The Project Management Paradigm
Carnegie Mellon University, Silicon Valley




The term Project Management means many thin...
What are the Primary
                                                                                       Measures of Su...
What Others Have Seen
                                                                                       The quality o...
Frameworks
                                                                                          for PM
              ...
Groups                                                                                 Monitoring &
                     ...
The CMMI–DEV Model
Maturity Level          Process Areas
5 – Optimizing          Organizational   Causal Analysis
        ...
Prince2 Process Model




                                                           7
Copyright © 2008, Lewis & Fowler
Scrum Software Development Process Model

                 Roles                             Key Artifacts                ...
So What Are Some Common Themes
                Between This Approaches?

                 Identify the work
             ...
A Core Question:
What’s the Difference Between Project
Management and Agile Project Management?
Agile (verb): The ability to rapidly respond to change
Characterized by:
 Quickness, lightness, and ease of movement;
 N...
Some Notions of Agile
                                                                                        Self Organi...
The Problem with
                                                                                         the Agile Projec...
To avoid this, we need to
                                                                                       understan...
A General Framework for Managing
Projects of all Types




Deliverables Based Planning, identifies, plans, costs, executes...
But First an Observation about the
                 ―method‖ discussion
                  The theme of simplicity and par...
Four Key Element of Managing a Project

                                                                                  ...
Capabilities provide the business with the ―ability‖ to perform a function


These capabilities should be described in bus...
The Plan Is A Strategy For The
                 Successful Completion Of The Project
                The Plan describes wh...
The Performance Measurement Baseline is a time–phased schedule of all
            the work to be performed, the budgeted c...
Execution is about performing the planned work, while assuring all
           performance assessment represent physical pe...
So What Are The
                                                                                       Common Themes?

   ...
The 4 Practice Areas of Deliverables Based Planningsm
                                                                    ...
Putting The Four Core Processes of
                          Deliverables Based Planningsm to Work
   1                   ...
Deliverables Based Planningsm Overview




                                                                               ...
How you perform these four
                                                                                       processe...
Project Management is
                                                                                        about answer...
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CMU Talk - PM Paradigm

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This talk was given at the Carnegie Mellon University

