STAGING/GIVING MOVES TO GENRE (R hetorical D evelopment)• EACH GENRE HAS ITS FUNCTION / SOCIAL PURPOSE• EACH GENRE HAS ITS TEXT/GENERIC STRUCTURE• EACH GENRE USES DIFFERENT LANGUAGE FEATURES / LEXICOGRAMMAR POINTS
N A R A T I V E• IT IS USED TO ENTERTAIN, that is to gain and hold the reader’s interest in a story.• TO TEACH and TO INFORM writer’s reflections on experience• IT CAN BE IMAGINARY or FACTUAL (fairy tales, mysteries, fables, romances, adventures stories, myths and legends), or it can be complicated event that leads to a crises that finally find a solution.
Generic structure : N A R A T I V EORIENTATION - introduces participants/character (who) - sets the scene (when & where)COMPLICATION - Development of a Crises: a crisis arises, something happened unexpectedlyRESOLUTION - Solution of the crisis: for better or for worseRE-ORIENTATION - closing to the narrative (optional) - coda: changes of characters, lesson taken from the story
LANGUAGE FEATURES OFNARRATIVE• Certain nouns are as pronoun of person, animal, certain thing in a story. E.g.. Stepsister, house work.• Adjectives that form noun phrases, for example : long black air, two red apples, etc.• Time connectives and conjunction to arrange the events, for example: then, before that, soon, etc.• Adverb and adverbial phrase to point the place of event, for example: here, in the mountain, happily ever after.
LANGUAGE FEATURES OFNARRATIVE• Action verbs are past tense: stayed, climbed, etc.• Saying verbs that refer to what the human participants said, told, promised; and thinking verbs indicating thought, perception or feeling of the characters in a story, for example: felt, thought, understood• Dialog often included and the tenses change according to the circumstances
Example and Generic Structure• Orientation Once upon the time the live a little girl named snow White.• Complication; Development of the crises One day she heard her uncle and aunt talking About leaving Snow White in the castle because They both wanted to go to American and they Didn’t have enough money to take Snow White.
• Resolution of the crises Snow White did not want her uncle and Aunt to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away into the woods• Complication; Development of the crises Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep• Resolution of the crises Mean while, she seven dwarfs were coming home from work They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up She saw the dwarfs said, “What is your name? Snow White said, “My name is Snow White” And, one of the dwarfs, said, “If you wish, You my live here with us. Snow White said, “Oh could I? Thank you.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the hole story and snow white and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after.
RECOUNT• IT IS USED TO TELL PAST EXPERIENCE (what we or someone did, what took place) that is aimed at informing and entertaining• TYPES: - Personal recount ( retelling of an activity that the speaker/writer has been personally involved) e.g. oral anecdote, diary entry, biography - Factual recount (recording the particulars of an incident e.g. police report, news report) - Imaginative recount (taking on an imaginary role and giving details of events) e.g. a day in the life of ………
generic structure : R E C O U N T ORIENTATION : provides information about the setting (when & where) and introduces participants/character (who)EVENTS : tell what happened, in temporal sequence (personal comment/expression of evaluation)RE-ORIENTATION (optional) : closure of events (e.g. comments or conclusion)
LANGUAGE FEATURES OF RECOUNT• Noun and pronoun as substitution of person, animal, involved thing, E.g.: David, the Monkey, We, etc.• Specific participants (Mr./Mrs ……, our dog, the thief)• Simple past tense
• Action verbs/material processes (went, slept, ran, caught, arrived, bought, looked at) E.g. He went to the zoo; She was happy .• Temporal sequence (on Friday, one day, at the beginning, in the end, first, then, next, before, later, finally, etc)
Example and Generic Structure• Orientation On Friday we went to the blue montains. We stayed at David and delta’s house. It has a big garden with lots of colorful flowers and a tennis court.• Complication; Development of the crises On Sunday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. It was scary. Then, Mummy and went shopping with Della. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats.
