In Search of Authentic Assessment: Standardized Tests vs. Portfolios By Tony Galle
Assessment vs. Evaluation From Understanding by Design, by Wiggins & McTighe (2005)“…we must be able to state with clarity what the student should understand and be able to do ...” (p.14)
Assessment vs. EvaluationFrom Understanding by Design, by Wiggins & McTighe (2005, p. 6)Assessment: “the giving and using of feedback againststandards to enable improvement and the meeting of goals”Evaluation: “more summative and credential-related.”
Standardized Tests Seek to answer:What is the “quality of instruction and the effectiveness of the teaching and administrative staff?” (Tanner, 2010, p. 31)
Standardized Tests Still in use because they:“Create clear expectations for schools and students as well as collect precise information about performance” (Weller, 2002, Testing Affects on Education section, para. 1).
Opponents of Testing“Tests do not measure what teachers taught to students but‘rather what those students brought to schools’’ (Sahlberg, 2010 ascited in Popham 2007, p. 167)” (p. 51)“Tend to measure the temporary acquisition of facts and skills,including the skill of test-taking itself...” (Syverson, 2009, p. 2).Tests do not honor different abilities or learning styles (Gardner,1998 and Lopez & Schroeder, 2008).
Portfolios As defined by Tuttle (2007)“purposefully limited collection of student selected work over time that documents progress toward meeting the standards” (E-portfolios are the Wave of the Future section, para. 1).
Portfolio Features“the evidence of student learning may be in diverse formats such as Web pages, movies, visuals, audio recordings, and text” (Tuttle, 2007, Getting Started section, para. 1).
Portfolio Features“should reflect the actual day-to-daylearning activities of students”Should be “multidimensional” and“show progress, and achievements overa period of time.” (Birgin and Baki, 2007, p. 80)
Portfolio BenefitsStudents have “more autonomy tochoose their best work to be graded.”Demonstrate “improvement...throughconferencing.” (Lam & Lee, 2009, p. 57)
Benefits for the Future“Through creating and maintaining digital portfolios…, students are engaged in a process of synthesizing and presenting their academic work and growth in an increasingly professional manner” (Cramer, 2009, para. 2).
ReferencesBirgin, O. and Baki, A. (September 2007). The use of portfolio to assess student’s performance. Journal of turkish science, 4(2). Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov.ezproxy.uvm.edu/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/43/45/d0.pdfLam, R. and Lee, I. (April 2009). Balancing the dual functions of portfolio assessment. ELT Journal 64(1). Retrieved from http://eltj.oxfordjournals .org.ezproxy.uvm.edu/cgi/reprint/64/1/54. doi:10.1093/elt/ccp024.Lopez, D, and Schroeder L. (2008). Designing strategies that meet the variety of learning styles of students. (Masters dissertation, Saint Xavier University, 2008). Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov.ezproxy.uvm.edu/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/3d/5b/d1.pdfSahlberg, P. (citing Popham). (February 2010). Rethinking accountability in a knowledge society. Journal of Educational Change, 11(1), 45-61. doi:10.1007/s10833-008-9098-2Syverson, M. (Spring 2009). Social justice and evidence-based assessment with the learning record. Forum on public policy online. Retrieved from http://forumonpublicpolicy.com.ezproxy.uvm.edu/spring09papers/archivespr09/syverson.pdfTanner, J. (February 2010) Incomplete measures. The School Administrator, 67(2). 31-33.Tuttle, H. (February 2007). Digital-age assessment. Technology & Learning, 27 (7), 22. Retrieved from http://www.techlearning.com.ezproxy.uvm. edu/article/6946Unknown. (Produced for Edutopia by State of the Art). (December 1, 1997). Big thinkers: Howard Gardner on multiple intelligences. Edutopia.Video retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/howard-gardner-interview#graph1Weller, N. (March 2002). All children tested, but many left behind. Policy Perspective, 1021. Retrieved from http://www.cascadepolicy.org.ezproxy.uvm.edu/pdf/edref/P_1021.htm).Wiggins, G, and McTighe, J. (2005) Understanding by design. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.