 45% Agriculture - 21%
Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02 Investor Profile Govt. - 55.1% Foreign - 14.9% Indian - 29.9% Investment StrengthsBusiness-savvy state government; responsive local administration; good railways, ports and telecom network; adequate road connectivity; availability of low cost labour through out the state.State Priority AreasElectronics, software, auto components, pharmaceuticals, leather
Industry : An OverviewTamil Nadu is one of the most industrialized states of the country owing to its geographical position and resources. The state boasts many heavy engineering and vehicle manufacturing companies like Ford, Caterpillar, Hyundai, BMW and Mitsubishi, MRF, TI cycles of India, Ashok Leyland, Royal Enfield, Mahindra & Mahindra, TAFE Tractors and TVS etc. These heavy vehicle and engineering industries are located in and around Chennai city.
The state is also known for its textile industries. A large number of textile mills and engineering industries are present around Coimbatore City. The textile industry adds huge revenue to the country’s economy by providing direct employment to an estimated 35 million people, and thereby contributing 4% of GDP and 35% of Gross Export Earnings. Tirupur (Coimbatoredistrict) is the largest exporter of garments in the country and hence called as the “Textile valley of India”.
Tamil Nadu also leads the country in manufacturing as well as supplying electrical and electronic goods and equipments. Companies like Nokia, Flextronics, Motorola, Foxconn, Samsung, Cisco and Dell have their bases in Chennai owing to its transport facilities and human resources. These companies manufacture circuit boards and cellular phone handsets. One of the global electrical equipmentmanufacturing public sector company BHEL has manufacturing unit at Tiruchirapalli and Ranipet.Tamil Nadu has significant amount of mineral deposits such as Lignite (87% contribution to the national share), Vermiculite (66%), Garnet (42%), Zircon (38%), Graphite (33%), Ilmenite (28%), Rutile (27%), Monazite (25%), Magnesite (17%). India's leading steel producer SAIL has asteel plant in Salem, Tamil Nadu. Hence Tamil Nadu has several mineral based industries in various parts of the state.
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Tamil Nadu is a leading contributor in the IT and BPO sector. Chennai is the second leading software exporter in India, after Bangalore. India's largest IT Park is housed at Chennai. Software exports from Companies such as HCL, Wipro, TCS, Satyam, Infosys, Cognizant Technology Solutions, Acme Technology Pvt Ltd, Covansys, Ford Information Technology, Xansa, Verizon, iSoft, iNautix, Electronic Data Systems, Bally and many others have offices in Chennai. Infosys Technologies has set up India's largest software development centre to house 25,000 software professionals at an estimated investment of Rs.12, 500 million ($270 million) in Chennai. India's largest IT park is housed at Chennai, jointly made by Ascendas India Ltd, a Singapore-based company engaged in providing business space solutions, and Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation (TIDCO).
INDUSTRIAL POLICY Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
ObjectivesThe Government of Tamil Nadu has a liberal industrial policy. Coinciding with the new economic and industrial policy of the Government of India, the state Government too has come up with its own policy, which outlines its main objectives and the strategies to achieve them. A New National Industrial Policy and a New Trade Policy have been announced. It is necessary to take advantage of the new spirit introduced and to create a congenial atmosphere for stimulating the rapid growth of the State's economy. A new industrial policy for Tamil Nadu is the logical outcome of these newly emerging economic factors.Indian Industry grew by an annual average of 8.5 percent in the Seventh Plan period. In Tamil Nadu this growth rate was 5.7 percent. The share of the secondary sector in State Domestic Product in Tamil Nadu in the Eighties had remained static at 33 per cent, similar was the case with the per capita income which remained static at the national average. Unemployment had risen over the years and the number of educated unemployed on the live rolls of the Employment Exchanges had increased from 5.58 lakhs in 1980 to 18.01 lakhs in 1991.
Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02 Central investment in Tamil Nadu had declined from 10 per cent in 1969 to 5.21 percent in 1990-9. The lack of new mother industries has been a cause of serious concern.The full utilization of surface irrigation potential and the rapid exploitation of ground water resources have imposed constraints on accelerated development of agricultural production.Against this background, Tamil Nadu has to provide for rapid industrial development. The Government of Tamil Nadu stands committed to ensuring that Tamil Nadu forges ahead among the industrialized States in India.
Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02 Tamil Nadu has the following advantages for rapid industrial growth
A highly trained labour force with a good record of industrial relations.
Leather Textiles and Hosieries Electronics and software Auto components Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Petro chemicals including downstream projects in Manali and Thanjavur Industrial Alcohol based Organic Chemicals Agro based industries and food processing industries Salt and marine based industries Gems and Jewellery Engineering goods Sea Food Export Oriented Units
Tamil Nadu is the second biggest producer of rice and is the home land of Dr. M.S. Swami Nathan, known as the "Father of the Green Revolution" in India. The state is historically known for it’s agriculture from ancient times.The major food crops grown in the state include rice, jowar, ragi, bajra, maize and pulses. Cotton, sugarcane, coconut, tea and coffee are also grown and considered as cash crops. Some farmer produce horticultural products like bananas and mangoes.Paddy is grown in large excess because rice is the main staple food of the state. There are three crops based on duration. The first one is the ‘Kuruvali’ (the short term crop) with duration of three and a half to four months from June to July to Oct - Nov. The second crop is called the ‘Thaladi’ that grown in 5 to 6 months Oct - Nov to Feb - March. Third is 'Samba'and has a duration of almost 6 months from Aug to January. The major source of irrigation is the rivers, tanks and wells.
CULTURAL SPIRIT Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
Tamil Nadu finds a prime position on the cultural map of the country. The state’s contribution to literature, music, arts of Indian classical culture is praiseworthy. Dance, music, art and crafts and celebration of various festivals form important parts of Tamil culture. The various fairs and festivals are celebrated with great enthusiasm. Tamil people have their own living style which is reflected in their food, costumes, language and folk art and culture. Let’s find more about the cultural heritages of the state.
LITRETURE Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
Tamil literature has a rich and long literarytradition that is more than 2000 years old. The documents recovered from various places, have revealed the existence of this language even before this period. The main contribution has been made by Tamil people from Tamil Nadu but the name of some European authors can not be neglected while describing the development of Tamil literary history. Tamil literature saw a significant progress during late nineteenth century when works of religious and philosophical nature were written in a style that made it easier for the common people to enjoy. The contemporary Tamil literature is very rich with the development of prose, poetry, short stories and novels. The popularity of Tamil Cinema has also provided opportunities for modern Tamil poets to emerge.
FAIR AND FESTIVAL Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
PongalIn Tamil Nadu Makar Sankranti becomes Pongal. It is a celebration of the harvest, which is observed for three days in January. Bhogi Pongal, Surya Pongal and Mattu Pongal, are the three days of Pongal festivities on successive days. In certain parts cattle races still enliventhe village festivities. Pongal is a colourful and traditional festival with many a ceremony devoted to various deities.
ChithiraiThis is celebrated in the month of April as Tamil New Year. The festival starts in the month ofApril-May and ends on the tenth day. It is celebrated with great enthusiasm at Meenakshi temple, Madurai (500 kms from Chennai). The festival witnesses the marriage of Meenakshi (Parvati) and Sundareshwara (Lord Shiva) that attracts large crowds from all over the state and also from the whole country
FAIR AND FESTIVAL S Continue…. Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
Adi PerukkuThis is a unique festival that is celebrated all over the state by offering sweets and different kinds of rice preparations to different rivers to mark the onset of the monsoon.
Navaratri GolluThe festival of Navratri Gollu in Tamil Nadu lasts for nine nights. According to the Hindu calendar Navratri celebration begins from the first day of the bright fortnight of Ashwin. This festival is fully dedicated to Goddess Durga and her nine forms. These nine days are celebrated in all over the state with an ardent zeal and enthusiasm.
