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  • 1. Pursuit of coherenceVision towards more compact and cohesive regional spatial development. Case of KaunasDelft University of TechnologyP2 reportViktorija Gailiūtė4187601victoria.gailiute@gmail.com23 January 2013
  • 2. P2 report Studio Coplex Cities and Regions in Transformations Key words: Date: 23 January 2013 Studio supervisors: Prof Vincent Nadin, Francisco Regional spatial strategy, compact development, Delft University of Technology Colombo, Dr Akkelies van Nes, Dr Qu Lei, Dr Stephen rural areas, economic, social and environmental Faculty of Architecture Read, Dr Roberto Rocco, Dr Diego Sepulveda sustainability Department of Urbanism Chair of Spatial Planning and Strategy Contact: Studio Complex Cities and Regions in Transformation Dr. D.A. Sepulveda Carmona T: +31 (0)15 27 87919 Author E: Viktorija Gailiūtė Dr. S.A. Read 4187601 T: +31 (0)15 27 88859 E: Mentor team Chair: Spatial Planning and Strategy 1st mentor: dr Roberto Rocco Chair: Cultural History and Design 2nd mentor: Prof. Eric Luiten urbanism Image on the front cover by author2
  • 3. PrefaceThis report including thesis plan is written withinthe framework of the graduation Studio ComplexCities and Regions in Transformation in the TechnicalUniversity Delft, Faculty of Architecture, departmentof Urbanism in MSc 3 and MSc 4. This documentexplains the framework for the development ofthe research and analysis which will lead to thegraduation project. It will be used as a guidance forthe graduation track in direction to the Master thesis.This document is intended for the examination (P2) ofthe graduation track. 3
  • 4. 4
  • 5. Table of contents1. Introduction 7 3. Kaunas region 531.1 Motivation 9 3.1 Introduction 551.2 Context 11 3.2 Green structure 561.3 Problem field 13 3.3 Ecological network 571.4 Aim and goal of the project 21 3.4 Traffic network 581.5 Research questions 22 3.5 Economic network 591.6 Societal and academic relevance 23 3.6 Daily urban system 611.7 Theoretical framework 25 3.7 Work framework for the strategy 621.8 Involved disciplines 26 3.8 Regional planning in Lithuania 631.9 Methodology 27 3.9 Rural development policies 641.10 Time schedule 28 3.10 Rural development policies1.11 Preliminary literature 29 in Lithuania 652. Research 33 4. Rural definition 672.1 Introduction 35 4.1 Transformation of typologies in Eu 692.2 Spatial transformations during 4.2 Classification at national level 73socialism 37 4.3 Current rural definition in LT 752.3 New challenges for a country 412.4 Democracy and new planningsystem 422.5 Free-market economy 472.6 Demographic peocesses 50 Left Impression showing alternative functions in the village. Source: Image by author 5
  • 6. “Spot master plans” near Kaunas city Source:
  • 7. 1. Introduction 7
  • 8. 8
  • 9. Motivation 1.1“Traditionally cities were at the core of their hinterland The motivation for this thesis is two fold. Firstly it Why spatial planning?regions, linked to smaller towns and settlements originates from a desire to understand the effects of Rural and urban areas become complex andthrough a pattern of radial routes and a hierarchy of spatial transformations taken place after regained diverse systems with growing economic, social andcentres revolving in a centripetal fashion around the independency in Lithuania and possible methods for spatial interrelations. Separated urban and ruralregional core. Place effects were experienced through addressing them. Secondly, it arises from a belief, that development cannot ensure coherent region growthdimension of physical proximity. The closer were two if urban and rural development was more integrated, anymore, therefore integrated strategic spatialphenomena in actual space, the greater their impact it could provide better accessibility of services and planning becomes an important tool to organiseon each other. The city centre was seen as the site of amenities for the rural society and ensure economic the city regions and to ensure economic, spatial andgreatest synergy, and the periphery site of greatest vitality of rural areas while sustaining more cohesive environment sustainability.isolation. In recent years, however, a new regional economic, spatial and social growth of the regions in As Healey describes, the term “spatial planning” refersgeography has developed to explore the dynamic Lithuania. to:complexity of various relational webs which transect self-conscious collective efforts to re-imagineurban areas.” (Healey, 2007) Choice: Complex Cities a city, urban region or wider territory and to Until recently spatial policies and strategies had translate the result into priorities for areaUrbanization accelerates at increasing speed, when envisioned urban and rural development as separate investment, conservation measures, strategicrural turns urban at the pace it is hard to imagine. spatial entities, where the cities were surrounded infrastructure investments and principles ofThough this process is almost finished in Europe, by green, open landscape and rural development land use regulation. The term “spatial” bringsstill a considerable amount of population lives in the was bound to the agriculture activities (Hidding and into focus the “where of things”, whether theareas, which are called “rural”. Moreover after many Teunissen, 2002; Korf and Oughton, 2006; Terluin, static or in the movement; the protection ofdecades of urban expansion, a growth of the rural 2003). However as current dynamics of the network special “places” and sites; the interrelationsareas re-appears (Clark, 2003) as a consequence of society and growing complexity of spatial organization between different activities and networksspatial processes of globalization. Rural areas are not within and between urban-rural regions indicates - in an area; and significant intersections andplace of production anymore; instead, they became as “rural development is no longer the ‘monopoly of the nodes in an area which are physically co-complex as urban systems, dealing with interrelated farmers’” (Korf and Oughton, 2006, p. 278). Instead, located (Healey, 2004, p. 46).issues of social well-being, economic growth, ecology according to Gallent et al. (2008) rural spaces becomeand sustainable growth, energy production and many “increasingly important to regional economies and toothers. environmental quality and liveability”(p. 28).LeftImpresion showing alternative future for the villageas science and research centre.Source: Image by author 9
  • 10. Former East Block coutries Central and Eastern Europe Scheme of the main transportation axes in Lithuania. Bowth of them crosses Kaunas region. Source: Lietuvos keliu direkcija Map of Europe: Central and Eastern Europen countries source: Cartographic Research Lab University of Alabama; The Regional Environmental Centre for Central and Eastern Europe, 2010 drawing by Vytas Buinevicius10
