Flight testing – a part of the road to NVG introduction in SwAF


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  • Pictured HKP 3
    Each company only performed one modification each.
    HKP3, Nyge Aero, FMV designed the modification package
    HKP 4 Patria designed the modification package
    Saab Aerotech on Patria design package
    FMV – always involved in verification efforts. FMV defined some solutions that was mandatory for contractor.
    Saab Aerosystems not involved
    Saab Aerotech helicopter business shutdown
  • TELKOR – workgroup for electro-optical components(FMV and contractors)Swedish Materiel Administration (FMV)
    Component studies
    Standardization work - Swedish NVG standard
    VOLVO - NVG lab
    NVG measurement instrument Volvo 245
    Final demo of NVG capability. Three cars used but only 3 pair of flight NVGs and one single tube NVGs,two cars got lost..
    Kom att tänka på prov som gjorts med "NVG bilen" i Björkforsskogen. Den var utrustad med 28 volt, dimbart, för att kunna prova flyginstrument under körning. Och provdes bl a av flera utlänningar bl a Vår gemensamme bekantC Antonio, Joe Barns och Dr Böhm Eurocopter München. Det gjordes en mängd tester och prover med "NVG bilen" en av FMV:s utrangerade bilar från körcentralen i Malmslätt. Jag kunde dock inte kvittera ut ett Militärfordon utan fick kvittera ett mätinstrument Volvo 245. Bild på bilen är med i NVG kursen. Gjorde en rad tester tillsammans med FoA (FOI) bland annat laserbeskjutning av JAS cannapen, detta H-stämplat av FOI, fortfarande, så det bör kanske inte nämnas. Försöker få ut en bild på mig i prover men inte lyckats hittills trots att det gått många år.Hilsen från Lars och N Norge
  • 37-800 NVIS The NVIS modification was performed by Mann Aviation
    converted during 1988.
    Flight instrument heavily rearranged, to get NVG storage in place
    Map lights was filtered and light slope re-directed  Bad illumination of instrument panel
    Low readability of flight instruments, ex attitude indicator (ADI)
    As result of modification the A/C was not fit for day light flights
    NVG trials
    Display studies ex color displays, AMLCD displays and projection displays
    Viggen cockpit, old and new.JA37 and AJ-37
    Cats-eye NVGs
    At the a (under) ground trial a couple of NVGs were accidently dropped on the floor from the cockpit.
    The price tag was about 100 000 SEK (12,500$). But we had bigger problem that day!!
    The first JAS39 test a/c crashed in front of the TV cameras the very same day. 1989-02-02
    Underground test facility mountain hangar at Säve near Gothenburg
    Flight trials
    Cats eye and HUD  dual image problems
    NVG shut down trials ,
    NVG shut down when HUD in FoV
    Visual acuity trials, with tri bar targets on hangar walls
    Combination trials with NVGs and Saab/ Ericsson FLIR
    FLIR on HUD and HDD
    FLIR imagery reordered
    Navigation trials
    Diving trials – GUN attack
    VID – Air targets
    A couple of test periods at NEAT
  • Due to configuration issues, AC 37-800 was retired and placed at the air force museum in Linköping
    As result of modification the A/C was not fit for day light flights
  • Ferranti NITE-OP with Gen3 Omnibus 3 from ITT, NVG purchased for NVIS evaluation of HKP.
    Originally developed by Ferranti International in the mid-1980s (which via GEC Marconi became part of BAE Systems) the NITE-OP night-vision goggles are specifically designed for helicopter aircrew
    SK60-103. External lighting not modified. But Anti collision light is wired in a way that only one can be engaged.No filtered lamps or LED.
  • And a new addition to the collection…
  • JAS39-54
    Mockup placed at Saab Linköping
    EP-17 light rig
    Placed at Saab Avitronics in Stockholm
  • 2001 external lighting trials, at Halmstad F14
    Pilot at 1.5 a/ lengths distant “as wing man”
    Pilot at 800m distant
    Saab Avitronics participate at displays trials in vitro with FMV
    Measurements on HDD and HUD displays
  • For JAS39C/D the NV adaptation was regarding External lightning only (visual signature)
    This gave us opportunity to start the adaptation of the A/C.