• Closing On Sunday we went on the scenic Skyway and it rocked. We saw cockatoos having a shower. In the afternoon we went home.
NEWS ITEM• It is used to report to the readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important.
generic structure: NEWS ITEM• NEWSWORTHY EVENT(S) recounts of the event in summary form• BACKGROUND EVENTS elaborate what happened, to whom, in what situation/circumstances• SOURCES original comments by participants, witnesses to and authorities expert on the event, etc.
Language Features of News Item• Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline• Use of material processes/action verbs to retell the story or event• Use of projecting verbal processes in “Source” stage (e.g. the police said…; the witness thought …)* Using adverb like: badly injured, the most beautiful bride in the world.• Focus on circumstances (e.g. last night, just this morning, at that time, etc)
Example and Generic Structure Town ContaminatedNEWSWORTHY EVENT Moscow: A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town
Background/elaborationVelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist tospeak to people who witnessed the explotion ofa nuclear submarine at the nava bas ofshkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock.The accident, which occurred 13 months beforethe Chaernobyl disaster, spread radioactive fall– out over the base and nearby town, but wascovered up by officials of the Soviet Union.
Residents were told the explosion in thereactor of the Victor class submarineduring a refit had been a thermal and not anuclear explosion. And those involved inthe clean up operation to remove morethan 600 tones of contaminated materialwere sworn to secrecy.
Source of Information A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.
DESCRIPTION• Is used to describe a particular thing/object, place, or person. For example: My cat, My bike, My favorite room in the house, The Wildest Amazon River, My favorite actor.
Generic Structure ofDESCRIPTIONIDENTIFICATION (Pengenalan subject) : identifies phenomenon to be describedDESCRIPTION : describes parts (Ciri-ciri subject, physical appearance), qualities, general attitude, characteristics
LANGUAGE FEATURES• Use certain noun: teacher, house, my cat.• Use of simple present tense• Use of attributive and epithets (e.g. adjectives)• Detail noun phrase to give information about subject, for example: it was a large open rowboat, a sweet young lady, etc.
• Vary of adjectives to describe, number, classify for example: two strong legs, sharp white fang, etc.• Relating verb to give information about subject such as: my mom is really cool, it has very thick fur, etc.• Thinking verb and feeling verbs to express writer’s view about subject, such as: Police believe that suspect is armed, I think it is a clever animal, etc.
• Action verbs, like: Our new puppy bites our shoes, etc.• Adverbial to give additional information about behaviour, for example: fast.• Figurative language, for example simile, metaphor; John is white as chalk.
Example and Generic Structure• Subject Macquarie University is one of the largest Universities in Australia. This year, in 2004, it celebrates its 40th anniversary.• Description The university is located at the north Ryde Greenbelt, Sydney, where the New South
Wales government sets aside 135 hectares forthe institution. In 1964, Macquarie area was asurrounding have evolved beyond recognition.The North Ryde District has grown in a district ofintensive occupation anchored by a vibrant andgrowing university.Blessed with a fortune location and room tobreath, Macquire can be proud of that carefulplanning that retains and enrich the university’smost attractive natural features. A pleasingbalance between buildings and plating is evidentacross the campus.
This emphasis on the importance oflandscape has created images ofMacquire as a place that members of theUniversity are most likely to pleasurablyrecollect.One of the highlights of the ;andscape isthe Mars Creek Zone. It empriseslandscaped creek sides and valley floor, agrass amphitheatre, and artificial lake …surrounded by rocks and pebbles, nativeplants and eucalypts.
Today, a railway station is underconstruction. In three years 1 time,Macquirie will be the only university inAustralia with a railway station on site.Macquirie is polsed to be the most readilyaccessible in Sydney region by rail andmotorway, yet retaining its beautiful site.
