La Oración


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La Oración

  1. 1. LA ORACIÓN Sub- Programa 2: Dominio Instrumental del Idioma Inglés LOGO
  2. 2. Contenidos LOGO Categorías Gramaticales Verbos Auxiliares Verbos Modales Tiempos Verbales Tipos de Oraciones
  3. 3. La Oración LOGO Una oración es una unidad del lenguaje constituida por un conjunto de palabras que se caracteriza por poseer sentido completo. Inicia con letra en mayúscula y culmina con un punto, signo de interrogación o exclamación. Ejemplo: Today, the Internet and the World Wide Web are formidable forces in business and education. It is estimated that 20% of the population of the US uses the Internet. Outside of North America the numbers decrease dramatically, to 9% in the UK and Germany, 3% in France, to absolutely privileged use elsewhere. Sujeto Verbo Complemento
  4. 4. Categorías Gramaticales LOGO Pronombre Adverbio Sustantivo Adjetivo Conjunción Verbo Preposición Interjección Sustantivo El sustantivo o nombre es la parte de la oración que puede funcionar (con o sin artículo- a, an, the) como núcleo del sujeto u objeto de la oración. Singular: The Internet A Teacher An engineer Education Person Prince Plural: Teachers Technologies People Princess
  5. 5. Categorías Gramaticales LOGO Pronombres Son palabras que sustituyen a sustantivos o frases nominales. Personales Posesivos Objetos Reflexivos Demostrativos Indefinidos I Mine Me Myself This One You Yours You Yourself These Oneself He His Him Himself That One´s She Hers Her Herself Those It Its It Itself We Ours Us Ourselves You Yours You Yourselves They Theirs Them themselves
  6. 6. Categorías Gramaticales LOGO El Verbo Parte de la oración que indica sentimientos (love, hate), movimiento y acción (run), existencia (be) y afirmación (cuando se usa un verbo para afirmar el significado del mismo, por ejemplo: (you love him). Ejemplo: Those who have resources for acquiring the best educational materials are also more likely to be able to afford the subscription fees to Internet Service Providers (ISP)
  7. 7. Categorías Gramaticales LOGO Adjetivo -En inglés, los adjetivos son palabras invariables, es decir, sólo tienen una forma única (singular). -Los adjetivos siempre van delante del sustantivo al que están modificando, sin embargo si se está describiendo y se coloca el verbo to be, el adjetivo debe ir luego de éste. -Generalmente, cuando el adjetivo posee“-er”, “-est”. Ejemplo: Old- Older Oldest, indica un mayor grado de profundidad. Ejemplo: This one-way delivery system is the first far-reaching effort now possible, that can be used to enhance the world's access infrastructure and satisfy the schooling requirements throughout an entire country not just in the cities.
  8. 8. Categorías Gramaticales LOGO Adverbios Adverbios Adverbios Adverbios Adverbios Adverbios Adverbios Adverbios de modo de de Lugar de grado de relativos interrogativos tiempo frecuencia Accidentally Now *There Quite Always *When When Ultimately Then Here Rather Never Where Where Slowly Already Nearby Enough Often Why Why Loudly Yesterday Faraway Very Frequently How How Mortally Tomorrow Abroad Much Seldom What What Soon Down Nearly Sometimes Who Who Ubicación de los Adverbios: Al Inicio *En el medio Al final - adverbio de tiempo - adverbio de modo - adverbio de modo - adverbio de frecuencia - adverbio de lugar - adverbio de tiempo
  9. 9. Categorías Gramaticales LOGO Preposiciones Son elementos que sirven de enlace entre dos palabras o distintos elementos en la oración Ejemplo: Studies of nursing home patients with physical illnesses have shown that the presence of depression substantially increased the likelihood of death from those illnesses. Conjunción Funcionan como conectores de palabras, frases o clausulas (primarias o secundarias). Ejemplo: Sometimes there are two foramina on the posterior surface or one on the posterior and another on the inferior surface.
