Ysh conformation and soundness2010 nov 2012

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Ysh conformation and soundness2010 nov 2012

  1. 1. YORKSHIRE SPORT HORSE [SHB OF GB] CONFORMATION AND PERFORMANCE JANE NIXON MA, VET MB, BSc, MRCVS. www.nixonequinevetconsultancy.comwww.nixonequinevets.com
  2. 2. The Horse Some pertinent evolutionary facts It is a  Herd animal  Galloping animal  Chased ‘prey’ species. Fright Flight (not fight!)  Defender rather than an aggressor  Single limb bone column: on Tip Toe  Pedal bone in horn capsule, the hoof  Grazer so requiring  large head  long neck  capacious digestive system  Four legged, one at each corner, with  no collar bone  powerful hindquarterswww.nixonequinevets.com
  3. 3. As a prey animal the wild horse had to be  Readily aware  Quick off the mark  Agile, fast and balanced in asymmetric gaits  Quick to return to grazing composure As a domesticated horse the  Fright and Flight had to be trained (converted) into  Alertness  Responsiveness to aids, (biddable)  Capable in all gaits (increasing speed and agility)  Not stressed under saddle  Fit to do and to recoverwww.nixonequinevets.com
  4. 4. 80% of propulsion comes from the hindquarters  Hamstring and pelvic muscle power  Top line muscle power to lift forequarter “come up in front”  Good shoulder / pastern line  Saddle room for shoulder blade sweep Always view from both sides Growth to maturity is judged by final height at withers  Brisket, ribs, vertebrae & dorsal processes later  Limb bones to elbow close around 2 years  This age of this varies with breed  Ponies usually earlier than warm bloodswww.nixonequinevets.com
  5. 5. The Horse’s outline - Points are those of the skeleton  The surface areas – the jargonese description or name of the various parts  The “points”  The landmarks at protruding parts of bones usually at a joint  Visible and palpable  Obesity does not hide the pointswww.nixonequinevets.com
  6. 6. The skeletal top line and the bird’s eye views show areas of bone available for optimal muscle attachment. i.e.  Flat of ribs  Side of dorsal processes  Lateral processes of lumbars  Flat of upper hind limb bones  Ham string and thigh muscles “size”www.nixonequinevets.com
  7. 7. Fore Quarters Hind Quarters No collar bone Bony Attachmentswww.nixonequinevets.com
  8. 8. Scapular range Shows the different positions assumed by the blade bone during the flexion and extensions of the limbwww.nixonequinevets.com
  9. 9. AT MATURITY Balanced fore quarter Balanced Hindquarterwww.nixonequinevets.com
  10. 10. A balanced horse at grass Able to graze without compromise of forelegswww.nixonequinevets.com
  11. 11. Conformation > Soundness, ability, durability  Based on underlying, genetically determined skeletal framework (eg Skeletal “top line”)  Unalterable after maturity  Can only be ‘managed’ by breedingwww.nixonequinevets.com
  12. 12. Conformation is (constant and) fixed  However there are 3 variables which can be managed I. CONDITION II. HOOF BALANCE III. DENTAL ARCADE BALANCE  All 3 of which can give a false impression of altered conformation and actionwww.nixonequinevets.com
  13. 13.  Conformation must not be confused or interchanged with conditionwww.nixonequinevets.com
  14. 14. Condition  in the “furnished” animal reflects  muscle development between bones – fittening  fat deposition throughout - nutrition at varying levels It is weighable and contour measurable - profile/scoring It is manageably variable and gives the effective top linewww.nixonequinevets.com
  15. 15. A “Furnished” Horse It should “fill the eye”www.nixonequinevets.com
  16. 16. VETERINARY TIMES JANUARY 25TH 2010 “ANIMAL LOVERS UNABLE TO RECOGNISE PORTLY EQUINES” WORLD HORSE WELFARE CHARITY POLL i) 50% could not recognise pictures of overweight horses and many did not view condition as a welfare threat ii) Thin horses often the correct weight, but looked thin compared to overweight field companions JUDGES: Go National Hunt racing to see fit horseswww.nixonequinevets.com
  17. 17. FAT DISTRIBUTION UNFIT HORSE FAT FILLS IN BETWEEN MUSCLE GROUPS ↓ SMOOTH ROUNDER APPEARANCE ↓ FIT HORSE FAT IS REDUCED ↓ DEVELOPED MUSCLES STAND OUTwww.nixonequinevets.com