  • 11. Context 1.2Geographical context PlanningLithuania is a country in the North-East Europe. It is a The new planning system was introduced in 1995part of The Baltic Sea Region and the southernmost - during the period of developing marker andcountry of the Baltic states, situated on the eastern democracy and it is still being shaped.side of the Baltic sea. With the position on the edge of Due to considerably new urban planning andthe central Europe Lithuania holds a strategic location management system, spatial patterns in Lithuaniain the region, functioning as the transition south- changes rapidly. Similarly to many cities of Central andnorth and east-west directions. Eastern Europe, urbanisation level increases despite the fact that already nearly 70% of inhabitants live inDemography the cities.With the population of 3 043 000 inhabitants and areaof 65 300 km2 Lithuania is the largest of the Factsheet:Baltic States. However since the last decade total Lithuania [Lietuva]number of inhabitants in Lithuania is shrinking. language: LithuanianAccording to Eurostat prognosis, only 2.5 million capital: Vilniusinhabitants will live in this country by the year 2060. population: 3 043 429 inh.Furthermore predictions show that the number of area: 65 300 km2elderly people of retiring age has greatly grown up density: 46.6 inh/km2(dependence on the factor will increase three times)and the possibility to use public funds for infrastructure source: Department of Statistics, will be continuously decreasing. (2010)Political-economical contextOn March 11, 1990 Lithuania re-established theindependent state declaring independence from theUSSR. In the political- economical context of the post-communist countries Lithuania is regarded as a Centraland Eastern European Country (CEE), not as FormerSoviet Union (FSU) country as not being a memberof Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Since2004 Lithuania is also a member of European Union(EU) and NATO. 11
  • 12. Past two decades have marked significant political, socio-economic, spatial and cultural changes in Lithuania as well as in other post-socialist countries (Kay, Shubin, & Thelen, 2012). Yet despite the historical legacy, on-going spatial transformations in the urban and rural areas in Lithuania are similar to the processes occurring in many capitalist based countries. Driven by free-market economy, increasing importance of networks and competition for global attention, economic growth concentrates in urban regions while creating vacuum in the periphery, thus economic and social disparities between urban and rural areas become even greater now than during the socialist regime (Tsenkova, 2006). Moreover lack of public planning, individual pursue of fast economic profit, dependency on private transportation, societal norms and increasing life standards result in rapid suburban expansion around previously compact cities and increasing tension between urban and rural areas.12
  • 13. Problem field 1.3 Backwardness of remote rural areasOn the one hand locations with highest concentrationof population, skilled labour, capital and accessto global communication- the capital and the fewlargest urban centres attracts people, concentratesurban activities and experience economic growth(Stanilov, 2007). Whereas development of the ruralareas is largely dependent on their proximity to theurban centre: remote rural areas experience economicand social backwardness comparing to urban regions,underinvestment and decay or even desertion of ruralsettlements due to extreme rural population loses. Income differences between growing regions and peripheral rural ares indicates the increasing gap Foreign direct investment per district shows even between economic development as well. higher disparities between economic growth between Source: Department of Statistics, the regions. (2010) Source: Department of Statistics, regions (2010) Rural Rural-urban UrbanUnattractive regions Rural Rural-urban UrbanThis scheme above shows the most attractive andunattractive regions. Mapping is based on netomigration saldo from and to the region for 2006-2008.Attractive regions that have population growth, arethose in the vicinity of urban centre. The rest regionsin most cases looses population. Previous pageSource: Lithuanian Institute of Agrarian Economics, Abandoned village. Some rights reserved by2010 cindy47452, source: 13
  • 14. 14
  • 15. 1.3 home Homogeneity of rural areas close to the city C C Secon- daryDue to a vicinity of an urban centre other rural C Secon- dary Culturareas experience population growth and increasing home Primary school Primary Primary Secon- High Secon- school school dary dary school High C Voca- tional school Cuse of a landscapes through spatial and economic Secon- dary Primary school Cdevelopment and growing recreational industry. High school C Cultur home Secon- dary Cultur home KinderHowever proximity of urban centre has negative Secon- garden dary C Secon- dary Cultur Secon- home dary Secon- dary Primary C school C Ceffects on rural development as well: due to sparse Secon- dary C High school C Primary school Secon- daryrural population and better-developed service sector Kinder garden Cultur Primary home school C C Kinder High Secon- Cultur C Primary garden school school dary homein the cities, services in adjacent rural areas encounter C C Primary school Primary Primary Secon- High school school dary High school school Primary C Voca- school U tional Secon- Kinder Primary school Cultur Primary school Cdifficulties to sustain. Vicinity of urban centre creates home dary garden Voca- Kinder Cultur tional garden Primary home Primary school Secon- High Voca- High C school dary Sana school tional school torium C Secon- C Secon- C dary darydependency on the city for employment, accessibilityof commercial and social services and cultural Secon- dary Primary Primary school school C Kinder garden C Secon- dary Cultur Secon- home dary Kinder Kinder garden garden C High schoolactivities thus increasing homogeneity in rural areas. C Primary school C High Kinder Kinder garden school garden Kinder Primary Primary Primary garden school school school Voca- Kinder High C Co High tional garden Kinder school school C High C C Secon- garden school C C daryKaunas District Development Strategy (2008) states Kinder Secon- Primary Primary High Secon- Secon- Primary Primary High garden dary school school dary dary school school High school school school Sana High High High High High Secon- Secon- High High High Secon- C Secon- dary dary dary torium school school school school school school school school dary Kinder garden Co High Primary Primary High High Secon- Kinder High High High dary school school school school school school school school CCo garden High High High Primary Secon- Secon- Secon- Primary Secon- school school dary dary dary school dary school school C High CHigh High Co High school U school school Primarythat already 42 per cent of towns can be counted as school Secon- C High C school dary school school U school U school High High High Kinder Primary garden school school Co school U High High Secon- High dary U Primary High school Secon- school C school Primary High dary High school C High school school Kinder Sana garden school High torium C Primary school school Primary High Primary Primary Secon- High Primarysatellite cities –sleeping areas of Kaunas. school dary school school school Secon- school school Sana dary High Voca- C torium High Secon- dary school tional school U Co Kinder Secon- Secon- garden Primary High dary dary school school Primary Primary school Co C school Kinder garden High school C Secon- Secon- dary U dary C Secon- dary High school Primary school C HighAs map on the closer right indicates, these sattelite school Primary school Primary school C High Primary school school C Secon- dary C Primarycities are located on the highest accessibility routes school Secon- n- Secon- dary Cultur home dary C C High school High school C Secon- High C dary school- highways, or in the beautiful environment - near Secon- dary C Secon- dary Secon- daryrivers, lakes, yet still close to the city. High Cultur school home Secon- dary Secon- dary Secon- dary C Secon- dary C Secon- dary Secon- High dary school Secon- Voca- tional C dary Secon- dary Sana torium Secon- dary C C C High school C Secon- High dary school Secon- dary Secon- dary Above The map above shows organisation of health care, location of settlements that developed high educational and cultural services in Kaunas region. dependency on the city. Bigger settlement and cities can provide these Source: image by author activities, however many dispersed household are quite remote from them. Source: image by authorPrevious page“Spot master plans” near Kaunas citySource: 15