  10. 10. Categorías Gramaticales LOGO Verbos Auxiliares Primarios Los verbos auxiliares ingleses son: to be (ser o estar), to have (tener o haber) y to do (hacer). Se llaman verbos auxiliares porque nos ayudan a conjugar los tiempos compuestos. To be = Ser, estar To have = tener, haber To do = hacer Present Past Present Past Present Past I am I was I have I had I do I did You are You were You have You had You do I did He is He was He has He had He does He did She is She was She has She had She does She did It is It was It has It had It does It did We are We were We have We had We do We did You are You were You have You had You do You did They are They were They have They had They do They did
  11. 11. Categorías Gramaticales LOGO Verbos Modales Se usan para describir el grado de certeza: seguro, probable, posible o imposible y para expresar la obligación y la libertad de acción.No se conjugan Grados de Certeza: Certeza total: must, mustn't, will, won't, can, can't. Probabilidad, posibilidad: Should, shouldn't, may, may not, can Condicionalidad o posibilidad: Would, wouldn't, could, couldn't. Grados de obligación: Obligación fuerte: must Prohibición: must not, can't Voluntad, insistencia y ofrecimientos: will, would Habilidad: can Ejemplo: Because of their change in circumstances and the fact that they're expected to slow down, doctors and family may miss the diagnosis of depression in elderly people, delaying effective treatment.
  12. 12. Categorías Gamaticales LOGO Verbos Frasales Son expresiones idiomáticas que se forman combinando verbos con preposiciones o adverbios. Verbos compuestos inseparables: “look after” , “take care”, “go in” Ejemplos: He preferred to go in for civil engineering (Él se interesó por (se especializó) ingenieria civil) Verbos compuestos separables En este tipo de verbos compuestos el complemento de objeto directo va entre el verbo y el complemento. Un ejemplo es “set apart” con el sentido de “distinguir” o “caracterizar”: The quality of their products sets Rolex apart from other watch makers. Verbos intransitivos Se pueden utilizar sin un complemento de objeto directo. Por ejemplo "make up" en el sentido de “hacer las paces”: When mom and dad have an argument, they usually make up the following day.
  13. 13. Categorías Gramaticales LOGO Verbos Regulares e Irregulares Regulares VERBO PRESENTE PASADO PARTICIPIO ESPAÑOL SIMPLE ask ask / asks Asked asked Pedir, invite invite / Invited invited preguntar play invites Played played Invitar want play / plays Wanted wanted Jugar want / wants Querer Irregulares INFINITIVO PASADO PARTICIPIO SIGNIFICADO Arise arose arisen Elevarse, surgir, originarse. become became become Hacerse,tornarse,convertirse en. Begin began begun Empezar, iniciar. Bet bet bet Apostar
  14. 14. Categorías Gramaticales LOGO Tiempos Verbales  Present Simple/Presente Simple John plans the class every day.  Present continuous /Presente Simple John is planning the class right now .  Simple Past/Pasado Simple John planned the class yesterday  Past Continuous/Pasado continuo John was planning the class at eight o´clock last night
  15. 15. Categorías Gramaticales LOGO Tiempos Verbales  Present Perfect/Presente Perfecto John has planned the class this morning.  Past Perfect /Pasado Perfecto John had planned the class at 2 o´clock in the afternoon  Present Perfect Continous/Pasado Perfecto Continuo John has been planning the class for 2 hours  Past Perfect Continous/Pasado Perfecto continuo John had been planning the class that morning
  16. 16. Categorías Gramaticales LOGO Tiempos Verbales  Simple Future/ Futuro Simple John will plan the class  Future Continuous/ Futuro Continuo John will be planning the class by this time tomorrow.  Future Perfect/ Futuro Perfecto John will have planned the class at 10:30 tonight  Future Perfect Continous/Futuro Perfecto continuo Tomorrow, John will have been plannig the class for a week
  17. 17. La Oración LOGO Tipos de Oraciones By Structure/ Según su Estructura Simple: he had no trouble moving around the new dimension. Compound/Compuesta: He had no trouble moving around the new dimension and C.I he wanted more of it. C.I Complex/Compleja Those are very small numbers anyway, if C.I we consider the potential of the Web for making knowledge C.D
  18. 18. LOGO