FAIR AND FESTIVAL S Continue…. Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
KarthigaiIn the month of Nov/Dec people decorate their homes with lights to celebrate the birth of Murugan, son of Lord Shiva. This festival is particularly celebrated in Thiruvannamalai, one of the pancha bootha kshetras and also an Agni (fire) Kheshtra. On Karthigai Deepam day, a huge vessel is filled with oil and gigantic wicks are lit on top of the hill.Apart from these regional festivals the state also celebrates all important national festivals like Diwali, Holi, Christmas, Eid, Muhharam etc.
DANCE AND MUSIC Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02 Tamil Nadu has three modes of entertainment viz. Iyal (Literature), Isai (Music) and Nadagam (Drama) had their roots in the rural folk theatre like Therukoothu. Several forms of individual and group dances exist in the state from ancient time. These dances have classical and sheer entertainment value. The celebrated forms of village classical dances include Karagaattam, Kummi, Mayil Attam, Kolaattam, Oyil Kummi, Kavadi Aattam, Poikkal Kudirai Aattam, Kai Silambu Attam, Kazhai Kothu, Bagavatha Nadanam, Devaraattam, and Snake Dance etc.Music in Tamil Nadu can be broadly classified into three categories
The first category refers to filmy songs or the sound tracks which are extracted from movies or albums. These music forms are based on modern track and lyric. All Tamil people are fond of films, also their songs.
DANCE AND MUSIC Continue…. Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
The second is the folk songs which is a reflection of the rich tradition of Tamil Nadu. Tamil folk music has a special attraction owing to its vivacious presentation. Most of the folk music andsongs are associated with the rural milieu. Folk music remains a major source of inspiration for the more popular film music. Popular contemporary folk-musicologists like Vijayalakshmi Navaneethakrishnan and Pushpavanam Kuppuswamy are reviving this traditional music to their best form.
Carnatic music referred to as “classical music” in South India. This traditional music form includes Hindu devotional songs which are enjoyed by people of all ages and sections of the society. One of the greatest composers of South IndianCarnatic music was Thyagaraja, who is regarded by many as a saint. Muthuswami Deekshithar and Shyama Sastri are other two composers who constitute the three pillars of Carnatic musicin Tamil Nadu. The popular classical dance amongst Tamils is Bharat Natyam. The dance is performed individually or in group on a stage with orchestra and song.
ART AND CRAFT Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
PaintingTanjore is famous for its paintings made on different objects. Artisansuse wood, glass, mica, ivory and walls to paint using attractive colours. Jewels, drapery and architectural elements like finely executed pillars, rich canopies, garlands of ropes and chandeliers are slightly raised by the use of special plaster, covered with pure gold leaf and embedded with semi-precious stone of different colors. Painting on ivory, mica, and the more difficult genre of glass paintings, were all introduced in the 18th century. Religious paintings are highly decorative and flat while paintings of portraits are conventionalized with an element of reality. Thanks to the artists for their lively and beautiful creation.
ART AND CRAFT Continue….
In India, Brass and Copper are used for making various usable objects since ancient time. Tamil Nadu is no exception to this. It has a richtradition of making metal objects which are used for both religious and secular purposes. A wide variety of objects include standing lamps, aarathi (votive lamps), deepalakshmis, hand lamps and chain lamps. Shallow dishes in circular, hexagonal, octagonal and oval shapes are widely used in Tamil Nadu and are made out of bronze or sheet brass. The popular Thanjavur plates are characterized by designs of deities, birds, flowers, and geometric patterns beaten out from the back of copper and silver sheets and subsequently encrusted on a brass tray, kudam or panchpaathra. Metal toys are also popular and are sold at various gift outlets in various towns and cities of the state.
