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Foods with Saturated FA <ul><li>Animal fats </li></ul><ul><li>Meat </li></ul><ul><li>Dairy products </li></ul><ul><li>Butter </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical oils </li></ul><ul><li>Palm and coconut oil </li></ul>
Foods with unsaturated FA <ul><li>MUFA </li></ul><ul><li>-Olive, canola oil </li></ul><ul><li>-Nuts </li></ul><ul><li>PUFA </li></ul><ul><li>-Soybean, corn oil </li></ul><ul><li>Omega 3 FA </li></ul><ul><li>-Salamon </li></ul><ul><li>-Cold water </li></ul>
Nobel laureate Paul Sabatier worked in the 1890s to develop the chemistry of hydrogenation which enabled the margarine, oil hydrogenation, and synthetic methanol industries. While Sabatier only considered hydrogenation of vapours, the German chemist Wilhelm Normann showed in 1901 that liquid oils could be hydrogenated and patented the process in 1902. In 1909, Procter & Gamble acquired the US rights to the Normann patent; in 1911, they began marketing the first hydrogenated shortening, Crisco (composed largely of partially hydrogenated cottonseed oil )..
Walt Disney Company will begin getting rid of trans fats in meals at US theme parks ( Disneyland , Walt Disney World , etc.) by the end of 2007 , and will stop the inclusion of trans fats in licensed or promotional products by 2008 .
The EFSA Journal (2004) 81, 1-49 Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from the Commission related to the presence of trans fatty acids in foods and the effect on human health of the consumption of trans fatty acids (Request N° EFSA-Q-2003-022) (adopted on 8 July 2004) Trans-fat
The palm fruit is the source of both palm oil (extracted from palm fruit) and palm kernel oil (extracted from the fruit seeds). Babassu oil is extracted from the kernels of the Babassu palm.
The oil palm gives its name to the 16 carbon saturated fatty acid palmitic acid found in palm oil; monounsaturated oleic acid is also a constituent of palm oil while palm kernel oil contains mainly lauric acid .
Palm oil became a highly sought-after commodity by British traders, the oil being used as industrial lubricant for the machines of Britain's ongoing Industrial Revolution , as well as forming the basis for different brands of soap such as Palmolive . By c.1870, palm oil constituted the primary export of some West African states such as Ghana and Nigeria.
The World Health Organization in its report states there is convincing evidence that palmitic oil consumption contributes to an increased risk of developing of cardiovascular diseases.
Health and nutrition benefits of fat replacers. 1- To modify the intake of fat. (motivation) 2- No strong personal motivation (taste, cost, availability) 3- Extra consumption rather than replacement
Definition Fat replacers * Safe compounds * Has all the functional and organoleptic properties (taste & appearance) of fat * Significantly fewer calories
Classification 1- Carbohydrate - based 2- Protein - based 3- Fat- based
Carbohydrate – based * Carbohydrate polymers * Hydrocolloids * Polyols (sugar alcohols or bulking ingredients)
Carbohydrate - based * Carbohydrate polymers Consists of - Modified food starches - Dextrin - Maltodextrins Created from : Cereals, grains, and / or starches such as corn, potato, & Tapioca. NB: Polydextrose is also included.