    Full external adaptation demanded full internal adaptation as well, due to light leaks.
    New cabin with CMFD and no analog backup instruments.
    The first 39 in C/D status was delivered to FMV in 2002
  • Good cooperation --- lot of communication
    Originally planned introduction was E19 and autumn 2009
  • Major disturbance on NVG performance. Main reason HDD.
    The two first ground evaluations where performed by FMV T&E only.
    All later ground assessment performed by Saab Avitronics and FMV T&E and Saab Aerosystems at some times (external lighting)
  • Fist picture: reference light source only
    Second picture: 0,6 nNrb as CMFD prototype
    Third picture: 2,2 as MIL-STD-3009
    Fourth 4.1 nNrb as unfiltered CMFD.
    Better NVG performance requires better NVG adaptation
    Screening based on Avitronics measurements
    No stored measurement data
    Production NVIS instrument, PR-715 not doing it’s job!
  • The fourth ground evaluation was performed with screened CMFD
    Speed, height, and lighting conditions, Only screened low Nrb CMFD’s allowed
    Visual signature trial
    Right display in rear seat was not modified.
    The CMFD was shut off during the major part of the trial.
    At the end it was lit up and it appeared as a bright light well visibly from the outside.
    XGA new AMLCD panel. 1024x1200
  • Taxi, take off and landing was performed without NVGs during the first flights. Later in the flight test period both taxi, take off and landing were performed with NVGs
  • First DT&E flight test campaign!
    FMV T&E Flight test engineer: Thomas Sestan
    FMV T&E: Senior Optical engineer: Ove Sundell
    FMV T&E flight engineers
    Saab Avitronics Flight test engineer: Jonas Linde
    Saab Avitronics: Senior Optical engineer: Fredrik Mattinson
  • “The HUD is so good that you almost weeping”
    HUD blanks out or blooms up depending on different background lightning
    Bright background  HUD diminish
    Dark background  HUD blooming
  • Saab Avitronics performs NVG - HUD study to clarify why HUD blooming or dimming when using NVG´s.
    Corrective action is to set the HUD brightness a little bit higher than for normal night flight.
    AC is for Hungarian air force
    Visual signature trial at Saab.
  • Results
    Limited introduction with screened CMFD’s as an opportunity
    No NVG available
  • Including ground and flight test and operational introduction.
    Now we had two independent test organizations that worked on the Night vision capability introduction.
    The fast track where du to the battlegroup08/SWAFRAP
    Du to bad weather only one of six planned flights at NEAT was performed.
    Both FMV and Saab goes to NEAT but at different times!
  • NVG actually delivered during late 2008…
  • Joint planning starts autumn 07
  • Storage flight test at Saab Aerosystems
  • Nine test assets with specific Nrb values necessary
    For 2008 autumn ground and flight trials
    Due to need for more units with known and low Nrb FMV ordered an NVIS radiance measurement campaign.
