ASSESSMENT:FORMATIVE & SUMMATIVE Practices for the Classroom
Why Discuss Assessment? SINI & DINI Root Cause Analysis A review of the data shows that there is a lot of testing happening in the district, but that assessment does not necessarily drive curriculum and instruction. District educators indicated that the timeliness of receiving data impacts their ability to use it effectively. Educators expressed a frustration related to their ability to analyze and synthesize the data.
What is Assessment?The word ‘assess’ comes from the Latinverb ‘assidere’ meaning ‘to sit with’.In assessment one is supposed to sit withthe learner. This implies it is something wedo ‘with’ and ‘for’ students and not ‘to’students (Green, 1999).
Assessment in education is the process ofgathering, interpreting, recording, andusing information about pupils’ responsesto an educational task. (Harlen, Gipps,Broadfoot, Nuttal,1992)
The State of Assessment “A wealth of research – a poverty of practice.” (Black and Wiliam, 1998) Shift from “teaching” to “learning” Preservice and inservice training Confusion of terms and conditions Evaluation Assessment Formative Summative
Formative and summative assessment areinterconnected. They seldom stand alone inconstruction or effect.The vast majority of genuine formativeassessment is informal, with interactive and timelyfeedback and response.Itis widely and empirically argued that formativeassessment has the greatest impact on learningand achievement.
Values and Attitudes about Assessment1. Teachers value and believe in students.2. Sharing learning goals with the students.3. Involving students in self-assessment.4. Providing feedback that helps students recognize their next steps and how to take them.5. Being confident that every student can improve.6. Providing students with examples of what we expect from them.
Formative Assessment Assessment for learning Taken at varying intervals throughout a course to provide information and feedback that will help improve the quality of student learning the quality of the course itself
“…learner-centered, teacher-directed, mutually beneficial, formative, context- specific, ongoing, and firmly rooted in good practice" (Angelo and Cross, 1993). Provides information on what an individual student needs To practice To have re-taught To learn next
Key Elements of Formative Assessment1. The identification by teachers & learners of learning goals, intentions or outcomes and criteria for achieving these.2. Rich conversations between teachers & students that continually build and go deeper.3. The provision of effective, timely feedback to enable students to advance their learning.4. The active involvement of students in their own learning.5. Teachers responding to identified learning needs and strengths by modifying their teaching approach(es). Black & Wiliam, 1998
Summative Assessment Assessment of learning Generally taken by students at the end of a unit or semester to demonstrate the "sum" of what they have or have not learned. Summative assessment methods are the most traditional way of evaluating student work. "Good summative assessments--tests and other graded evaluations--must be demonstrably reliable, valid, and free of bias" (Angelo and Cross, 1993).
Formative Summative‘… often means no more than ‘…assessment (that) hasthat the assessment is carried increasingly been used to sumout frequently and is planned at up learning…’(Black and Wiliam,the same time as teaching.’ 1999)(Black and Wiliam, 1999) ‘… looks at past achievements‘… provides feedback which … adds procedures or tests toleads to students recognizing existing work ... involves onlythe (learning) gap and closing it marking and feedback grades to… it is forward looking …’ student … is separated from(Harlen, 1998) teaching … is carried out at intervals when achievement has‘… includes both feedback to be summarized and reported.’and self-monitoring.’ (Sadler, (Harlen, 1998)1989)‘… is used essentially to feedback into the teaching andlearning process.’ (Tunstall andGipps, 1996)
The Garden AnalogyIf we think of our children as plants …Summative assessment of the plants is the process ofsimply measuring them. It might be interesting tocompare and analyze measurements but, in themselves,these do not affect the growth of the plants.Formative assessment, on the other hand, is theequivalent of feeding and watering the plants appropriateto their needs - directly affecting their growth.
Factors Inhibiting Assessment A tendency for teachers to assess quantity and presentation of work rather than quality of learning. Greater attention given to marking and grading, much of it tending to lower self esteem of students, rather than providing advice for improvement. A strong emphasis on comparing students with each other, which demoralizes the less successful learners.
Self-evaluation Where would you place your assessment practice on the following continuum? The main focus is on:Quantity of work/Presentation Quality of learning Marking/Grading Advice for improvement Comparing students Identifying individual progress
Forms of Summative Assessment Performance Assessment Portfolio Traditional Tests
Implications for classroom practice Share learning goals with students. Involve students in self-assessment. Provide feedback that helps students recognize their next steps and how to take them. Be confident that every student can improve.
K-6 Student Assessment 2005-2006 Grade Assessment Type of Timeframe Other Level(s) Tool Assessment *Observational End of Kindergarten Results given toKindergarten Survey Summative Year principals *Guided Reading Dec./Jan, March, May/ Results given to K- 4 Levels Formative June principals K- 6 *Writing Sample Summative April - June * *Pre Tests Formative Throughout Year * *Post Tests Summative Throughout Year * *District Wide Math Assessment To be determined To be determined To be determined Administered to new *Benchmarks Formative Throughout Year and/or low achieving 1st - 6th students *Writing Prompt Summative January - March (TBD) *
K-6 Student Assessment 2005-2006 Grade Assessment Type of Timeframe Other Level(s) Tool Assessment *Qualitative Spelling To be shared at 2nd - 6th Inventory Formative Completed by Nov. 1st parent conference *M.A.P. (NWEA) Formative September * *M.A.P. (NWEA) Summative June * Will replace QRI, Full implementation by Benchmarks, Gates June, and possibly Terra 2006 Nova 3rd - 6th *NECAP Summative October * *Record of Dec./Jan, March, Results given to Instructional Summative May/June principals 5th - 6th Reading Progress