  • 16. “Spot master plans” near Kaunas city Source:
  • 17. 1.3 SuburbanisaionOn the other hand, process of suburbanization Map on the left indicates new areas, where, according Due to insufficient civic planning perspective,disperses previously compact cities and changes to comprehensive plans of the municipalities, suburban areas are extremely mono-functionalurban pattern. Suburban expansion consumes agricultural land use can be changed to residential. with little physical, economic and social diversityagricultural land and fragments the landscape. Major developers in Lithuania are private investors and activities. Moreover, due to a suburban growth, that favours small scale development. Not all areas maintenance of infrastructure, public transportation will be converted , but it is most likely that owners and social services in suburbs become less effective of the best accessible areas will use their chance to and more costly for a city, thus increasing demand for pursue short term profit and built a house to sell. It private transportation furthermore. means that the landscape will become even more fragmented than it is now. Images on the left (p.16) illustrates the consequence of “spot master plans” - plans that appear due to considerably easy process of land use change. Scheme below indicates the trends of land use change from rural towards urban in the last two decades. Residential areas, that appear inween the agricultural land usually have no city infrastructure, or basic services, like water, sewage, internet, cable.Areas, where land use change to residential use is Land designated for constructionpossible Source: Department of Statistics, AboveSource: image by author (2010) Author: Tadas Jonauskis 17
  • 18. 18
  • 19. 1.3 Deconcentration of inner cityLastly suburban sprawl not only changes rural Recent official statistical data shows that only one citylandscape around the cities but also strongly affects - capital Vilnius manages to hold unchanging numberthe inner city as well. Social mix, achieved due to of residents. The rest cities experience populationsocialist regime, decreases as richer and more mobile loses. Kaunas among them experience considerablepeople exchange the city life to the suburban dream loss of inhabitants - between 2001-2009 decreaseleaving weaker social class in the inner city. Secondly of population in Kaunas was 17%. It is nearly 67 400as the inner city depopulates, its residential areas start inhabitants. The large amount of this migration endsdecaying, thus making the city even less attractive to in the suburban areas around Kaunas.stay.The graph below shows that major growth between1959 - 1989 and 2001-2009 was in the cities, whilelater growth is orientied only in the suburbs. -17% + 8.7% Source: Department of Statistics, (2010) Author: Vytas BuineviciusAboveUrban and suburban growth before and after Previous pageindependency Decaying buildings in the inner citySource: Department of Statistics, Source: php?p=129977 19
  • 20. R=30km Product: regional spatial strategy R=10km Product: elaborated strategy in selected area R=3km Product: design for specific settlement Spatial strategy for kaunas region Source: http://www.kaunoplanas.lt20
  • 21. Aim and goal of the project 1.4Aim of the master thesis • to develop an approach, which addresses The final product will be based on a planning and these spatial changes in urban regions through design through three different scales:The major aim of the master thesis is to learn the more compact urban development while 1. Spatial strategy based on long-term visionprinciples of academic research in the field of supporting economic, social and environmental for Kaunas regional development will provideurbanism and to develop critical and analytical skills sustainability in the region. guidelines for urban development and environmentneccessary in the practice or academic work in the protection from its negative impactsareas of spatial planning and urban design. Outcomes of the research will facilitate the spatial 2. It will be elaborated in more detail in aThis master thesis intends to provide an insight to planning, which intends to answer the main research selected area, which has highest demand for newa variety of research methods and techniques and question: urbanisation and where conflicts between urban andpractice them in academic field. • to optimize urban growth; rural development are the strongest.Lastly the thesis aims to understand the governance • to ensure accessibility of services to rural society 3. Concept of more organised and compactprinciples of urban region and planning tools, which and urbanisation patterns will be developed and testedcould be applied to the region. • to strengthen economic vitality of the rural areas through a design in selected rural settlements. while increasing environmental qualities and The research and analysis leading to the draft ofProject objectives assets of the region. regional spatial strategy will be presented in a thesis plan for P2 presentation.Project objectives reffer to the main elements of the Lastly the main objective of design for selected The final project report for P5 will include:project, particularly to research, strategy and design. settlement is to illustrate possible and desirable • Completed research and analysis ofThe main objectives of research are : outputs of the strategy. literature regarding a) political, economic, social and• to understand current spatial transformations, spatial trends applying both to the urban as well as underlaying reasons and their effects in the rural areas in the post-socialist countries; b) rural urban regions in Lithuania and development theories; c) current regional and rural development policies, strategies and d) network based development and landscape urbanism theories. • Regional spatial strategy and design, elaborated through three different scales from the region to the settlement. • Impact evaluation of spatial strategy for Kaunas region and its applicability to other regions.LeftDifferent scales for spatial strategy, its elaborationand design 21