R E P O R T• IS USED TO DOCUMENT, ORGANIZE AND STORE FACTUAL INFORMATION ON A TOPIC• IS USED TO CLASSIFY AND DESCRIBE THE PHENOMENA OF OUR WORLD• TO TALK ABOUT A WHOLE CLASS OF THINGS, e.g. Bikes, Plants, Animals, Phones• Examples: news reports, science reports, weather reports
R E P O R T• To inform something as it is• It is the product of systematic or analyses observation• Something described can be: natural phenomena, environment, made up-things, social phenomena.• Descriptive text can be: general conclusion, such as Whale is mammal because it give birth.
• To make this report students need to observe, compare the whale with aother animals whose characteristics are the same. For example: - A simple house (by describing this house characteristics, it can be called a simple house) - A hospital - school canteen
generic structure: R E P O R T• GENERAL CLASSIFICATION : tells what the phenomenon under discussion is• DESCRIPTION : describes the phenomenon in terms of parts, qualities, habits or behaviors
LANGUAGE FEATURES OFREPORT• Generalized participants: a whole class of things (volcanoes, newspapers, the royal family)• Action verbs/material processes• Simple present tense. It states general thing, like: comodo dragon usually weight more tha 160 kg.• Language for defining, classifying, comparing, contrasting (are called, belong to, can be classified as, are similar to, are more powerful than)• May contain technical vocabulary e.g. water contains oxygen and hydrogen• Is written in a formal and objective style
Example and GenericStructureGeneral Classification/Statement of the reported object: The white pelican is one of the most successful fish eating birds. The success is largely due to its command hunting behavior. A group, perhaps two dozen birds, will gather in curved are some distance offshore. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore, beating the water furiously with their wings, driving the fish before them.
• Description When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish, the formation breaks up as its meal. As the bird lifts its head, the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds, Foss is of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years.
EXPLANATION• To explain the processes involved in the formation or workings of natural or socio cultural phenomena• To give reasons why things are they are• Examples: texts in science or social studies
Generic structure: EXPLANATION• A GENERAL STATEMENT to position the reader• A SEQUENCED EXPLANATION OF WHY OR HOW SOMETHING OCCURS/HAPPENS
Language Features of Explanation• Focus on generic, non-human participants (e.g. clouds, rains, the air, moisture, gas, petrol, oil, urbanization, flood, tornado)• Use of simple present tense, passive voice is used sometimes to get theme right.• Use mainly of Material and Relational Process
• Use of temporal circumstances and conjunctions (e.g. before, first, then, in the end, finally)• Use of causal conjunctions (e.g. if, when, until, so, as, why)
Example and Generic Structure Bread Almost everyone eats bread daily, especially for breakfast. Bread making is not a complicated task. You must have an oven, water, sugar, salt, flour, and yeast. The basic ingredient is flour comes from wheat. There are two kinds of flour, which is the soft, and the hard one;
Hard flour, made by winter wheat, is betterchoice for making bread. Bread using hard flourproduces better texture and taste, Luke warmwater is added to the flour to make dough.Yeast is a microscopic organism. The size maynot be impressive but it is capable of producingcarbon dioxide. It is also easy to use. Poweredyeast needs only be dissolved in water to beused instantly. Yeast works best in the presenceof sugar and warmth.
Besides, encouraging yeast to growquickly in the dough, sugar is added togive flour to the bread. Salt is added forsame purpose, to make the bread tastenice. However, it has the reverse effect onyeast, unlike sugar. The next ingredient isoil; com oil, peanut oil or butter. It isessential for making the bread tender.After mixing with all these ingredients, theflour is hand beaten before sent to theoven
DISCUSSION• It is to present (at least) two points of view about an issue
Generic structure of Discussion• Issue - Statement - Preview• Arguments for against or statement of differing points of view *Pro-Point - Main Point (gagasan pokok 1) - Elaboration (uraian) - Main Point (gagasan pokok 2) - Elaboration (uraian 2)
*Contra-Point - Main Point - Elaboration• Conclusion or Recommendation
Language Features of Discussion• Focus on generic human and generic non- human Participants• General noun stating category such as: uniforms, alcohol, etc.• Relating verbs giving information about discussed issue, e.g.: smoking is harmful.• Thinking verbs (mental process) expressing writer’s idea, e.g.: feel, believe, hope, etc.