    Limited of time  Field measurements
    About 200 CMFd’s measured
  • VA-trial
    Methodology developed by FMV T&E
    Methodology presented at American Lighting Institute (ALI), two years later Hoffman presents the “NIGHT SKY SIMULATION SYSTEM” a computerized version of our test Methodology
  • General Formation flight
    Judgment of
    Visibility of leader
    approaching velocity
    Distant to leader
    Leader position
    Neck strains during formation flights
    Advanced flight
    Flight helmet comfort
    Situation awareness (SA)
    Ground targets
    Vehicles, buildings, roads and bridges
  • Summary:
    About 25 years of technology studies mid – 80’s to 2008
    Eight years of studies and development trials (Gripen program) - 2000
    Four years of active testing activities,
    Seven ground evaluations
    About 80 sorties flown during DT&E and OT&E
  • Flight testing – a part of the road to NVG introduction in SwAF

    1. 1. Flight testing – a part of the road to NVG introduction in SwAF Jonas Linde 09 09 2009 SFTE 2009
    2. 2. Disposition Background Early years JAS39 C/D NVIS development
    3. 3. Sweden rotary-wing NVG experience HKP-3C (Agusta-Bell 204B ) • 1990 (3) • 1993 to 1996 (16) • Contractor: Nyge Aero HKP-4 (Boeing Vertol 107) • 1996 to 2001 (8) • Contractor: Patria (4), Saab Aerotech (4) HKP-9 (BO 105 ) • 1990 (1) • 1999 to 2002 (19) • Contractor: Saab Aerotech HKP-10 (Super puma) • 2007 to 2009 (3) • Contractor: HeliOne HKP-14 (NH90, 18) • Designed as NVG compatible • Contractor: NHI HKP-15 (Agusta A-109) • Designed as NVG compatible • Contractor: Agusta FMV had the design and/or verification responsibility for HKP-3C, HKP-4, HKP-9 NVIS modifications work was performed by different companies No industry center for NIVS competence
    4. 4. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development Early years (-80’s) TELKOR Workgroup for electro- optical components (FMV and contractors) • Component studies • Standardization work • Swedish NVG standard • Trials in vitro with NVGs and different LEDs and other NVD/components • NVG and NVIS education The Volvo NVG lab Volvo model: 245 NVIS adapted internal instrumentation 28VDC for power to A/C instruments, 220VAC also present NVG demonstration tours for Swedish and international visitors
    5. 5. First fixed wing NVG test AC • Dual seat version of AC 37 Viggen NVIS modification by FMV T&E and Mann Aviation Ground and flight trials with Cats- eye NVGs Modifications • Instrumentation • Instrument panel rearranged (due to need for NVG storage) • Warning lights filtered • Indication lights filtered • NVG holder on right side panel NVG black out trials • Timing issues • FOV issues • Double HUD picture • Flight safety The JAS39 Gripen NVG development Early years - 37800 (late -80’s)
    6. 6. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development Early years SK 37-800 (late -80’s) Not fit for daylight flight after NVIS modification About 50 flights was performed Almost all flights was performed by chief experimental test pilot Joakim Lindén Configuration and flight safety issues….
    7. 7. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development Pre studies: SK-60 (mid 90’s) SK-60 new test platform • SwAF Jet trainer Two a/c modified by FMV T&E • 1996 A/C 60-113 • 2000/2001 A/C 60-103 60-113 Technology demonstrator • Pilot NVG training • Ground trials • Flight trials – internal/external lighting • Technology studies • Demonstration flights 60-103 Training and test platform • Pilot training • Flight trials with JAS in mind • Evaluation of flight procedures and flight trials techniques • Internal lighting NVIS modified
    8. 8. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development Pre studies : SK-60 (mid 90’s) Configuration issues…. Flight safety issues… But SK60-103 is still going strong!