  • 22. Research questions1.5 Main research question Sub-research questions During the research and analysis of the region and of existing body of literature on urban and regional The main research question arises from the two spatial Following sub-questions will be answered to define development, specific question arise. These questions development issues, namely, increasing economic certain issues related to the main research question. will be answered in order get better understanding and social inequalities between urban and rural areas on issues, regarding spatial development in Kaunas and suburban expansion into the rural landscapes: What characteristics define an urban region and can region: this definition be applied to Kaunas region? What rural definition applies in Lithuania’s plannig How to manage the future urban growth To what extent legal acts and planning can influence system and how does it influence on-going regional and ensure accessibility of services to spatial development of the region? development policies and strategies? rural inhabitants through regional spatial What defines rural economy in Kaunas region? How can landscape urbanism theory be adapted to strategy, while strengthening rural economy a region with low density and sparse development What are natural environment assets that could form a patterns? and improving environmental quality in backbone for region strategy in Kaunas? Kaunas region? Source: Image by author22
  • 23. Societal and academic relevance 1.6As current dynamics of the network society and in the rural environment should become equally age an vill nce”growing complexity of spatial organization within important to urban development while seeking aniand between urban-rural regions indicates - “rural cohesion between rural and urban areas.development is no longer the ‘monopoly of the The researches on spread of post-socialist cities “Lithu on-exista onfarmers’” (Korf and Oughton, 2006, p. 278). Instead, are quite new. Analyses of Daily Urban Systems ofaccording to Gallent et al. (2008) rural spaces become“increasingly important to regional economies and to Ljubljana and Belgrade (Pichler-Milanovic and Krevs, 2010; Stamenkovic and Gataric, 2010) are one of few s i nks intenvironmental quality and liveability” (p. 28). early examples of the urban region in post-socialistYet in Lithuania’s’ case, the post-industrial reality countries. In Lithuania, only Vilnius region has beenwhere there is no fundamental living quality analysed in similar manner (Ubareničienė, Burneikadifferences between the village and the city, is yet and Kriaučiūnas, 2011).to come: remote rural regions experience economic This thesis aims to develop a vision for a more balancedand social backwardness comparing to urban ones, and compact regional growth that would ensureunderinvestment and decay or even desertion of accessibility for services to rural society, strengthen Printschreen from newspaper website. Title saysrural settlements due to extreme rural population rural economic diversification while improving natural “Lithuanian village sinks to nonexistence. Source:loses. While lack of planning perspective, individual environment qualities in the region. www.lzinios.ltpursue of fast economic profit, dependency on Project intends to add collected academic andprivate transportation, societal norms and increasing empirical observations, gained during the research,life standards result in rapid suburban expansion planning and design, to the existing body ofaround previously compact cities and increasing knowledge of regional development concepts in post-tension in land use between urban and rural areas socialist countries, hoping that it would contributeby consuming and fragmenting the landscape and to more integrated spatial-economic regionalincreasing economic and social homogeneity of rural development strategies in the future.settlements. Lastly the regional spatial strategy for Kaunas regionThese economic and spatial processes affect nearly could be adapted to other regions in Lithuania thata million rural inhabitants and are incompatible face similar issues of unbalanced economic andwith a country’s pursue for economic, social and spatial growth and rural population outmigration.environmental sustainable development goals set inComprehensive plan of the territory of the Republic ofLithuania (Ministry of Environment of the Republic ofLithuania, 2004). Rural areas can no longer be seen asplaces of production; instead environmental agenda,rural economic vitality and increasing physical quality 23
  • 24. This thesis is based on two main groups of theories. Theoretical framework Outcome Research, spatial planning The first one focuses on transformations in economic, and design spatial and social dimensions in socialist and post- Socialist city Literature review paper Research socialist cities and countries. The works of Stanilov Context, problem field Main spatial transformations (2007), Andrusz et al. (1996), Tsenkova (2006), Vanagas Post socialist city Thesis plan Trends and problems et al. (2002) Kay et al. (2012) among others are analysed Research questions to form a background for thesis plan. Project report Research approach (methodology) Second group of theories focus on later phase of the project, which includes defining the guidelines for Urban netoworks Vision for the region Research the spatial strategy and the strategy itself. This group Element Scale consists of the landscape urbanism(Waldheim, 2006), Landscape urbanism Guidelines for regional spatial strategy Socialist legacy National urban networks(Dupuy, 1998; Rocco, 2007) and rural Post-socialist city Regional Rural development concepts Urban region City development (Terluin, 2003; Ploeg and Renting, 2000, Urban networks Landscape networks Gallent et al., 2008). Rural developmet Regional spatial strategy Design proposal for the Planning and design settlement Regional spatial strategy Urban design Evaluation Above Principal scheme of project framework Source: Image by author Right Images group 1. Theories on post-socialist cities. Images group 2. Theories on urban networks, landscape urbanism and rural development. 2 1 Source:; www.scopus.com24
  • 25. Theoretical framework 1.7Landscape urbanism aims at an integrated approach ofthe urban and nature functions, where infrastructureas carrying structure to organise different functions“does open up possibilities for new combinationsof rural and urban development” (Hidding andTeunissen, 2002, p. 302).Urban networks development concept, accordingto Hidding and Teunissen (2002) can help achievinga more balanced regional development as they“subscribe to principles like concentration ofurban functions, spatial differentiation and spatialcoherence” (p. 307). Similarly polycentric developmentaims at “diminishing urban disparities to enhancecohesion” (Meijers et al., 2007, p. 4).Although in general network and polycentricconcepts are aimed at European and national scales,they can contribute to regional development throughimproving urban-rural partnership and strengtheninglinks between agricultural and non-agriculturalsectors. As Murdoch (2000) states, rural developmentstrategies have to benefit from networks bystrengthening rural economies. The levels of spatial analyses based on the Levels Scheme above briefly explanes city landscape of Network Operation (Dupuy, 1998) with two concept, which preserves qualities of a landscape supplementary levels: The First Nature and while constructing urban development Governance. Image by Rocco, 2007 Source: (Hidding and Teunissen, 2002) Source: (Rocco, 2007) 25
