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Beyond mass media_internet_gc

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  • 1. Beyond Internet and Mass Media Gustavo Cardoso ISCTE-IUL Lisboa ISCTE-IUL, 5th July 2010
  • 2.  
  • 3.  
  • 4.  
  • 5. Television, Radio and Newspapers, as they developed,
  • 6. become to be known during the XX Century as Mass Media
  • 7. and assumed the central role in the media system
  • 8. giving rise to a new communicational paradigm.
  • 9. That communicational paradigm, of mass communication
  • 10. was the communicational model of industrialized societies
  • 11. under a industrial model of development
  • 12. and under what was coined as later modernity.
  • 13. From Bell to Touraine and Poster to Castells
  • 14. the role of information and communication in social change in our societies
  • 15. has been discussed during the last forty years
  • 16. The birth of the Internet in 1969 and the long road of forty years,
  • 17. from laboratories and scientific appropriation to homes and businesses
  • 18. and the generalization of personal and organizational appropriation in daily lives,
  • 19. when combined with Mass Media,
  • 20. how would the Internet change the Mass Media, and what could we expect?
  • 21.  
  • 22. Seeing Change or Our Communication in a New Communicational Model
  • 23. Hello information, goodbye news!
  • 24.  
  • 25. In communication, innovation is (almost always) incremental
  • 26.  
  • 27.  
  • 28. The three cultural industry narratives
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31.  
  • 32. Users as distributors
  • 33.  
  • 34. Open creativity or Open source of life
  • 35.  
  • 36. iLife with your iPhone
  • 37.  
  • 38. Radio’s third life
  • 39.  
  • 40. Television is a narrative, not a technology
  • 41.  
  • 42. From newspaper to news agency
  • 43.  
  • 44. Democracy and everyday life immersed in mediation
  • 45.  
  • 46. All are signs of change
  • 47. How to make sense from them?
  • 48. From Mass to Networked Communication
  • 49. Networked Communication Communicational Model of the Network Society
  • 50. Networked Communication
  • 51. Shaped by 3 forces
  • 52. (1)
  • 53. Communicational Globalization Processes
  • 54. Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
  • 55. First by Sattelite TV
  • 56.  
  • 57. Latter by the Internet
  • 58. (2)
  • 59. What mediation ?
  • 60.  
  • 61.  
  • 62.  
  • 63.  
  • 64. Self Mass Communication
  • 65.  
  • 66.  
  • 67.  
  • 68. multimedia interpersonal communication
  • 69.  
  • 70. one to many mediated communication
  • 71.  
  • 72.  
  • 73. Mass Communication
  • 74.  
  • 75. Non mediated face to face
  • 76. This is our communication
  • 77.  
  • 78.  
  • 79.  
  • 80.  
  • 81. Self Mass Media + Multimedia Interpersonal Communication + One to Many Mediated Communication + Mass Communication = Networked Mediation
  • 82. (3)
  • 83. High Interactivity
  • 84.  
  • 85. Low Interactivity
  • 86.  
  • 87. Choice Different interactivity dimensions HIGH / LOW Communicational Environment Approach towards interactivity
  • 88.  
  • 89. Networked Communication
  • 90. If it is true that we build communicational models into our societies,
  • 91. it is equally true that they give rise to communicational paradigms that
  • 92. format what a given media system will be
  • 93. Do we have a new communicational paradigm ?
  • 94.  
  • 95.  
  • 96. 1) Rhetoric based on moving image
  • 97.  
  • 98. 2) New dynamics of accessibility (ranging from availability to mobility )
  • 99.  
  • 100. 3) social value of user generated content
  • 101.  
  • 102. 4) Coexistence of multiple role models types of newscasts.
  • 103.  
  • 104. 5) Innovation in entertainment models But also in how do we tell our stories change in reserve (Eco) erosion of frontiers separation (Silverstone) transcendence interruption
  • 105. Each Age has it’s own
  • 106. predominant genres
  • 107.  
  • 108.  
  • 109.  
  • 110. Ways to say the same differently
  • 111.  
  • 112. Different technologies for the same purpose
  • 113.  
  • 114.  
  • 115. and modes of representation (i.e.)
  • 116. news
  • 117.  
  • 118. debates
  • 119.  
  • 120.  
  • 121. Soap operas
  • 122.  
  • 123.  
  • 124.  
  • 125.  
  • 126. and also different ways to
  • 127. express the singularity of individuals i.e.
  • 128. Popular music
  • 129.  
  • 130.  
  • 131. How to write
  • 132.  
  • 133.  
  • 134. How to talk (or to send messages)
  • 135.  
  • 136.  
  • 137. How to share contents
  • 138.  
  • 139.  