Tamil Nadu is famous for its artistically created baskets and fiber products which are of great demand both in India and abroad. While palm has become a major source of raw material for basketry and related products, bamboo, cane, grasses, reeds and fibres are also used in making baskets, ropes, mats and many other items. The places famous for these arts are Dharampuri, Salem, Coimbatore, South Arcot and Tiruchirapalli districts. Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
Stone CarvingStone carving is a popular form of art continued to exist over centuries. The craftsmen apply their creativity in making sculptors of various forms and structures. Granite and marble carving are confined to the areas around Mamallapuram and Chingleput. The famous sculptors here belong to the Vishwakarma or Kammaalar community. A subsidiary form of carving is soapstone or maakal carving, found in the region between Pondicherry and Cuddalore and around Salem. These sculptors are sold at high prices in national and international markets.
PotteryPottery is an important craft of Tamil Nadu. The state is famous for its manufacture of the famous Ayyannar horses. The horses are said to protect each village from evil. The large terracotta horses of Salem and Pudukottai are very much popular and are of great demand.
CUISINES Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02 A typical Tamil breakfast consists of Idli or dosa served with sambar and chutney. The dinner or lunch consists of rice with sambar or rasam served with various curries and pickles. Special curries are prepared from various vegetables using enough spices. Tamil people also fond of items, made from chicken and meat. The various types of Tamil recipes are described below.
Tamil RecipesDosai : crepes made from a fermented batter of rice and urad dal (gram), and are accompanied by Sambar.Idli : steamed rice-cakes, prepared from a fermented batter of rice and urad dal (gram), and side-dishes are usually different kinds of chutney or sambhar.
Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02 Upma/Uppittu :prepared from wheat (rava), onion, green chillies, and certain spices.Sambhar : a thick stew of lentils with vegetables and seasoned with exotic spices.Rasam : lentil soup with pepper, coriander and cumin seeds.Thayir sadam : steamed rice with curd.Sevai, Rice noodles, made out of steamed rice cakes. Rice cakes are caste into the tool Sevai Nazhi and pressed to get the rice noodles.South Indian Coffee : also known as Madras Filter Coffee is a sweet milky coffee popular in Tamil Nadu. It is quite similar to the Cappuccino and Latte varieties of coffee in the United States of America.Typical Tamil Thali : consists of rice, sambar/rasam, curries, dal and salad.
TAMILNADU DISTRICTS Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02 The total number of districts in Tamil Nadu is 30. A district of Tamil Nadu is headed by a Deputy Commissioner who is overall in-charge of the administration of that particular district. He has to perform triple functions as he holds three positions: at once he is the Deputy Commissioner, the district Magistrate and the Collector. As a Deputy Commissioner he is the executive head of the district with multifarious responsibilities. As the District Magistrate he is responsible for maintaining the law and order situation in the district. As the Collector he is the Chief Revenue Officer of the district, responsible for revenue collection and recovery. ThePolice administration in the district is under the control of Superintendent of Police (SP).To decentralize the authority in administrative set up a district is divided into one or more subdivisions, further divided into tehsils and blocks. Here is a list of 30 districts
List of Districts Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02 LIST OF DISTRICTS…………………….
Chennai, besides being the capital city of Tamil Nadu is also an important district of the state. The district city is one of the four metropolises of India, playing significant role in the historical, cultural and intellectual development of the nation.The district is located on the north-east end of Tamil Nadu on the coast of Bay of Bengal. Surrounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east and the remaining three sides by Chengalpattu and Thiruvallur Districts, Chennai has an even topography of land with slight rising from the sea level.The district city is important from various aspects. It is the political, cultural and educational heart of Tamil Nadu. It has tremendous opportunities in travel and tourism. The worth visiting places include Anna University, University of Madras, IIT, TIDEL Park, Fort St. George (Secretariat), Government Museum & Art Gallery, ConnemaraPublic Library, Ripon Building (Chennai Corporation), Marina Beach, Kapaleeswarar Temple, Santhome Church, Thousand Lights Mosque, Anna Memorial, MGR Memorial, Valluvar Kottam, Vivekanandar House, Raj Bhavan, Central Railway Station etc.
Fact and Figures “CHENNAI “ Jimi Gandhi Sem:- 02
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