  • 26. Involved disciplines 1.8 Chair: Spatial Planning & Strategy Literature review First mentor: Roberto Rocco Statistics and data Roberto Rocco is specialised in regional planning in the framework of emerging city regions and analyses metropolises under conditions of globalisation. His background is on spatial planning and new economic Mapping geography applied to strategic planning. He is particularly interested in the planning and governance of networked city regions like the Randstad. He also SWOT analyses specialises in research methodology and academic writing skills. Chair: Cultural History & Design Interviews and Second mentor: Prof. Eric Luiten observations Prof. Eric Luiten is landscape architect and strategic planner with experience on the regional scale. His research focuses on landscape and urban heritage preservation and revitalisation in the context of spatial transformations. Research Urban and Regional development Urban design Design Ecology Sustainable development Rural development Evaluation26
  • 27. Methodology 1.9Literature and case studies Statistical data ObservationsIn the large body of literature on rural transformations Statistical information on economic profile, General observation about the issues and problemsin the post-socialist countries, rural changes are demographic processes and spatial restructuring in the region will be made from personal experience,mostly explored through a narrow perspective of an will help to evaluate current trends in the region. since I am familiar with region as a former resident ofagricultural and land ownership reforms (Kay et al., Information will be used from official department Kaunas.2012). However the fundamental political, economic, of statistics of Lithuania (2005) and Statistical Officesocial and spatial trends apply both to the urban as of the European Union (Eurostat, 2012). Additional Design/ drawingwell as rural areas and are highlighted in the literature information from regional policy documents (Kauno Design proposal a method of communicatingexploring post-socialist cities by Stanilov (2007), Rajono Vietos Veiklos Grupė, 2008) (Ministry of between a strategy and its implementation will beTsenkova (2006) Andrusz et al. (2011) Vanagas et Agriculture, 2007) and others) will be used in case of used to test whether a strategy is viable and suitableal. (2002) and others. Rural development concepts a lack of data. for an area. This evaluation can be used in reversedand economic, spatial and social rural development order as well: strategy can be improved according toperspectives by contrast, are well documented in a Mapping the region a design proposal.large volume of works. Works of Terluin (2003), Ploeg Mapping will be used to show results of analyses ofand Renting (2000), Hidding and Teunissen (2002), statistical data. Analysis on the Kaunas region sizeKorf and Oughton (2006) among others will be studied and its influence to the surrounding rural areas will beas their researches provide comparative review and translated into drawings as well.critical analyses of European rural developmenttheories and practices. Literature regarding network Interviews and questionnairesbased development model and landscape urbanism Practical knowledge about specific issues concerningtheory will be reviewed to form draft guidelines for a the development plans of the citiy and its region willregional spatial strategy. be obtained through interviews with governmentalAdditionally, current regional and rural development officials. Interview in a form of questionnaire will bepolicies, strategies and their evaluations (when proceeded during the site visit to get the opinionavailable) will be reviewed to understand to what about their living conditions from local residents.extent do they impact development in Kaunas regionand whether they bring positive effects to sustainable SWOT analysisregional development. It is hoped that successful SWOT analysis will explore the weaknesses anddevelopment examples in terms of economic, social threats of current urban structure in rural areas withand environmental sustainability, will give an insight and provides the support for regional spatial strategy Leftto which direction could rural areas in Lithuania by revealing area’s strengths and opportunities. Scheme, explaning relation among research, designdevelop and what economic and spatial consequences and evaluation stagesit would bring to them. Source: Image by author 27
  • 28. Time schedule1.10 Design Concept of a regional strategy Regional strategy Elaboration of regional final design refinement strategy in detail Evaluation of in selected area regional strategy Problem statement & through research Design for Defining main research question research questions and sub-research questions questions selected settlement Analysis of : Evaluation of design - rural development theories - regional / rural development policies and strategies - network based development model Conclusions - landscape urbanism theory Literature review on: political, economic, social and spatial transformations in post-socialist countries Literature review paper Graduation plan Project report Research Thesis plan Project report Final thesis report and analysis 2 weeks before P1 1 week before P2 P3 1 week before P4 1 week before P5 Scheme showing intended time schedule of the project. Scheme by author28
  • 29. Preliminary literature1 1.11Andersen, E., Elbersen, B., Godeschalk, F., and Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications agriculture/rurdev/countries/lt/index_ Verhoog, D. (2007). Farm management of the European Communities. en.htm indicators and farm typologies as a basis Council. (2006, February 20). Community European Communities. (2009). Common for assessments in a changing policy strategic guidelines for rural development policies. Retrieved November 20, 2012 from environment. Journal of environmental (programming period 2007 to 2013). European Parliament: http://circa.europa. management , 82, 353-362. Retrieved November 20, 2012 from eu/irc/opoce/fact_sheets/info/data/Andrusz, G., Harloe, M., and Szelenyi, I. (Eds.), European Union: http://eur-lex. policies/agriculture/article_7208_en.htm (2011). Cities After Socialism: Urban and Eurostat. (2012). Eurostat. Retrieved Oktober 16, Regional Change and Conflict in Post- do?uri=CELEX:32006D0144:EN:NOT 2012 from Socialist Societies. Oxford: Blackwell Department of Statistics. (2005, January 1). eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/search_ Publishers Ltd. Retrieved October 30, 2012 from Statistics databaseBachtler , J., and Downes, R. (1993). Regional Lithuania: Gallent, N., Juntti, M., Kidd, S., and Shaw, D. Socio-Economic Development in Poland, Derkzen, P., and Wiskerke, H. (2008). Country (2008). Introduction to Rural Planning. Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. profile on rural characteristics Netherlands Chippenham, Wiltshire: Routledge. Report to the European Commission, . Retrieved October 16, 2012 from Rural Halfacree, K. (1993). Locality and social DGXVI. development Impacts: http://www.rudi- representation: space, discourse andBardauskienė, D., and Pakalnis, M. (2012). alternative definitions of the rural . Journal Foresighted Urban Planning . WP1_Report_01.pdf of Rural Studies , 9 (1), 23-37. Environmental Research, Engineering and Dijkstra, L., and Poelman, H. (2008). Remote Rural Hamilton, F., and Andrews, K. D. (2005). Management , 1 (59), 62-72. Regions. How proximity to a city influences Transformation Of Cities In Central AndBebbington, A. (2001). In Development: Rural the performance of rural regions. Retrieved Eastern Europe: Towards Globalization. Development Strategies (pp. 3578-3583). November 28, 2012 from Regional Focus: Michigan: United Nations University Press. Elsevier Science Ltd. Healey, P. (2004). The treatment of space andBuinevičius, V. (2011). Exploring potentials sources/docgener/focus/2008_01_rural.pdf place in the new strategic spatial planning of the post socialist city. Available at: Downes, R. (1996). Economic transformation in Europe. International Journal of Urban in Central and Eastern Europe: The role of and Regional Research (14), 45-67. uuid%3Ae01358fb-1c8f-489a-8e6b- regional development. European Planning Healey, P. (2007). Urban Complexity and Spatial a06b3f21c121/. Studies , 4 (2), 217-244. Strategies: Towards a relational planningClark, D. (2003). Urban World/ Global City. European Commission. (2010). National Rural four our times. Trowbridge, Wiltshire: Wiltshire: The Cromwell Press. Development programme. Mid-term Cromwell Press.Copus, A., Psaltopoulos, D., Skuras, D., Terluin, evaluation report - summary. Retrieved Hidding, M. C., and Teunissen, A. T. (2002). I., and Weingarten, P. (2008). Approaches November 22, 2012 from Agricultural and Beyond fragmentation: new concepts for to Rural Typology in the European Union. Rural Development: urban-rural development. Landscape andIncluding the literature from following pages1 29