• Use of Material process, e.g.: has produced, have developed, to feed, etc.• Use of Relational Process, e.g.: is, are, cause, etc.• Modalities, like: perhaps, must, should, should have been, could be, could have
• Use of Comparative: Contrastive and Consequential conjunctions to relate argument, e.g.: similarly, on the other hand, however, etc• Adverb of Manner: hopefully, deliberately• Detailed noun group, like: the dumping of unwanted kittens, etc.
Example and Generic Structure HomeworkIssue Statement/Preview I have been wondering if homework is necessary.Argument Supported Point I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise or work Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. Homework is really good because it helps with our education.
Statement of different point of view/Contradicted idea:But, my times, doing homework is not a great idea. Ithink we shouldn’t have homework because I like to goout after school to a restaurant or the movies.Sometimes homework is boring and not important. I thinkhomework is bad because I like to play and discussthings with my family.
Analytical Exposition• To persuade the reader or listener that there is something that, certainly, needs to get attention• To analyze a topic and to persuade the reader that this opinion is correct and supported by arguments• Examples: argumentative essay, exploratory essay
Generic structure of Analytical ExpositionTHESIS - Position: introduces topic and indicates writer’s position. - Preview: give outlines of the arguments to be presented.ARGUMENTS - Point: restates main arguments - Elaboration: elaborate or develop and support each point/the argument with evidence, facts, etc.REITERATION restates writer’s position
Language Features ofAnalytical Exposition• Focus on generic human and non-human participants, e.g.: car, pollution, leaded petrol car• Use abstract noun, e.g.: policy, government• Use of relational processes, e.g.: It is important• Modal verbs, e.g.: we must preserve• Modal adverbs, e.g.: certainly we.
• Connective or Use of internal conjunction to state argument, e.g.: first, secondly, then, finally)• Evaluative language, e.g.: important, valuable, trustworthy, etc.• Giving reasons through causal conjunction (e.g. so, thus, therefore, hence)• Use of present tense• Passive sentence
Example and Generic Structure CAR SHOULD BE BANNED IN THE CITY• Theses Car should be banned in the city. As we all know, cars create pollution, and cause a lot of road and other accidents.• Argument Firstly, cars, as well as we all k now, contribute to most of the pollution in the world.
Car emit a deadly gas that cause illnessessuch as bronchitis; lung cancer, and triggers’ offasthma. Some of these illnesses are so bad thatpeople candled from them. Secondly, the city is very busy. Pedestrianswander everywhere and cars commonly hitpedestrians in the city, which causes them todie. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. Thirdly, cars are very noisy. If you live in thecity, you may find it hard to sleep at night, orconcentrate on your homework, and especiallytalk to someone.
REITERATION• In conclusion, cars should be banned from the city for the reasons listed.
Exposition (Hortatory)• To persuade the reader or listener that something should or should not be the case• The reader or listener is persuaded to agree with the writer’s or speaker’s point of view/thesis• Examples: letters to the editor, newspaper editorials, political speeches
Generic Structure ofHortatory Exposition• THESIS - announcement of issue concern• ARGUMENTS - reasons why there is concern leading to recommendation• RECOMMENDATION - statement of what ought or ought not to happen
Language Features ofHortatory Exposition• Focus on generic human and non-human participants (issues, ideas, opinions)• Use of mental processes to state what writer thinks or feels (e.g. realize, feel, appreciate, think, believe, recognize, know)• Use of material processes/action verbs to state what happens• Use of relational processes (e.g. to be, to have)• Use of simple present tense and modals
Example and Generic Structure Country ConcernTHESIS In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol (and the atmosphere) there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the difference between driving in the city and in the country.ARGUMENTS While I realize my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive, I feel that when you travel through the country, where you only see another car every five to ten minutes, the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads.