    9. 9. Every one wants NVGs! or… Flying around with toilet rollers!, NEVER! (cornel at Air force command) - How can you dare to allow pilots flying with visual acuity at 0.65, when you are not allowed to drive a tractor with that vision!! -Well, what visual acuity do you have with out NVGs? (from discussion at SwAF HQ) Aircraft command – not impressed! Compact resistant on many levels
    10. 10. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development Studies – early to mid 90’s JAS 39-54 JAS39 Cabin mockup NVG trials VA trials HMI and MMI trials Lamp-, LED and display evaluation trials EP-17 light-rig Visibility and readability trials day and night NVG trials Color evaluation and studies HMI and MMI JAS39A/B not specified for NVG • monochromatic displays • incandescent lamp in panels and info/warnings lights Technology studies • Swedish Materiel Administration (FMV) • Basic NVIS course for the authorities, industry and SwAF • Saab Aerosystems • Evaluation of external lighting components • Saab Avitronics • Master thesis: NVIS evaluation of current HUD and HDD
    11. 11. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development Studies – mid to late 90’s External lighting Laboratory trials • External lighting • NAV, position lights • LED arrays Field trials with external lighting • at NEAT • Comparison (unmodified) JAS39A vs. helicopter • at Halmstad F14 wing • Test a/c 39-4 with external lights NV adapted
    12. 12. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development NVIS requirements 39C/D (MS17) The first NVIS requirements was for external lighting only No operational use of NVG:s NVIS requirements for JAS39 C/D versions • MIL-L-85672A • MIL-STD-3009 Visual signature • A/C only visibly with NVG • No negative influence on NVGs External lighting • Visual signature • IR signature (COVERT-mode) Internal lighting • Visual signature • Displays • Panels
    13. 13. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development FMV T&E - Technology study regarding operational use of NVG (early - 00) Examine the possibility of Operational use of NVG in JAS39 C/D based on current NV adaptation Developing of tactics and procedures • CAS • VID – Visual Identification • Air to Air • Flight profiles • Formation flights • Training procedures and profiles Due to delays regarding displays the study was not completed before a decision about operational use was a fact The Technology study transformed in to an effort for a “fast track” limited introduction of operational use of NVG in JAS39 C/D. • FMV T&E – internal lighting and tactics • Saab Aerosystems – external lighting • Saab Avitronics – display system and NVIS expertise
    14. 14. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development Ground trials – 2004 FMV T&E - Operational use (Internal lighting) Two ground evaluations where performed with operational use of NVGs in mind (on trial and learn basis) First ground evaluation performed by FMV T&E early 2004 (JAS39C E17) • Result not OK! Second ground evaluation performed by FMV T&E mid 2004 (JAS39C E17) • Result not OK! Saab Aerosystems - Visual signature (External lighting) A third ground evaluation was performed as a joint effort by Saab Aerosystems, Saab Avitronics and FMV T&E late 2004 (JAS39C/D E18:1) • Result OK for flight test, regarding external visual signature • Result not OK! (regarding operational use)
    15. 15. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development Laboratory analysis of first series of ground trials Conclusions from first series of ground trials • Disturbance from HDD CMFDs • Poor or non NVIS filtering on some displays • Due to delayed delivery of NV filters • Disturbance even with NVIS filter Laboratory trials • Trials in vitro with different NVIS radiance levels Analysis • The value in the MIL-L-85762A/MIL-STD-3009 probably to high Analysis cont: NVG’s • Original requirement: NVG class B typ II • Actually used by SwAF: NVG class C typ I MIL-L-85762A and MIL-STD-3009 • Technology development • Large CMFD´s (6’’x8’’) • Partly in pilot FoV • NVG performance GEN III omnibus II ≈ 50.000 GEN III omnibus IV ≈ 80.000 Temporary remedial action • Screening of HDD CMFDs based on NRb value.