  • 30. Urban Planning , 58, 297-308. 2007-2013. Ministry of Agriculture. Plessis, V., Beshiri, R., and Bollman, R. (2001). Juškevičius, P. (2003). Miestų Planavimas. Vilnius: Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Rural and Small Town Canada Analysis Technika. Lithuania. (2004). Comprehensive plan of the Bulletin. Agriculture Division of Statistics Jonauskis, T. (2010). Lost in the city: Searching territory of the Republic of Lithuania. Vilnius: Canada. Ottawa, Ontario: Statistics Canada. for urban vitality in city centre of Kaunas. Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Racher, F. E., Vollman, A. R., and Annis, R. C. Available at: http:// Lithuania. (2004). Conceptualizations of “Rural”: uuid:8eecaffe-fb23-4142-900d-fcfe8b- Murdoch, J. (2000). Networks- a new paradigm Challenges and Implications for Nursing feab49. of rural development? Journal of Rural Research. Online Journal of Rural Nursing Kauno Rajono Vietos Veiklos Grupė. (2008). Studies , 16, 407-419. and Health Care , 4 (2), 61-77. Kauno Rajono Vietos Plėtros 2007-2013 Nordregio. (2011). Perspectives on rural Rocco, De Campos Pereira, R. (2007). An Strategija. Kaunas. development in the Nordic countries. Urban Geography of Globalisation . Delft: Kay, R., Shubin, S., and Thelen, T. (2012). Rural Retrieved October 18, 2012 from International Forum on Urbanism . realities in the post-socialist space . Journal NORDREGIO: Sailer-Fliege, U. (1999). Characteristics of post- of Rural Studies , 28 (2), 55-62. Publications/ socialist urban transformation in East Lietuvos Respublikos Seimas. (1994, July 19). Nuissl, H., and Rink, D. (2005). The ‘production’ Central Europe. GeoJournal , 49 (1), 7-16. Teritorijos administracinių vienetų ir jų ribų of urban sprawl in eastern Germany Schmidt, S. (2011). Sprawl without growth in įstatymas. Žin., 1994, Nr. I-558. Retrieved as a phenomenon of post-socialist Eastern Germany. Urban Geography , 32 (1), November 27, 2012 from Lietuvos transformation. Cities , 22 (2), 123-134. 105-128. Respublikos Seimas: http://www3.lrs. OECD. (1994). Creating rural indicators for Simion, G., and Nistor, C. (2012). Spatial lt/pls/inter3/dokpaieska.showdoc_l?p_ shaping territorial policies. Paris: OECD. structure changes inside post-communist id=369419 Pichler-Milanovic, N., and Krevs, M. (2010). Daily capital city of Bucharest. Human Lithuanian Institute of Agrarian Economics. Urban system in Ljubljana. In M. Krevs, Geographies , 6 (1), 79-89. (2010). Zalioji knyga. Lietuvos kaimo ateitis. D. Djordjevic , and N. Pichler-Milanovic, Stanilov, K. (2007). The Post - Socialist City (1st Vilnius Challenges of spatial development in ed.). Dordrecht: Springer. Lithuanian Institute of Agrarian Economics. Ljubljana and Belgrade. Ljubljana: Scientific Tötzer, T. (2008, February 8). Relationships (2012). Lietuvos regionu tipologijos Publishing House of the Faculty of Arts. between urban-periurban-rural regions: kaimiskumo aspektu. Vilnius Pizzoli, E., and Gong, X. (2007, October 13). first findings from the EU-project PLUREL. Meredith, D., and Salas Olmedo, M. (2012). How to Best Classify Rural and Urban? Retrieved November 27, 2012 from Understanding the potential role of spatial Retrieved November 14, 2012 from Fourth Austrian Research Centers GmbH - ARC: typologies in responding to the RURAGRI Call International Conference on Agriculture . Dublin: Teagasc . Statistics, National Bureau of Statistics of Terluin, I. j. (2003). Differences in economic Ministry of Agriculture. (2007). Rural China: development in rural regions of advances Development Programme for Lithuania icas/papers/P020071114325747190208.pdf countries: an overview and critical analysis30
  • 31. of theories. Journal of Rural Studies , 19, Lietuvos regionų tipologijos kaimiškumo 327-344. aspektu. Vilnius: Lietuvos agrarinėsTsenkova, S. (2006). Beyond transitions: ekonomikos institutas. Understanding urban change in post- Waldheim, C. (. (2006). The landscape urbanism socialist cities. In S. ed. Tsenkova, and reader . Princeton: Princeton Architectural Z. Nedovic-Budic, The Urban Mosaic of Press. Post-Socialist Europe. Space, Institutions Wirthmann, A. (2006, September 12). and Policy (pp. 21-50). Heidelberg: Physica- Experiences with grids in Eurostat. Retrieved Verlag. November 15, 2012 from Nordic Forum forUbarevičienė, R., Burneika, D., and Kriaučiūnas, Geo-statistics, Kongsvinger: http://www. E. (2011). The Sprawl of Vilnius City - Establishment and Analysis of Growing Urban Region. Annales Geographicae (43- 44), 96-107.Ulied, A., Biosca, O., and Rodrigo, R. (2010). Urban-rural narratives and spatial trends in Europe: the State of the Question. Barselona: Mcrit SL.Vanagas, J. (2003). Miestų teorija. Vilnius: Vilniaus Dailės Akademijos Leidykla.Vanagas, J., Krišjane, Z., Noorkoiv, R., and Staniūnas, E. (2002). Planning urban systems in Soviet times and in the era of transition: the case of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. (C. B. Nowosielska E., Ed.) Geographia Polonica , 75 (2).Vaznonis, V., and Čiūtaitė, D. (2010). Kaimo vietovių ekonominio konkurencingumo ir vietos gyventojų verslumo sąsajos. Management theory and studies for rural business and infrastructure , 22 (3), 181-188.Vidickienė, D., Melninkienė, R., Gedminaitė- Raudonė, Ž., and Ribašauskienė, E. (2012). 31
  • 32. Call for Independency Author: Gediminas Bartuška, source: http://www. ivykiu-minejimas-prie-televizijos-6549 On the right Shortages in department store in the capital, circa 1990s source: ir_frank_zappa32
  • 33. 2. Research 33
  • 34. 34
  • 35. Introduction 2.1To analyze the spatial patterns of post-socialist (Stanilov, 2007, p. 29-30)regional development one needs to begin with anunderstanding of the main principles of socialisturbanization, which determined the postwar patternsof regional growth in Central and Eastern Europe ina way markedly different from the logic of regionalspatial organization in the Western countries. Enyedihas described spatial development under socialismas “reverse urbanization,” in the sense that it was aprocess designed to concentrate growth in the largestregional centers at the expense of the development ofall other settlements (Enyedi, 1996).Many villages in the suburban periphery of the largesocialist cities were annexed in the 1960s and 1970sto the urban territory in order to increase the share ofthe urban population and to assure land reserves forfuture urban growth. This type of forced urbanizationcontrasted sharply with the one observed in WesternEurope, which proceeded “from below” as thegrowth of the largest centers was feeding from thedevelopment of the smaller settlements in the urbanhierarchy. While urbanization in Western Europereflected a long process of organic growth, undersocialist rule the growth of the urban settlementsin Eastern Europe depended on decisions made bythe state authorities on investments in a system ofplanned industrial centers. The role of cities was notdetermined by their importance as market places,but by their economic designation assigned in theCommunist Party headquarters. Thus, no marketbased economic relations between cities wereformed, which made the whole settlement networkvery vulnerable to system change. 35