ARGUMENTS Those who want to penalize elder, leaded petrol vehicles and their owners don’t seem to appreciate that in the country there in public transport to fall back upon and one’s vehicle is the only was to get about.RECOMMENDATION I feel that country people, who often have to travel huge distance to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol, should be treated to the people who live in the city
Generic structure: ANECDOTE• ABSTRACT signals the retelling of an unusual incident• ORIENTATION sets the scene (when & where)• CRISIS provides details of the unusual incident• REACTION reaction to crisis• CODA (optional) reflection on or evaluation of the incident
ANECDOTE• To share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident• Deals with something unexpected or out of the ordinary• It is the unexpected events which makes the story worth telling• Almost exclusively used for oral genre
Language Features of Anecdote• Use of material processes/action verbs to tell what happened• Use of exclamations (e.g. ‘guess what?!’ ; ‘I couldn’t believe it!’)• Use of intensifiers (e.g. ‘really?!’; ‘very amazing’)• Use of temporal conjunctions (e.g. and, then)
Example and Generic Structure Al Brown was very good at fixing things around the house when they broke. One day he went to another city to do some works there, and his wife was alone in the house. While Mr. Brown was away, one of the faucets on the bathtub broke. Mrs. Brown didn’t know much about fixing broken faucets, so she telephoned a plumber.
The plumber came to the house that afternoon and fixedthe faucet in a few minutes. When he finished, he gaveMrs. Brown his bill for the work.She looked at it for several seconds and then said, “Yourprices are very high, aren’t they? Do you know, thedoctor costs less than this when he comes to thehouse?”“Yes, I know,” answered the plumber. “I know that verywell, because I was a doctor until I was lucky enough tofind this job a few months ago.”
P R O C E D U R E
P R O C E D U R E• IS USED TO INFORM AND TO DIRECT SOMEONE ON HOW TO DO or MAKE SOMETHING, or HOW TO ACHIEVE A GOAL• A very important genre in a society because it enables people to get things done• Is commonly used in the oral and written mode• Examples: recipes, games rules, appliance manuals, directions to reach a destination, instructions to do something
generic structure: P R O C E D U RE• GOAL :purpose of doing something• MATERIALS : things needed to realize goal• STEPS : things to do to realize goal
LANGUAGE FEATURES OFPROCEDURE• Generalized participants (things/objects)• The reader or the person following the instructions is referred to in a general way (ONE/YOU) or is not mentioned (Pour the boiling water into a bowl)• Temporal sequence/adverbial of time (first, at the beginning, then, next, finally)• Simple present tense (i.e. imperatives)• Action verbs/material processes (go, hold, take, spread)
Example and Generic Structure• Goal How to make a cheese Omelet• Materials - Ingredients 1 egg, 50 gr cheese, ¼ cup milk, 3 tablespoon cooking oil, a pinch of salt and pepper. - Utensils Frying pan, fork, spatula, cheese grater, bowl, plate.• Steps 1. Crack an egg into a bowl
2. whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth3. add milk and whisk well4. grate the cheese into the bowl and stir5. heat the oil in the frying pan6. pour the mixture into the frying pan7. turn the omelet with the spatula when it browns8. cook both sides9. place on a plate; season with salt and pepper10. eat while warm.
SPOOF• IT IS USED TO TELL AN ODD OR FUNNY EVENT BASED ON THE REAL LIFE which is aimed at entertaining. It is usually ended by an unexpected event (TWIST).
