Destruction of Coral Reefs
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Destruction of Coral Reefs

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Destruction of Coral Reefs

(C) 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY - INTRAMUROS.
gailshyra.tumblr.com | @gailshyra (twitter) | gailshyra@yahoo.com

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Destruction of Coral Reefs Destruction of Coral Reefs Presentation Transcript

  • DESTRUCTION OFCORAL REEFSITS CAUSES, EFFECTS ANDSOME SOLUTIONS © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • • underwater structures made from calcium carbonate (CaCO3) secreted by corals. • colonies of tiny living animals found in marine waters that contain few nutrients. • grow best in warm, shallow, clear, sunny and agitated waters. • “rainforests of the sea” • form some of the most diverse ecosystems on Earth.WHAT ARE CORAL REEFS? © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • THE CORAL REEFS’ SURFACE • occupy less than 0.1% of the worlds ocean surface. • estimated to cover 284,300 sq. km (109,800 sq. mi). Coral Reefs Southeast Asia Indo-Pacific Region (including Red Sea, Indian Pacific (including Ocean, Southeast Australia) Asia and Pacific) Rest of the World Atlantic and Caribbean © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • Threat to the Reefs Overexploitation By the 2030’s, 90% of reefs are Coastal Development expected to be at risk from both human activities and climate change; by 2050, all coral reefs will Inland Pollution and be in danger. Erosion Marine PollutionWhen these threats are combined, 58percent of the world’s reefs are at risk(defined as medium and high risk). © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • WORLD’S TOP 5 LONGEST CORAL REEFS5) Florida Reef 4) The Mesoamerican Barrier Reef – Length: 200 miles (322 km) – Length: 585 miles (943 km) – Location: Atlantic Ocean and – Location: Atlantic Ocean near Gulf of Mexico near Florida Mexico, Belize, Guatemala and Honduras © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 3) New Caledonia 2) Red Sea Coral Reef 1) Great Barrier ReefBarrier Reef – Length: 1,180 miles – Length: 1,553 miles – Length: 932 (1,900 km) (2,500 km) miles (1,500 – Location: Red Sea – Location: Coral Sea km) near Israel, Egypt and near Australia – Location: Djibouti Pacific Ocean near New Caledonia © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • PHILIPPINE CORAL REEFS “ 5 percent —equivalent to just• The estimated reef area of the around 1,000 square kilometers—of Philippines ranges from the country’s total reef area remain in 19,000 to 27,000 square good condition in the face of the kilometers, depending on the wanton destruction of our coral reefs territorial boundaries and by poachers.” depth ranges. -- Dr. Porfirio Alino, University of the Philippines Marine Science Institute (UP- MSI) © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • TUBBATAHA REEF• Philippines’s largest coral reef• located in the Sulu Sea, 98 nautical miles (181 km) southeast of Puerto Princesa City in the Palawan Province. © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • IMPORTANCE OF THE REEFS © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • IMPORTANCE• Sustaining Tropical Marine Ecosystems• Primary Producers• Tourism• Coastal Protection• Fisheries• Medicinal Research• Cultural Significance © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • CORAL REEF’S DESTRUCTION Solutions Effects Causes © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • THE DESTRUCTION OF THE REEF © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • OZONE DEPLETION• although corals have a natural • coral reefs are highly sensitive to sunscreen to protect themselves increase in temperature and then from the tropical sun, most cause coral bleaching. scientists believe that increased – coral polyps, stressed by levels of ultraviolet radiation heat, push out the algae that live damage coral in shallow areas. in them. These algae, called “zooxanthellae,” normally provide the coral with up to 80% of its L E energy. It is also responsible for A the color of coral, so when they D are expelled, the coral appears S white or "bleached." T O OCEAN WARMING © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • HIGH AMOUNT OF DISSOLVEDCARBON DIOXIDE IN WATER• dissolves skeleton of corals. –  CO2 = weak formation of skeletonsWATER POLLUTION• one of the leading causes of coral reef destruction.•  wastes =  nitrogen =  algae = ✖ sunlight © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • SEDIMENTATION• mining, logging and/or farming causes soil erosion. These soil particles go into the bodies of water and block the sunlight that coral reefs need to survive. © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • DESTRUCTIVE FISHING PRACTICES• Muro-ami Fishing – banging on the reefs with sticks destroy coral reef formation.