Published in: Technology, Business

CMU Talk - PM Paradigm

  1. 1. The Project Management Paradigm Carnegie Mellon University, Silicon Valley The term Project Management means many things to many people. For software development, managing the project means having the customer agree you are Done in measures meaningful to the customer.
  2. 2. What are the Primary Measures of Success for a Project? Are We Done? When will we be Done? What will it cost to be Done?  What does Done look like for the customer?  How can we recognize Done when it arrives?  How can we be sure we can get to from hereDone?  What are the impediments to getting to done? 2/12 Deliverables Based Planning Handbook for A&D, Copyright © 2008, 2009, Lewis & Fowler
  3. 3. What Others Have Seen The quality of a software system is governed by the quality of the process used to develop it.‖ — Watts Humphrey If you can't describe what you are doing as a process, you don't know what you're doing. — W. Edwards Deming When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely in your thoughts advanced to the stage of science. — Lord Kelvin In theory there is no difference between theory and practice. In practice there is. — Yogi Berra Deliverables Based Planning Handbook for A&D, Copyright © 2008, 2009, Lewis & Fowler
  4. 4. Frameworks for PM  PMI PMBOK® – This is not a method  CMMI–DEV – This is not a method  Prince2 – This is a method • Scrum – Project Management of Software Development? Deliverables Based Planning Handbook for A&D, Copyright © 2008, 2009, Lewis & Fowler
  5. 5. Groups Monitoring & Initiating Planning Executing Close Out Knowledge Areas  Controlling PMI’s PMBOK Structure  Monitor and Control  Project  Close project or Work Integration  Charter  Manage Execution  Integrated Change Management Plan phase Control  Collect  Verify Scope Requirements Scope  Define Scope  Control Scope  Create WBS  Define activities  Sequence Activities  Estimate  Control Schedule Time Resources  Estimate Duration  Develop Schedule  Estimate Costs  Control costs Cost  Determine Budget  Perform Quality  Perform Quality  Plan Quality Quality Assurance Control  Acquire Team  Develop HR Plan  Develop Team Human Resources  Manage Team  Identify Communications Stakeholders  Risk Plan  Identify Risk  Monitor and Control  Qualitative Risk Risk Risks  Quantitative Risk  Risk Responses  Conduct  Administer  Close Procurement  Plan procurement 5 procurement procurement procurements Copyright © 2008, Lewis & Fowler
  6. 6. The CMMI–DEV Model Maturity Level Process Areas 5 – Optimizing Organizational Causal Analysis Innovation & and Resolution Deployment (CAR) (OID) 4 – Quantitatively Organizational Quantitative Managed Process Project Performance Management (OPF) (QPM) 3 – Defined Organizational Organizational Organizational Integrated Risk Decision Requirements Process Focus Process Training Project Management Analysis and Development Definition Management Resolution (OPF) (OPD) (OT) (IPM) (RSKM) (DAR) (RD) Technical Product Verification Validation Solution Integration (TS) (PI) (VER) (VAL) 2 – Managed Requirements Project Project Supplier Measurement Process and Configuration Management Planning Monitoring and Agreement and Analysis Product Quality Management Control Management Assurance (RM) (PP) (PMC) (SAM) (MA) (PPQA) (CM) 6 Copyright © 2008, Lewis & Fowler
  7. 7. Prince2 Process Model 7 Copyright © 2008, Lewis & Fowler
  8. 8. Scrum Software Development Process Model Roles Key Artifacts Key Meetings Development Process Product Backlog Sprint Planning Meeting Product Increment •List of requirements & issues •Hosted by ScrumMaster; ½-1 day Backlog PO •Owned by Product Owner •In: Product Backlog, existing •Anybody can add to it pro-duct, business & technology •Only Product Owner prioritizes conditions Product Owner: 1. Select highest priority items in Set priorities Sprint: Product Backlog; declare Sprint Goal 30 days each 2. Team turns selected items into Sprint Planning Meeting Sprint Goal Sprint Backlog •One-sentence summary •Out:: Sprint Goal, Sprint Backlog SM •Declared by Product Owner Sprint •Accepted by team Goal Daily Scrum ScrumMaster: Sprint •Hosted by ScrumMaster Backlog Daily Scrum Manage process, •Attended by all, but Stakeholders Sprint Backlog don’t speak re--move blocks •List of tasks Blocks •Same time every day •Owned by team List Daily Work •Answer: 1) What did you do •Only team modifies it Product yesterday? 2) What will you do today? 3) What’s in your way? T •Team updates Sprint Backlog; Blocks List ScrumMaster updates Blocks List •List of blocks & unmade Increment’ Team: Develop decisions product Sprint Review Meeting •Owned by ScrumMaster •Hosted by ScrumMaster •Updated daily Sprint Review Meeting •Attended by all •Informal, 4-hour, informational SH •Team demos Increment Increment Product •All discuss •Version of the product Backlog’ •Hold retrospective Stakeholders: •Shippable functionality (tested, •Announce next Sprint Planning documented, etc.) observe & advise Meeting Copyright 2004, William C. Wake, William.Wake@acm.org, www.xp123.com Free for non-commercial use. 1-25-04 8/12 Deliverables Based Planning Handbook for A&D, Copyright © 2008, 2009, Lewis & Fowler
  9. 9. So What Are Some Common Themes Between This Approaches?  Identify the work  Plan the work Remember, a  Method and a Cost the work Process Model are not the  Execute the work same thing.  CMMI, PMBOK Measure cost, schedule, and are process quality models. Scrum and  Adjust the plan Prince2 are methods  Keep the stakeholders in the loop
  10. 10. A Core Question: What’s the Difference Between Project Management and Agile Project Management?
  11. 11. Agile (verb): The ability to rapidly respond to change Characterized by:  Quickness, lightness, and ease of movement;  Nimble;  Moving quickly and lightly; 11/12
  12. 12. Some Notions of Agile  Self Organizing  Limits on external control  Collective abilities  Unpredictability  Changing conditions Adaptive is a repeated theme. Agile project management needs to adapt to the changing aspects of the project, in some self organizing way to address unpredictability. 12/12 Deliverables Based Planning Handbook for A&D, Copyright © 2008, 2009, Lewis & Fowler
  13. 13. The Problem with the Agile Project Management Discussion Agile software development is about ―engineering‖ the product. Project management is about the ―processes‖ around engineering the product. Deliverables Based Planning Handbook for A&D, Copyright © 2008, 2009, Lewis & Fowler
  14. 14. To avoid this, we need to understand both engineering and management are needed Overlap is present, but separation of concerns is also present. So back to the core principles of project management – what does agile say about:  Integration  Scope  Time  Cost  Quality  Human Resources  Communications  Risk  Procurement 14/12 Deliverables Based Planning Handbook for A&D, Copyright © 2008, 2009, Lewis & Fowler