generic structure : S P O O F ORIENTATION (Pengenalan) : provides information about the setting (when & where) and introduces participants/character (who)EVENTS (Rekaman Peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan yang biasanya disajikan dengan urutan kronoligis)) : tell what happened, in temporal sequence (personal comment/expression of evaluation)TWIST (Unexpected Ending or Funny)
LANGUAGE FEATURES OF SPOOF• Focus on person, animal, certain thing.• Use of action verbs, e.g.: run, eat, etc.• Using adverbs of time and place• Use of Simple Past Tense• Told in chronological order
• Action verbs/material processes (went, slept, ran, caught, arrived, bought, looked at) E.g. He went to the zoo; She was happy .• Temporal sequence (on Friday, one day, at the beginning, in the end, first, then, next, before, later, finally, etc)
Example and Generic Structure Penguin in the Park• Orientation Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin.• Event/Activity 1 He took him to a policeman and said, “I have just found this penguin. What should I do ? The policeman replied, “Take him to the zoo.”
• Event/Activity 2 The next day the policeman saw the same man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked, ”Why are you still carrying that penguin about ? Didn’t you take it to the zoo ?” “I certainly did, “ replied the man.• Twist “and it was a great idea because he really enjoyed it, so today I’m taking him to the movies !”
Example and Generic Structure Penguin in the ParkORIENTATION Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin.EVENT He took him to a policeman and said, “I have just found this penguin. What should I do ? The policeman replied, “Take him to the zoo.”EVENT The next day the policeman saw the same man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked, ”Why are you still carrying that penguin about ? Didn’t you take it to the zoo ?” “I certainly did, “ replied the man.TWIST “and it was a great idea because he really enjoyed it, so today I’m taking him to the movies !”
REVIEW• To critique an art work, event for a public audience.• Examples: work of arts include: movies, TV shows, books, plays, operas, recordings, exhibitions, concerts and ballets
generic structure: R E V I E W• Orientation Place the work in its general and particular context, often by comparing it with others of its kind or through analogue with a non-art object or event.• Interpretive Recount Summarizes the plot and/or provides an account of how the reviewed rendition of the work came into being; is optional, but if present, often recursive.
• Evaluation (It can be more than one evaluation) provides an evaluation of the work and/or its performance or production; is usually recursive• Evaluative summation (Summary) provides a kind of punch line which sums up the reviewer’s opinion of the art event as a whole; is optional.
LANGUAGE FEATURES OF REVIEW• Focus on Particular Participants (Participant tertentu)• Direct expression of options through use of Attitudinal Epithets in nominal groups; qualitative Attributes and Affective Mental Processes• Use Adjectives showing attitude, e.g.: good, bad, etc.• Use of long and complex clauses• Use of metaphorical language (e.g., the wit was there, dexterously pingponged to and fro …)
Example and Generic Structure Harry Potter Order the Phoenix• Orientation I absolutely love the Harry Potter series, and all of the books will always hold a special place in my heart.• Evaluation 1 I have to say that of all of the books, however, this was not my favorite
• Evaluation 2 When the series began it was as much of a “feel good” experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. The stories were bright, fast-faced, intriguing, and ultimately satisfying.• Interpretative Recount (tafsiran) Order of the Phoenix is different kind of book. In some instances this works … you feel a whole new; level of intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. I was truly move by the last page. Other time the book just has a slightly dreary, depressing feel.
The galloping pace of the other books hasslowed to a trot here, and parts of it do seemlong, as if were reading all about Harry “justhanging out” instead of having his usualadventures. Reading in detail about Harrycleaning up an old house, for example-housekeeping is still housekeeping, magical or no, andI’m not very interested in doing it or readingabout other people doing it.
• Summary A few other changes in this book-the “real” world comes much more in to play rather than fantasy universe of the previous books, and Harry is apparently been taken off his meds. I know that he has a lot of to be grumpy in this book, especially with being a teenager and all, but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. He goes from being a warm-hearted, considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend’s heads off over nothing. It just seemed like it didn’t fit with his character, like he turned into a walking cliché of the “angry teen” overnight.
The “real” story seemed to happen in thelast 1/3 of the book, and this part I loved. Iactually liked the ending (and yes, I cried)as sad as it was. I packed a punch and itmade me care about the story even more.Still a really good book, with some editingit would have been great.