  18. 18.  HORSE WITH GOOD CONFORMATION WILL/SHOULD  BE EXHIBITED IN CONDITION SUITABLE FOR JOB IN HAND  THOSE HORSES WITH WEAK CONFORMATION ARE MORE LIKELY TO BE EXHIBITED TOO FAT IN ORDER TO HIDE FAULTS  I.E FAT HORSE IS INDICATION OF CONFORMATION PROBLEMwww.nixonequinevets.com
  19. 19. THE FEET The hoof wall is modified skin (epidermis) thus  It is constantly growing down from the coronary band  Coincidentally worn down or trimmed  The whole hoof as judged at weight bearing should be balanced front to back, side to side, to give level foot fall  Should be trimmed to conformation of the individual limb  It is subject to distortion by torque from action due to poor conformation and/or foot balancewww.nixonequinevets.com
  20. 20. MEDIO- LATERAL INBALANCEwww.nixonequinevets.com
  21. 21. LEFT FORE FROM BEHIND OUTSIDE OUTSIDE INSIDE INSIDEwww.nixonequinevets.com
  22. 22. How to assess foot balance, left and right handed farriers Well balanced foot Unbalanced footwww.nixonequinevets.com
  23. 23. Conformation of Dental Arcade THREE-POINT BALANCE PLUS Three-point balance refers to the correct EXCURSION function of:- 1. The incisors 2. The molars 3. The mandibular (jaw) joint Three-point balance allows normal jaw movements to take place and is achieved by:-  The removal of hooks  The removal of sharp points which develop on the outside of the upper and the inside of the lower premolars and molars  Adjusting the line of the incisorswww.nixonequinevets.com
  24. 24. Conformation of Dental Arcade  A purebred horse shows better conformation of the lower molar dental arcade fitting with the upper dental arcade than a crossbred horse.  Crossbred horses are more likely to have aberrant dental arcades with regard to the width, length and contours of the top and bottom jaws.  The angle of the head on the neck also makes a difference as to the fitting of the lower jaw to the upper jaw.  The factors alter the acceptance of the bit & the consequential muscle development & action of the horsewww.nixonequinevets.com
  25. 25. CONFORMATIONAL FAULTS  Does no t fill the eye 1st appeara on nce Unbalan cedwww.nixonequinevets.com
  26. 26. NECK  Hollow in front of withers  dorsal spinal ligament – weak build up ventral muscles  Crest fat → laminitiswww.nixonequinevets.com
  27. 27. THE BACK  WITHERS HIGHER THAN CROUP  → Horse built upwardly  → Easier to transfer weight to hindquarters  → Trotters → Highest Speeds Achieved with Wide Short Thoraxwww.nixonequinevets.com
  28. 28. BACK CONFORMATION AND PERFORMANCE ADVANTAGE FOR CONFORMATION Jumping Ability HEIGHT AT WITHERS (Holmstrong 2001 Sweden) LENGTH PELVIS NECK LENGTH Dressage Ability Longer Backs than Jumpers as greater required supplenesswww.nixonequinevets.com
  29. 29. CONFORMATIONAL FAULTS  Shallow girth → poor lung capacity  Short back → kissing spines → lumbar spine pain  Slack loins → SI disease BACK  Jumper’s bump → SI disease  Long back → More flexible but Weak → S I disease  Roach back  Sway back → caudal 1/3 foot painwww.nixonequinevets.com
  30. 30. LONG BACK – More Flexible →SI Diseasewww.nixonequinevets.com
  31. 31. ROACH BACK - Unsightly but not usually a problemwww.nixonequinevets.com
  32. 32. SWAY BACK Cause of 1/3rd of Foot Painwww.nixonequinevets.com
  33. 33. SHORT BACK – Kissing Spineswww.nixonequinevets.com
  34. 34. “SLACK LOINS” → SI diseasewww.nixonequinevets.com
  35. 35. SHALLOW GIRTH POOR LUNG CAPACITYwww.nixonequinevets.com
  36. 36. Slab Sided Narrow Pelvis Ribcage Good horizontal surface for saddle panels Weakwww.nixonequinevets.com
  37. 37. THE FORELEGS  MAINTENANCE OF RHYTHM IN ALL PACES IS FUNDAMENTAL  LONGER LEGS → i GREATER VARIETY IN STRIDE LENGTH ii EXTEND MORE EASILY WITHOUT RAISING FREQUENCY OF STRIDEwww.nixonequinevets.com
  38. 38. THE FEET 1  SLIGHTLY ODD FRONT FEET  ESPECIALLY HEEL DEPTH  NO HEEL SUPPORT  WEAK HOOF CAPSULES  SIGN OF LAMINITIS  UNEVEN HEEL DEPTH → Uneven scapular height → Asymmetrical Shoulders re: saddle fitwww.nixonequinevets.com