• Blast Fishing – bombing the ocean water to stun the fishes for an easy catch which causes damage to coral reefs.• Cyanide Fishing – fishermen dive down the ocean and stun the fish using cyanide. © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • CORAL MINING CARELESS TOURISM• when people mine for corals, they are • wastes kept in poorly maintained removed from each other to be used septic tanks can have leaks into as: surrounding ground water, seeping out to the reefs. Whenever people grab, kick, walk on, on the reefs, they contribute to coral reef destruction. Corals are harmed or even killed when people drop anchors on them. Careless boating, diving, snorkeling and fishing can also damage coral reefs. © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • EFFECTS OF DESTRUCTION © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • END OF HABITATSCoral reefs cover only about 1% of the ocean floor, yet are home to about 25%of all marine life- approximately 35,000 to 60,000 different types of organisms. © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • DEMISE OF ECONOMYMany humans are dependent oncoral reefs for their livelihood. © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • LOSS OF NATURAL COASTAL PROTECTION They are a natural barrier of protection againstcurrents, strong waves, and storms. Without the reefs to slow the water before it reaches the shore, these areas are very vulnerable. © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • KILLING THE HOPE FOR CURECoral reefs are probable sources of medicines to cure the diseasesthat currently plague the earth. Chemicals found in the reefs havebeen used to treat ulcers, heart disease, leukemia, and more. Everytime a reef is destroyed, the chance of relieving the pain andsuffering of people all over the world is reduced. © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • SAVING THE CORAL REEFS © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT’S SOLUTION• Banning of Cyanide fishing• Banning of Blast fishing• Banning of collecting and exporting corals © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • REPUBLIC ACT 8550(THE PHILIPPINES’ FISHERY CODE OF 1998) • gathering • harvesting of ordinary corals • collecting either in raw or • transporting processed form in • possession any quantity, is • sale prohibited • exporting • use of corals as: Section 5 – materials in: – Ordinary Coral • buildings • other man-made structures © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • Tubbataha Reef, El Nido, Palawan, PHSection 6 • the Minister of Natural Resources may issue a – Gratuitous Permit gratuitous permit to duly established and recognized research and educational institutions to gather in limited quantities any coral for scientific or educational purposes only.Section 7 • the Minister of Natural Resources may issue a – Special Permit special permit to only one person/corporation for a limited period to conduct experimental collection of precious and semi-precious corals. © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • REPUBLIC ACT 8550(THE PHILIPPINES FISHERY CODE OF 1998)• An Act Providing for the Development, Management, and Conservation of the Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Integrating all Laws pertinent thereto, and for other purposes. – Section 67.1 • the safety and quality standards on aquatic organisms and fishery products for domestic consumption and international trade, consistent with international trade agreements. © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • OTHER SOLUTIONS• Build artificial reefs to replace the reefs that have been destroyed.• Convince the people not to buy fish that have been caught by destroying coral reefs.• Encourage governments to crack down on pollution, both into the ocean and into the air, which causes global warming.• Encourage visitors to coral reefs to be careful not to harm them.• Isolate the coral reefs so they can heal themselves.• Study about coral reefs.• Convince government to treat them with care. © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • SAVE THE EARTH’S PRECIOUS RESOURCES Reduce • Reduce waste by using less • Reuse containers and productsRecycle Reuse • Recycle old products to make new ones © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • CHE99/ B23 GIRON, AXLESUMAGUE, SHYRA GAIL CORDON, TOM ROSARIO, RAMIL © 2012 SHYRA GAIL SUMAGUE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY – INTRAMUROS. gailshyra.tumblr.com | @gailshyra (twitter) | gailshyra@yahoo.com