    16. 16. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development Ground trial, late 2004 A fourth ground evaluation was performed with operational use of NVGs in mind • Screened CMFDs were used, typical half of max allowed Nrb used. The fourth ground evaluation was performed by FMV T&E and Saab Avitronics late 2004 (JAS39C/D E18:1) • Result OK for flight test (with remarks and limitations), regarding operational use of NVG Visual signature trials (external lighting) “Bright Night” (2005-03) Two days before full moon 39-815 (E18:1) • SVGA CMFD’s • Experiment with unfiltered CMFD in rear seat “Dark Night” (2006-01) No moon 39-3302 (E18:3) • XGA CMFD’s Pilots with NVG in SK-60 Yes, SK-60 s/n:103! Several profiles flown • Over, under, side by side etc. • COVERT mode
    17. 17. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development DT&E - Operational use of NVG Flight test program, 2005 Preparation for first flight • Flight safety • Emergency egress procedures • Screening of “good” CMFD’s Pilot rehearsal training in SK-60 • FMV T&E Michel Rosenqvist (Chief project experimental test pilot) • FMV T&E Nils Lundqvist (project experimental test pilot) Flight test program development (DT&E) • FMV T&E • Saab Flight test program based on • NVG experience from SK-60 • NVG experience from rotary wing programs. • Ground tests results Flight profile 1 – Basic profile • NVG handing • Basic a/c maneuverings with NVG • Human factors • HUD evaluation • HDD evaluation Flight profile 2 • expanding of flight envelop • High G-force • Advanced flight maneuvering • High mach numbers • HUD and HDD evaluation • Situation awareness and Visual acuity and performance • Visual identification of ground objects Flight profile 3 • Formation flight • Leader unaided • Wingman with NVGs • basic two A/C maneuvers • basic tactical maneuvers
    18. 18. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development First Flight! (DT&E - Operational use of NVG, start of first flight test campaign) First flight 2005-09-15 in a/c 393-233 Test pilot: Michael Rosenqvist Duration: about 60 min
    19. 19. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development DT&E, The first flight test campaign, late -05 DT&E operational use of NVG Flight test period 2005-09 to 2005-11 Nine sorties flown with a/c 393-233 Lightning conditions down to 2.5 mLUX Focus on SA and human factors Focus on interaction between NVG and cockpit lightning especially CMFD´s and HUD. Focus on basic flying qualities Results HUD – NVG interaction issues • but HUD presentation (picture) really good! • Saab Avitronics initiate a HUD vs NVG performance study HDD CMFD’s performed really well Light setting issues • Different light sources do not follow central light knob HMI • protection visor issues Lessons leaned The expected problem is not always the real problem Problems to evaluate actual NVG performance (VA & SA) and influence from cultural lightning
    20. 20. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development. 2006 activities The fifth ground trial (early 06) New type of CMFD´s (XGA AMLCD-panel and NVIS filter) in a/c 39-3303 New crypto panel also present Trials with different HUD brightness settings • Part of HUD vs NVG performance study Second visual signature trial in a/c 39-3302 (2006-01) Preparation for Initial OT&E (IOT&E) (late 06) Flight test program development (IOT&E) • FMV T&E • Gripen OT&E unit • Saab Flight test program based on • NVG experience from SK-60 • NVG experience from rotary wing programs. • Ground tests results • NVG experience from the first flight test campaign (DT&E) Pilot rehearsal training in SK-60 • FMV T&E Michel Rosenqvist (Chief project experimental test pilot) • Gripen OT&E unit pilots
    21. 21. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development, early 2007. (IOT&E - Operational use of NVG, Second flight test campaign) Initial OT&E as joint effort between the Gripen OT&E wing, FMV T&E and Saab About 30 sorties flown with three a/c. • Test period 2007-02 to 2007-04 Test points • NVG handing in cockpit • Expansion of flight envelop (velocity & height and advanced flight) • Formation flights • Visual identification (jet trainer, helicopter, fighter) • Live firings with gun (NEAT) • CAS with gun and GBU12 (NEAT) • Live firing with RB74 (NEAT) • Sidewinder AIM-9L • Live firing of IR flares (NEAT) NEAT is Europe’s largest overland test range, located in northern Sweden.
    22. 22. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development Nordic Battle group, fast track - 2007 SwAF declares urgent operation capability need for NVG • Battle group -08 Saab Aerosytem accepts order from FMV regarding a fast track introduction of NV-capability (jan-07) • Goal is a limited introduction in a/c edition 18:9 for battle group 08. • Deadline 1/1-08 Saab Aerosystem and Saab Avitronics starts an IPT for the realization work • Internal/external lighting • Storage compartment • Human factors • Flight helmet and counter weights • Neck strains • Ejection DT&E performed by Saab Aerosystems and FMV Test period 2007-03 One ground evaluation (the 6th) performed in a/c 393-254. Six DT&E sorties flown with a/c 394-826 Test points • SA • Internal NV adaptation wit focus on CMFD´s and HUD • Human factor issues regarding flight helmet 116, NVG and counterweights, for example stains on head, neck and eys. • Handing of NVG in cockpit • Solo and formation flights
    23. 23. Other tests than flight tests NV Emergency Escape. NV equipment Survival. Net-test (UK) Windblast (France) Long term medical effects., test in dynamic flight simulator (DFS) and research as joint effort with royal institution of technology The JAS39 Gripen NVG development Nordic Battle group, fast track - 2007 Final cut for fast tracks… Due to issues regarding ejection the operational use of NVG never was released to Battlegroup08 Lack of NVG’s was also a problem Lack of CMFD´s with low Nrb was also a problem The “fast tracks” was dropped and the planning was now shifted towards E19 sw edition. or partial introduction in late E18:9.