  • 36. Map showing Lithuania’s possition in Soviet Union. From
  • 37. Spatial transformations during socialism 2.2 Spatial transformations due to the collective farmingAnnexation of the Eastern Block countries in 1940s Image below shows the town in Kaunas district, Collectivization was followed by large-scale landimmediately brought their spatial and economic Lithuania that was expanded and built-up with reclamation that was implemented in the followingstructures into line with the USSR. This meant uniform socialist housing to accommodate few decadesin order to provide more arable land.centralisation of the government and economic newcomers. During the occupation, Ziezmariai town Until 1978 2 million ha land was reclamed in Lithuaniarestructuring based on the principles of planned was the central settlement of Kaisiadoriai collective (which consist nearly one third of all area in a country).economy in the Soviet Union, with a disregard to the farms, specialized in horticulture and had largest Though economic objectives were reached (drainedlocal conditions, historical and national traditions and flower plantations in Lithuania. Today the small fields in some regions appeared to be as productiveeconomic efficiency (Stanilov, 2007). town is shrinking though the horticulture industry as in Western European countries, the effect for managed to survive restructuring. the environment was intense: regulation of waterDue to a strong political influence to economic state streams, destruction of valleys due to the constructionand planning, spatial changes between annexation of dams, and large-scale reclamation significantlyof Lithuania and its regained independency were reduced natural habitats, like meadows, marshesextremely rapid and large scale. and swamps, resulting in biodiversity decrease and damage to ecologic corridor systems.One of the major political drivers of the rural space Land reclamation was, and is, at times very strictlytransformation since 1940s were nationalisation, criticized. From the perspective of today’s conceptwhich resulted in the abolition of private property, of environmental exposures and requirements, landand the establishment of the collective farms. reclamation patterns should have been adapted toBetween 1940-1950s numbers of previous historically the landscape, not vice versa.formed villages were re-planned and adapted toserve as a central settlements and to accommodatemanagement and other major facilities of thecollective farms (Kocik, 1996). At the same time othervillages and farmsteads were abandoned due torelocation of rural inhabitants to central settlements(Vanagas et al., 2002). View to the central settlement of the collective farm in Kaunas district. Historical settlement was extended Destroyed river by the dam with socialist houses to accommodate new rural Source: workers. lietuva/2006-2011/node/26787e91. Source: (Buchaveckas, 1989) html?page=0%2C1&%24Version=1&%24Path=/ 37
  • 38. First picture on the left shows polycentric urban development model that was introducen in 1967 and implemented through centrally planned industrialization and forced migration. Second picture on the left show the outcomes of this planning. First picture on the right illustrates the urban expansion of rural settlements in lithuania, while picture below shows current condition of this estate. 1. Central collective farm’s settlement. Expanded with uniform socialist housing 1. Central place theory model adapted to Lithuania. Source: Author Vanagas J., source: (Vanagas, 2003) php?p=598630 1. Current condition of socialist housing in the rural areas. 2. Current urban structure in Lithuania in 2006. Source: Author Corine land Cover, source: http://eea.maps. php?p=598630 arcgis.com38
  • 39. 2.2 Spatial transformations due to the urbanisationBesides direct changes of the rural space, caused It is important to mention that such polycentric Residential extensions was the most significant ele-by collectivization and land reclamation, rural areas urbanisation was driven first and foremost by centrally ment of the socialist construction. This developmentwere affected by transformations of urban system as planned industrial growth. was based on the modernistic planning principleswell. In 1967 Lithuania introduced even development of highrise residential blocks in green surroundings.system based on Christaller’s central place theory, Possitive aspect of polycentric development model, However adapted to soviet ideology and practicalitieswhich enabled rapid urban population growth: in less that was implemented in Lithuania is that it halted such as shortage of housing, enforced industrializationthan 30 years (between 1940 and 1970) previously expansion of the biggest urban centres in this way and urbanization as well as limited financial capacities,considerable small urban population, reaching avoided growth of only one strong centre (as it it produced extensive monofunctional areas withonly 20 per cent, levelled and finally exceeded rural happened in the case of Latvia). dense patterns of identical apartment blocks, muchinhabitants. In Lithuania’s case urban population grew more dense and monotonous that their westernmainly at the expense of rural population (Vanagas et However some deviations in Lithuania’s polycentric counterparts (Di Maio 1974; Morton, 1984; French andal., 2002). This was done in two ways: a) by artificially settlement system occurs as well as top-down Hamilton, 1979).joining adjacent villages to cities or b) the urban administration had huge influence on urbanisation Socialist housing neighborhoods in the cities as wellgrowth was impossible without huge amounts of process: central government had influenced as in the rural areas we were built starting from theblue-collar workers; therefore numbers of redundant development of this polycentric urban system by sixties until the late eighties. These neighborhoodsrural inhabitants migrated to urban areas (Tsenkova, orienting industry to central state, not to region are also called sleeping districts because of mono2006) (Juškevičius, 2003). and decentralizing it, this way preventing region to functional, residential only functions. Over timeFurthermore, as Enyedi (2011) indicates, accelerating become independent (Vanagas, 2003). Kaunas grew most in this period from 80.000 tourbanisation was penetrated by heavily taxed 450.000 therefore most of the people were placed inagriculture, which resulted in a low standard of living these new neighborhoods.of rural population. New housing areas were planned according toAs a consequence, forced urbanisation resulted in modernistic principles with high rise residential blocksbroken social ties in former rural communities and in in the green environment. Moreover public transportdrastically reduced rural population. was the main feature which enabled to spread these neighborhoods further away form the industrial areas, where most jobs were concentrated and enabled to connect them with the city centre. 39
