Pulmonary drug delivery system1

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Pulmonary drug delivery system1

  1. 1. PRESENTED BY: GANDHI SONAM MUKESHCHANDRA M.PHARM INDUSTRIAL PHARMACY 1
  2. 2. Pulmonary Drug Delivery system“Pulmonary drug delivery describes various systems,devices,formulations & method of delivery of drugs to the lung for the treatment of:Diseases of the respiratory tract.For systemic delivery via the drug.” Once the drug is administered they readily pass into the blood stream without the need of any enhancers 2
  3. 3. The pulmonary system consists of two regions 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. Mechanism of drugabsorptionDrug diffusion through alveoli.Absorption through aqueous pores by carrier mediated transport.phagocytosis of insoluble particles allow absorption of compounds with low lipophilicity & or high molecular weight. 5
  6. 6. Inhaleables Advanced technology for pulmonary delivery is expanding a category of drugs called Inhaleables defined as respiratory & systemic therapies administered simply by inhaling.Advantages:It supply drugs into the blood stream directly.It provide a non-invasive method of drugs delivery.It furnish very rapid onset of action similar to I.V.route. 6
  7. 7. Aerosols Aerosol preparations are stable suspensions of solid material & liquid droplets in a gaseous medium.The drug delivery by aerosols is deposited in the airways by:Gravitational sedimentationDiffusion The term atomizer is used for a device that generates an aerosol & may be powdered by electrically/mechanically. 7
  8. 8. Advantages of an aerosolA dose can be removed without contamination of remaining material.The medication can be delivered directly to the affected area in a desired form such as spray or stable form.Irritation produced by mechanical application of topical medication is reduced or eliminated.Minimum contamination.Maximum stability. 8
  9. 9. Limitations of aerosolsPoor patient compliance.Irritant activity .Increase bronco constriction.High cost of mfg. 9
  10. 10. Formulation of aerosol Aerosol product essentially consists of two components:Product concentratePropellantProduct concentrate consist of active ingredients or mixture of active ingredientsOther necessary agents such as solvents, antioxidants & Surfactants. 10
  11. 11. PropellantSingle or blend of various propellants are used.It is selected to give the desired vapour pressure, solubility & particle size.Propellants can be with active ingredients in many different ways producing products with varying characteristics.Depending on the type of aerosol system utilized,the pharmaceutical aerosol may be dispensed as fine mist,wet spray & semi-solid or solid. 11
  12. 12. Methods of Inhalation delivery•Aerosols•Pulmonary metered dose inhalers (PMDIs)•Dry powder inhalers (DPIs)•Nebulizers 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. Metered dose inhalers(MDIs)Is a device that helps to deliver a specific amount of medication to the lungs.It is commonly used to treat asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD).It is composed of 4 essential components.1.The base formulation- drug ,propellant,excipients.2.The container.3.Metering valve .4.The actuator (mouth piece). 14
  15. 15. Propellants:Commonly CFC propellants are used because of their low pulmonary toxicity , high chemical stability and purity and compatibility, Non-inflammable.But now a days the CFC propellants are replaced with Hydrofluoroalkanes(HFAs) as these CFC cause the ozone depletion effect.Examples: trichlorofluromethane dichlorodifluoromethane 1.2.dichlorotetrafluromethane. 15
  16. 16. SurfactantsThese are added to maintain the drug in dispersed state & promotes stability of formulation. It is also lubricates the valve.Examples : oleic acid ,sorbitol. 16
  17. 17. Containers & valve Usually the container is made up of aluminum or glass. Glass containers are normally plastic coated or laminated to enhances their ability to ensure internal pressures of high magnitude. 17
  18. 18. Metering valvesThese are designed to release a fixed volume of product during each actuation.Usually valves volumes range from 25 to 100ml although larger volume are available. 18
  19. 19. DRY POWDER INHALERSThis device dispenses a powder in a stream of inspired air.These are environmentally friend since they do not require CFC propellants for drug dispersion.Self medication is possible. 19
  20. 20. Two types of dry powder inhalerPassive dry powder inhaler Ex: Disc Inhaler, Easy halerActive dry powder inhaler Ex: spiors,prohaler. 20
  21. 21. AdvantagesProduct and formulation stabilityHigh drug volume delivery per pufflow susceptibility to microbial growthApplicable to both soluble and insoluble drugsSelf medication is possible 21
  22. 22. Disadvantages :Hygroscopic powders have chances to particle growth.Accurate dose is required . 22
  23. 23. NebulizerNebulizers are those that aerosolize aqueous solutions of water-soluble drugs 0r suspensions & solvent-water based solutions of water- insoluble substances.Nebulizer have been successfully employed for drug delivery to the lung. It is also used for local drug delivery to trachea for local anesthesia 23
  24. 24. There are two types of Nebulizer1. Pneumatic Nebulizer :-It derives from pressurized gas source ex:- jet or hydro dynamic type2. Electrical Nebulizer :-It operates from an electric source ex:-ultra sonic Nebulizer 24
  25. 25. Therapeutic application:For the treatment of asthmaPulmonary infectionsFor chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseCardio vascular agentsBlood glucose modifierLung cancerCystic fibrosis 25
  26. 26. List of marketed productsVentolin albuterol sulfateAsmol sulbutamol 26
  27. 27. REFERENCES1.CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY CONCEPTS AND ADVANCES BY-S.P.VYAS & R.P.KHAR2.MODERNPHARMACEUTICS FOUTH EDITION BY- BANKER & RHODES3.ADVANCE IN CONTROLLED AND NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY BY-N.K. JAIN4. Google.com 27
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