  • 140. Although those show the search for different types of order
  • 141. and struggle for power and control over our own
  • 142. simbolic and material space and time,
  • 143. the media act diferently accordingly to different times and spaces.
  • 144. Both news and entertainment have changed in their nature across time
  • 145. Networked Communication
  • 146. Is about mediation and networks
  • 147. And mediation is about the role of screens, and its contents, in our communication.
  • 148. With different “screens” we develop different interactivies.
  • 149. “ Screens” are the product of technology, mediation processes, consumption, production and regulation.
  • 150. Let’s think of “screens”, not technology. Think of the way in which we interact with them
  • 151. THINK SCREENS IN BROADCAST THINK SCREENS IN SEARCH
  • 152. BROADCAST broadcast and zapping for low interactivity practices
  • 153. SEARCH search and browse , for high interactivity practices
  • 154. 2 Networks of practises
  • 155. With 2 Central Nodes
  • 156. Networked Communication ?
  • 157. Who builds the network? We do.
  • 158. We are the “hypertex” that links technologies and uses
  • 159. Pursuing personal or collective projects
  • 160.  
  • 161.  
  • 162. News, Fiction, Opinion and Commercials
  • 163.  
  • 164.  
  • 165.  
  • 166. Networked Communication
  • 167. is
  • 168. Network building
  • 169. between Mass Media and Multimedia Interpersonal Communication and Self Mass Media and One to Many Mediation not forgetting face to face
  • 170. a space where
  • 171. the “ user ” and “ audience ” meet
  • 172. when it happens mediation changes
  • 173. http://www.wired.com/culture/lifestyle/magazine/17-08/by_media_diet
  • 174. our media diets change
  • 175.  
  • 176. media matrixes change
  • 177.  
  • 178. new media systems develop
  • 179. where the “ user ” has a new central role
  • 180. the user as distributor
  • 181.  
  • 182.  
  • 183. the user as innovator
  • 184.  
  • 185.  
  • 186.  
  • 187. the user as classificator (of experience )
  • 188.  
  • 189.  
  • 190.  
  • 191.  
  • 192. In the Aftermath? Or the Networking of a new communicational model?
  • 193. So what is Communication today ?
  • 194. A Remix of technology, contents and uses. a suggestion
  • 195. A remix because in communication we are remixing the older and the new through mediation
  • 196. a technologic remix because we are combining multiple screens in our practises
  • 197. a content remix because on “those” screens contents are diverse and different
  • 198. Broadcasting will still be around in some , but not in all screens.
  • 199. Sometimes we will be
  • 200. “ push ” audiences , that still zapp through contents in broadcasting and watch/read/listen to them
  • 201. Other times we will be
  • 202. “ pull ” users who, pre-choose contents, through complex and thorough search, in order to (use)watch/read/listen now or at a future given moment
  • 203. That is: the difference between pushing the “on” button and do zapping – i.e. the phenomena that produces audiences !
  • 204. and to access, search and browse – i.e. the phenomena that produces users !
  • 205. can this explain what communication is today?
  • 206. From Media to People The Media is not the Message
  • 207. All societies are characterised by communicational models and not just informational models.
  • 208. The three preceding models
  • 209. in chronological order in terms of its cycles of social affirmation
  • 210. The first model is defined as interpersonal communication. Which takes the form of the two-way exchange between two or more persons in a group.
  • 211. The second model, which is equally deeply rooted in our societies, is one-to-many communication. where an individual sends one single message to a limited group of persons
  • 212. A third model, with which we have less experience in historical terms, is mass communication . Where thanks to the use of specific mediation technologies, one single message can be sent to a mass of people.
  • 213.  
  • 214.  
  • 215. In the 1970’s, McLuhan argued that the media were the message. — Meaning that any single medium induces behaviours, creates psychological connections, and shapes the mentality of the receiver; regardless of the content that medium transmits.
  • 216.  
  • 217.  
  • 218. Castells, in turn, suggested we could think of the “ message is the media ” i.e., the media are shaped depending on the message one is trying to get across, and seeking that which best serves the message and the audience at which it is aimed. (2005)
  • 219.  
  • 220. Eco suggested that “ the media precede the message ” , i.e. when the technological acceleration produces multiple new channels that exist before there is content to be placed there creating a new challenge of an economic character, thus rendering transmission feasible without having equated what is to be transmitted (2002)
  • 221.  
  • 222. Should we discuss if networked communication introduces a third dimension into the dialectic between media and message?
  • 223. In the network, whatever the media chosen, if the message is not the most appropriate, for a given group, it will be remixed by the people.
  • 224. “ the people is the message” vs . “ the media is the message” ?
  • 225.  
  • 226.  
  • 227.  
  • 228.  
  • 229. the people is the message ? Gustavo Cardoso, 2010