    24. 24. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development Planning DT&E and OT&E, late - 07 Planning for DT&E and OT&E in an joint effort between • FMV T&E • Gripen OT&E wing • Saab Aerosystems • Saab Avitronics Ground and flight trials • High Nrb values Training of forward wing pilots DT&E test points • SVGA with high radiance • XGA with high radiance • Laser protection (goggles) • NVG storage • Helmet comfort • Neck strains etc OT&E test points • NVG handing and storage • Single flight profiles • taxi, take-off, landing and general A/C handing • IFR • VFR • Maneuvering with advance flight • Formation flights • Tactical flight • CAS • Targeting with FAC • Targeting with LDP • GUN attack • GBU attack • Visual Identification (VID) • Two A/C • Targeting with RDR
    25. 25. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development DT&E, early - 08 DT&E - Storage Test period 2008-03 Flight tests of NVG storage • NVG holder on right side (NVG assembly) • Helmet mount, counterweight and NVG visor compartment over right knee Two sorties flown with a/c 253
    26. 26. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development DT&E and OT&E, NVG, mid - 08 NVIS measurement campaign All CMFD’s in service • Nine test assets • three sets with different NVIS radiance F17 and F21 • FMV T&E • Saab
    27. 27. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development DT&E and OT&E, late - 08 Test A/C CMFD’s: SVGA and XGA with nNRb ≈x.x, x.x and ≈x.x Reference lightsource 36 meters 7 meters Pos 1 Pos 2 Field reference Chart No 1 and 2 Pos 3 Pos 4 Reference A/C CMFD’s nNRb ≤1.0 Field reference Chart No 3 Field reference Chart No 4 Ground trials • Four A/Cs • One with CMFD’s with known reference value • Three a/c’s with selected test assets • Saab and FMV T&E test pilots Results • All test assets OK for flight trials!
    28. 28. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development OT&E, early - 09, Third test flight test campaign Flight trials • 32 flights performed • FMV T&E and Gripen OT&E pilots General flight one A/C • Taxi • Start • Navigation • Maneuvering General formation flights • NVG ac as wingman • Start as open formation • Formation Maneuvering • Tactical Maneuvering Advanced flight • High G loads and High α • Looping, roll etc CAS (medium level) • Ground target • GBU-12 • LDP • GUN VID performed with two A/C with different Nrb values • Four flights/evening • Ground targets (not illuminated) • Detection ranges • Flight targets • Detection ranges • Type identification • Individual identification
    29. 29. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development OT&E, Third test flight test campaign, Results SVGA & XGA CMFD’s • Cleared for operational service with all NVIS radiance levels Storage compartments • Cleared for operational service HUD – NVG interaction issues • New methodology regarding HUD light adjustment cleared for operational service Light setting issues • New light curves cleared for operational service Training procedures and tactics • Cleared for operational service
    30. 30. The JAS39 Gripen NVG development Release to service Official release to service 2009-02-24 F17 and F21 wing • Training during fall -08 Initial flights at NEAT during march • Preparation for the cold response exercise Cold response, late march • First international use of NVG by SwAF SwAF very pleased! “I realise that I really was blind when I flew in the dark before now without goggles,” said one SAF pilot training for Cold Response