<ul><li>CHO based Fat Replacers </li></ul><ul><li>- CHO Polymers (continue) </li></ul><ul><li>Refining Modified food starches provide specific attribute e.g anti - staling for baked goods </li></ul><ul><li>* CHO polymer needs more liquid to be added. A gelling reaction occurs that provides a thick, creamy mouth - feel. </li></ul>
CHO based Fat Replacers - Hydrocolloids Gums, gels and fibers * Provide thickness * Stabilizing, emulsifying and/or providing structure to foods. * Some products, like pectin and bran * 2 common foods, apple sauce and pureed prunes (add bulk and flavor in baking)
<ul><li>CHO based Fat Replacers </li></ul><ul><li>Polyols (sugar alcohols bulking ingredients) </li></ul><ul><li>* Provide volume or bulk </li></ul><ul><li>* Sorbitol, isomalt, lactitol maltitol, mannitol, xylitol & hydrogenated starch hydrolysates </li></ul><ul><li>* Familiar in low - calorie diet in diabetics, high intensity sweeteners as aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K </li></ul>
Polyols- basic sugar + H Polyols Sucrose Glucose Strach based syrup Strach based syrup + H H ydrogenated S trach H ydrolysate (H S H)
Protein-based Fat Replacers Microparticulated protein is created by heating and blending protein at high temperature to develop microscopic particles that are said to float over the tongue to provide the creamy mouth - feel of fat. Origin : egg white or whey protein
- Cannot be used in fried or baked foods protein will coagulate and loose creaminess. - 1.3 K cal/g Protein - based Fat Replacers
Fat – Based Emulsifiers, produced by replacing the triglycerides in vegetable oils, such as mono and diglycerides, and poly sorbate, have been used in foods for many years. Partially absorbed 9 K cal/g 5 K cal/g - Caprenin - Salatrim & others. - Olestra
<ul><li>Caprenin </li></ul><ul><li>( Procter & Gamble, Cincinnati, OH) </li></ul><ul><li>reduced - calorie TG - contains 3 molecules of F.A., Caprylic, Capric and behenic acid, esterified to one glycerol molecule. - behenic acid is partially absorbed, </li></ul><ul><li>Caprenin 5 K cal/g. </li></ul>
- Triacylglycerol composed of glycerol plus acetic propionic, and butyric acids ( short chain FA) and stearic acid (long chain FA) - Partially absorbed 5 K cal/g Salatrim
Olestra. (Olean Procter & Gamble) - Generic name for a preparation of sucrose polyesters - Has a sucrose core with six to eight FA. side chains (large) unabsorbed provides no calories - FDA approval 1996.
<ul><li>- Used in prepackaged ready to eat savory (not sweet), snacks such as potato, corn, chips and crackers </li></ul><ul><li>For frying or baking, in dough conditioners, in sprays, in filling ingredients, or in flavors </li></ul><ul><li>( replace 100% of fat). </li></ul>Olestra
Food additive 1- Intentional additives: Perform specific functions in food 2- Incidental food additives: no function Olestra: food additive approval FDA G enerally R ecognized A s S afe (GRAS)
Review of Safety Literature 1 - Fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K 2- Beta carotene (effect ?) 3- Poly-dextrose fermentation in colon 4- Olestra & Diazepam, propanolol, oral contraceptives.
Question ? Are there health and nutrition benefits. * Energy * Lipids * Diabetics
WEIGHT? CALORIE CONTROL COUNCIL SURVEY * Consumers ranked to maintain Current weight 54% * and to maintain an 52% attractive physical appearance
Energy and fat compensation . Unintended effects:- * no total daily reduction in fat or calories “ over consumption of other foods ” * Higher intake of CHO - affect - TG - Affect - glycaemic control (diabetic) & - Reduced - fat foods as an isolated dietary strategy for weight loss is limited. (Gatenby et al . Appetite 25:241-52; 1995)
<ul><li>Effect on Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Olestra (Fat-based) reduces LDL cholesterol, appeared to be due to </li></ul><ul><li> of intestinal absorption of cholesterol, </li></ul><ul><li>not through effects on bile acid excretion (Glueck et al) </li></ul>Clin Nutr 33 : 2177-81,1980 Am J Cllin Nutrition 37 : 347-54, 1983 41 : 1-12, 1985 37 : 347-354, 1983
Role of fat replacers Grundy et al (Am J Clin Nutr 44;620-29, 1986) Patient 6 obese with type 2 3 hypertriglyceridemic follow up 16-50 days Diet Consumed liquid hypo caloric diets 40% of the calories or 90 g/day of sucrose polyester Results Reduction of 20% cholest. 26% LDL 3 hyper TG ---------------------------------- TG Low Calorie LDL no change with without Sucrose polyester
The use of fat-replaced foods alone should not be expected to produce spontaneous improvements. Such improvements will still be dependent on long term behavioral changes that include not only modifications in fat, but also modifications in overall energy intake and increases in energy expenditure . Miller and Rolls. Fat substitute Handbook. Roller S, Ed.