  39. 39. THE FEET 2  NAVICULAR SYNDROME  LATEST RESEARCH DR S DYSON 2011  FIN AND FRESIAN HORSES LOW FLAT AND CONVEX  DUTCH WARMBLOODS HIGH CONCAVE AND UNDULATING  * More Research required into sensory nerve supply of the Navicular Bone. The syndrome does not seem to be related to foot shape!www.nixonequinevets.com
  40. 40. SHOULDERS Breed susceptibility to  overloading → laminitis → poor saddle fit Asymmetrical scapular cartilage → difficult to fit saddlewww.nixonequinevets.com
  41. 41. The Competition Horse conformational faults  ALL rotational and angular limb deformities out 8/10 rule  Overdeveloped muscles indicate → lameness behindwww.nixonequinevets.com
  42. 42. NORMALwww.nixonequinevets.com
  43. 43. BACK AT THE KNEEwww.nixonequinevets.com
  44. 44. BACK AT THE KNEE Back at the Normal Kneewww.nixonequinevets.com
  45. 45. BACK AT THE KNEEwww.nixonequinevets.com
  46. 46. FAULTS PREDISPOSING TO SPLINTS Offset Knees Bow Legs Knocked Kneeswww.nixonequinevets.com
  47. 47. THE HINDQUARTERS  The flatter the pelvis  → More muscle  → Greater strength and flexibility  STRAIGHT HIND LEGS → Unable to come under the horse  ACUTE HOCK ANGLE → Less able to carry weight  TARSAL VALGUS → Risk of Pelvic fractureswww.nixonequinevets.com
  48. 48. The Competition Horse conformational faults Quarters width should be parallel with thighs HINDLEG NORMAL HOCKwww.nixonequinevets.com
  49. 49. HINDLEG CONFORMATION FAULTS PREDISPOSED TO HIGH SUSPENSION DISMITIS AS SEEN IN ANDULASIAN Straight Hocks AND PASAFINOSwww.nixonequinevets.com
  50. 50. HOCK CONFORMATION Cow Hocks Sickle Hocks Pre-dispose to Pre-dispose to Pelvic Fractures Curbswww.nixonequinevets.com
  51. 51. CURB ANATOMY APPEARANCEwww.nixonequinevets.com
  52. 52. DEFINITION OF A CURB  COMPLEX OF SOFT TISSUE INJURIES ON BACK OF THE HOCK JOINTS  CONFORMATIONAL BONY ABNORMALITIES AND/OR INJURIES MAY MIMIC AND CONTRIBUTE EVENTUALLY TO CURB FORMATION  CAUSING UNDER PERFORMANCE AND LAMENESSwww.nixonequinevets.com
  53. 53. PASTERNS  SLOPING → OVEREXTENDED FETLOCK  → STRAIN UP THE WHOLE OF THE BACK OF THE LEG TO THE PELVIS AND BACK  UPRIGHT → JARRING OF JOINTS ESPECIALLY FETLOCK → ARTICULAR AND TENDINOUS WINDGALLSwww.nixonequinevets.com
  54. 54. HIND FEET BALANCE  MORE IMPORTANT THAN FORELEGS BECAUSE HIND LIMBS ATTACHED TO AXIAL SKELETON AT SI JOINT  LONG TOE/LOW HEEL → SLOWS BREAKOVER → PELVIC PAIN  MEDIO LATERAL INBALANCE  → HIND LIMB TORQUE  → PELVIC ASYMETRY  → BACK PAINwww.nixonequinevets.com
  55. 55. DISCIPLINE INDUCED ORTHAPAEDIC RISK (AHT 2006)  S.J. ↑ INJURY SOFT BELOW FETLOCK) REPEATED STRAIN ON  SOFT FORELEGS ) LANDING OVER HIGH  FENCES  DRESSAGE ↑ HINDLEG HIGH SUSPENSORY ) EXTRAVAGANT  DESMITIS ) MOVEMENT AND  ) COLLECTION  GOOD CONFORMATION WILL DECREASE THE RISKwww.nixonequinevets.com
  56. 56. Examples of conformation faults causing multifactorial problems in the Competition Horsewww.nixonequinevets.com
  57. 57.  HEAD CONFORMATION → JAW JOINT PAIN  → One sidedness  → Head Tilt  → Uneven back muscle development  → Poor saddle fit  → Hind leg lamenesswww.nixonequinevets.com
  58. 58.  Heel of one front foot deeper than the other  High heeled foot → ↓ Shoulder blade → Poor Saddle fit ↓ ↓  → Suspensory ligament pain → Uneven loading of back ↓ Hind leg lamenesswww.nixonequinevets.com
  59. 59.  Straight hind leg conformation →  Upward fixating patellla →  Gaskin MM → Asymmetrical pelvis  → S I Pain  → ↓ Impulsion  → Forehand M M  →Foreleg lamenesswww.nixonequinevets.com
  60. 60. Equine Development and Welfare is dependent upon EDUCATION &TRAININGwww.nixonequinevets.com
  61. 61. ‘TO MEASURE IS TO KNOW’  What is NOT new ;  BALANCE  1 routine monitoring for early identification of problems.www.nixonequinevets.com
  62. 62. BALANCE 2 monitor rider position Forehand = fluidity //hindquaters =stabilitywww.nixonequinevets.com
  63. 63. www.nixonequinevets.com
  64. 64. What IS new ; /pacing anytime Fairfax girthwww.nixonequinevets.com
  65. 65. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION ANY QUESTIONS PLEASE? www.nixonequinevetconsultancy.com  please phone 07713342416 anytimewww.nixonequinevets.com

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