Hakikat Belajar dan Pembelajaran • Gandes Andryanti - 031109145
In general Hurford andHeasley, 1983 defining semantics is astudy of meaning in language or thestudy of linguistic meaning.
Konsepsi makna /conception of meaning Conception means our idea or theexperts ideas that connecting with how is oureffort or experts on the process of wordsmeaning in language.
Connecting with the effort of someone in explainingthe meaning of words, (Crystal, 1989) stated at least thereare three concepts of meaning in semantics study that canbe separated : Kata Benda ( Word Noun ) This conception says that, the meaning of word will aim to the thing or object in out of language conception. Words like Jakarta, Bandung, Ayah, London and mother can be explained the meaning with this way. Those words are more describing real thing.
Kata Konsep Benda (word concept thing) This conception of meaning clearly refuseclarifying of words according to directconnection between word and thing or objectthat exist out of language.
The formula of this word meaning is stated by Odgenand Richards (1949) by triangle of meaning. Konsep (reference) Lambing/kata rujukan(referent) Lyons (1977) this meaning conception have behavior characteristic, its mean the word meaning will created according connection or association of mind by someone.
Stimulus--Kata--Respon (Stimulus---word---Respond)Leonard Bloomfield (1933) according to this approach, themeaning can be formulated by studying of using utterance.He analyze that situation into three : Stimulus and speaker Utterance (=response of speaker and the stimulus of listener) Listener responds
Cakupan Kajian Semantics In this module we would like to explain aboutmeaning of word and sentence (from semanticlinguistic view) meaning of sentence according to basicword meaning or proportion (from logical view) andthe meaning of utterance (from pragmatic view orexactly from semantics utterance and action).
Semantic scheme Fungsi (tidak ada semantic) sintaksis kategori Semantik gramatikal gramatikal peran morfologi fonologiSemantics Semantik linguistik fonetik Semantik leksikon leksikal Semantik tindak ujaran tutur (speech act semantics)
Naming (Penamaan) Naming in semantic has 8 causes•Imitation of the sound•Mention of the part•Pronunciation of special character•Inventor and manufactures•Place of origin•Material•Similarity•Abridgment
ReferenceMatthews (1997: 312), reference has a connection between speech withwhich the designated items can be identified with either speaker orlistener. Cruse (2004: 306), divide reference into three, there are : Definite reference Indefinite reference Generic reference
Sense “The SENSE of an expression is its place in a system of semanticrelationship in other expression in the language.” (Hurford:28). Sense is a part of the language. For example 1. Two different expressions with the same sense. Bachelors prefer red hair Girls with red hair are preferred by unmarried man 2. An expression that has the possibility of two sense The chicken is ready to eat
Word is the smallest unit that has a meaning. Kata isi Kata tugas(content word) (function word)
Kata isi Kata tugas (content word ) (function word)Known as Open type Known as Closed type To make our sentences grammatically Has its own meaning correctNoun , adjective , verb, sometimes Conjunction, preposition and articles adverb
The differences betweensentences, utterance and preposition
Is a related group of words containing a subject and a predicate and expressing a complete thought. in semantics, the sentence is a series of wordsthat are united by the rules of grammar thatexpresses a complete idea or meaning
Utterance (Ujaran)Is a unit of speech that can only be spokendirectly to the listener.It can be a sentence, phrase or word incontext
Proposition (Proposisi)Is basic meaning contained in the sentence orutterance.
An exampleMy sister, Kate, who has a long hair, plays with her cat.The proposition :1. I have a sister2. My sister’s name is Kate3. Kate has a long hair4. Kate plays with her cat
Characteristics Sentence Utterance Proposition • No • Yes • No• Can be loud or soft• Based on the rule of • Yes • Yes • No grammar• Can be wrong or right • Yes • Yes • Yes• In a particular accent or • No • Yes • No dialect• In a specific language • Yes • Yes • No