  15. 15. A General Framework for Managing Projects of all Types Deliverables Based Planning, identifies, plans, costs, executes, measures, adjusts and engages the stakeholders in the production of deliverables
  16. 16. But First an Observation about the ―method‖ discussion  The theme of simplicity and parsimony gets mangled When we talk  Methods and process frameworks are about project management confused and especially  When ―agile‖ speaks about project Agile project management management, they usually speak about activities around developing software  Some of these are project management, some are engineering activities
  17. 17. Four Key Element of Managing a Project 1. What business capabilities will we need to satisfy the customer? 2. What technical requirements must be fulfilled to enable these business capabilities 3. What is the plan for delivering these technical requirements? 4. How can we credibly execute the plan to be on-schedule, on-budget, and assure that product or service meets the requirements? 17/12 Deliverables Based Planning Handbook for A&D, Copyright © 2008, 2009, Lewis & Fowler
  18. 18. Capabilities provide the business with the ―ability‖ to perform a function These capabilities should be described in business process terms, not technical requirements terms:  We need the capability to integrate our top 10% suppliers in the Accounts Payable system, 90 after merging two business units.  We need the capability to scale our claims processing system 250% in 4 calendar weeks during a national disaster.  We need the capability of providing a 200% increase in bandwidth during a major sporting event. 18/12 Deliverables Based Planning Handbook for A&D, Copyright © 2008, 2009, Lewis & Fowler
  19. 19. The Plan Is A Strategy For The Successful Completion Of The Project The Plan describes where we are going, the various paths we can take to reach our destination, and the assessment points along the way to assure we are making progress. These assessment points measures the ―maturity‖ of the product or service against the planned maturity. This is the measure of progress – not the passage of time or consumption of money. 19/12 Deliverables Based Planning Handbook for A&D, Copyright © 2008, 2009, Lewis & Fowler
  20. 20. The Performance Measurement Baseline is a time–phased schedule of all the work to be performed, the budgeted cost for this work, and the organizational elements that produce the deliverables from this work. 20/12 Deliverables Based Planning Handbook for A&D, Copyright © 2008, 2009, Lewis & Fowler
  21. 21. Execution is about performing the planned work, while assuring all performance assessment represent physical percent complete. Delivering On-Time, On-Budget, and On-Specification is the core concept for successful execution. 21/12 Deliverables Based Planning Handbook for A&D, Copyright © 2008, 2009, Lewis & Fowler
  22. 22. So What Are The Common Themes?  Identify the work  Schedule the work  Cost the work  Execute the work  Measure cost, schedule, and quality (Technical Performance)  Adjustments the plan with these measurements  Keep the everyone in the loop Deliverables Based Planning Handbook for A&D, Copyright © 2008, 2009, Lewis & Fowler
  23. 23. The 4 Practice Areas of Deliverables Based Planningsm 1 10 Organizing Principles of Deliverables Based Planningsm Identify Business 1 Why Needs Operational Needs Capabilities Based Plan 2 System Value 2 Stream Identify 3 Requirements What 4 Baseline Technical Technical Performance Requirements 5 Measures 3 Establish a Performance 6 PMB Measurement 7 Baseline Technical 8 Performance How Measures Earned Value Where 9 Performance 4 Execute the When 0% /100% 10 Performance Who Measurement Baseline Changes to Changes to Changes to business strategy requirements project plan Embedded Risk Management 23/12 Deliverables Based Planning Handbook for A&D, Copyright © 2008, 2009, Lewis & Fowler
  24. 24. Putting The Four Core Processes of Deliverables Based Planningsm to Work 1 Define the set of capabilities needed to achieve the program objectives or the particular end Identify Needed state for a specific scenario. Using the ConOps, define the details of who, where, and how it System is to be accomplished, employed and executed. Capabilities What capabilities are needed to fulfill the ConOps and System Requirements? Define the technical and operational requirements that must be in place for the system 2 capabilities to be fulfilled. First, define these requirements in terms that are isolated from any Establish the Requirements implementation technical products. Only then bound the requirements with technology. Baseline What technical and operational requirements are needed to fulfill these capabilities? Build a time–phased network of schedule activities describing the work to be performed, the 3 Establish the budgeted cost for this work, the organizational elements that produce the deliverables, and Performance the performance measures showing this work is proceeding according to plan. Measurement Baseline What is the schedule that delivers product or services that meet the requirements? Execute work packages, while assuring all performance assessment are 0%/100% 4 Execute the complete before proceeding. No rework, no forward transfer of activities to the future. Performance Assure every requirement is traceable to work and all work is traceable to requirements. Measurement Baseline What are the periodic measures of physical percent complete? 24/132 Deliverables Based Planning Handbook for A&D, Copyright © 2008, 2009, Lewis & Fowler
  25. 25. Deliverables Based Planningsm Overview 25/132 Deliverables Based Planning Handbook for A&D, Copyright © 2008, 2009, Lewis & Fowler
  26. 26. How you perform these four processes is not as important as having the four processes be performed Without the presence of these four processes, the project is in jeopardy not matter what engineering method you use. Test the method – the practice – against the principles to confirm there is coverage. If parts are missing, determine if they are important to the project 26/12 Deliverables Based Planning Handbook for A&D, Copyright © 2008, 2009, Lewis & Fowler
  27. 27. Project Management is about answering these questions with confidence  Do we know what done looks like in terms meaningful to the customer? «Capabilities»  What are the technical aspects of being done? «Requirements»  What is the path to getting to done? «Performance Measurement Baseline»  How long will it take to get to done? «Project Execution»  What are the impediments to getting done? «Continuous Risk Management» 27/12 Deliverables Based Planning Handbook for A&D, Copyright © 2008, 2009, Lewis & Fowler

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