  • 40. 40
  • 41. New challenges for a country 2.3Socialist regime was as extremely repelling to the Country now pursues to anchor its position in new In international scale, Lithuania has extravertsociety as an example of countries of Western Europe system- European Union (EU). It means participating structure, which actively participates and reacts towas appealing. As Stanilov points out: “the post- in EU network socially (through politics), economically European context (Vanagas, Krišjane, Noorkoiv, &socialist reforms in the CEE region can be depicted as (participating in EU market and exchanging Staniūnas, 2002). At the same time spatial structurean attempt to make a desperate leap from totalitarian production) and spatially (integrating physical as well in regional scale changes in completely differentexistence to capitalism in a matter of only a few years. as urban structure of a country into Europe network). direction and becomes more and more introvert:Therefore, it is not surprising that the post-socialist As a consequence physical connection to Europe biggest centres have highest concentration ofcity takes on many of the characteristics of the North becomes significantly important and is reflected in functions while periphery becomes less active partAmerican patterns of urban development, rather than emergence of three transport corridors that cross of urban structure. Moreover, urban centres tend tosettling in on the more balanced model of Western Lithuania: Via Baltica, Via Hanseatica and Klaipeda – de-concentrate: some functions shifts to the ring ofEuropean urbanization.” (Stanilov, 2007, p. 7) Minsk connection. Increasing importance of transport an urban centre and a core becomes less compact. corridors and market economy create specific spatial To sum up, shift in activities concentration changes development patterns that appear in Lithuania in past the whole urban model of a country: morphologically two decades. even development structure is still there, however functionally it does not perform like one anymore. Image showing Lithuania’s position in European Union physical network. Source: infrastructure/connecting_en.htm 41
  • 42. Democracy and new planning system2.4 After the fall of Soviet Union, Lithuania re- Decentralization of government caused unequal established political, fiscal and administrative urban development patterns between and decentralization in order to make governance within the regions in Lithuania. Economically Central planning both more democratic and more efficient. stronger regions (capital Vilnius and a few largest Decentralization However the downside of this trend was “the cities) had the economic and social capital to general retreat of public authorities from urban maintain public facilities and economic activities, planning” (Stanilov, 2007, p. 10). while weaker ones faced difficulties sustaining employment, educational, health care and On the one hand democratic government system other public facilities due to the increased local allowed transferring part of the power and governments’ expenditures and lower governing responsibility for urban planning, management, knowledge (Tsenkova, 2006; Stanilov 2007). Nationalisation maintenance of infrastructure, public and social services to local governments, thus providing This differentiation especially visible between Privatisation more freedom for regions to grow and develop urban and rural areas. economically (Tsenkova, 2006). first image on the right shows Central Square of On the other hand due to weak public the Dainava, former collective farm settlement in support for comprehensive planning and lack Kaunas rural region. During the socialism, village of funds needed for planning activities, “the had secondary school, kindergarden, first aid Public effectiveness of urban development regulations medical centre, culture house, post office, shops, development has been seriously undermined and the etc. Transition period led to closure of most provision of public services drastically curtailed.” of the services in the settlement due to lack of Private (Stanilov, 2007 p. 10). funding and high explotation costs. Now village development has only primary school, post office and culture house. On the other hand services (especially commercial) in the city expands yearly. Picture on the bottom right shows one of the largest Urbanisation shopping malls in the country - Kauno Akropolis. Suburbanisation Left the most important political and planning transformations in Lithuania. Image by author42
  • 43. 2.4 Secondly, privatisation Law, issued in 1994, caused rapid fragmentation of resources in the whole Lithuania affecting rural space and rural economy, previously dominated by the collective farming estates and industries. Socialist state enterprises and farms were based on extensive hand labour, lacking innovation and urging for re-organisation, moreover emerging multiple owners found it difficult to find mutual agreements to continue economic activities in socialist corporations. Consequently only a fewDainava central square now. agricultural and industrial businesses managed Picture 1. Unattended ruins of socialist heritage thatSource: to be reorganised – in most cases socialist-based caused fatal injuries for two Czech cyclists, trying tophp?t=12936andpage=2 farms and industry collapsed (Vanagas et al., hide from the storm. 2002) leaving a lot of derelict buildings. Source: Kauno-rajone-dviratininku-is-Cekijos-nelaime- Vast numbers of poorly maintained or 12443?p=2#21 abandoned land or real estate properties from socialist era not only degrades the countryside but also sometimes become even the cause of death. Picture 1 on the right illustrates one of the recent accidents, when two Czech cyclists were fatally injured in one of the socialist ruins in Kaunas region. Though there are many of such crumbling relicts across the rural areas, the situation changesLarge shopping mall in the inner city very slow. In most of the cases any efforts toSource: regenerate decaying properties and land are putlietuva/paslaptingas-akropolio-nuomininku- down due to lack of political support or (and)maistas-56-29101 funding. Picture 2 illustrates typical crumbling buildings across the rural regions. Picture 2. Source: apleisti%20pastatai 43
  • 44. Pictures 3, 4 and 5 above, show newly emerging houses in the Kaunas district. The newcomers prefer to live in the natural surroundings, yet they are completely dependent on the city, which provides work, shopping, services and culture. This hectic development not only fragments the landscape, but also do not contribute to creating rural communities. Source: Right Current master plans for municipalities in Kaunas region. Source: www.kaunoplanas.lt44
  • 45. 2.4Though some rural areas experience the decline This fragmention is intended to increase furthermore:and poorer accessibility of social services, private according to the future urbanisation plans, Kaunasdevelopment patterns in other rural areas increases could settle 1.4 times more residents than has nowyearly. and Kaunas region could increase even 2.5 times. Although the demographic situation is completelyThere are several underlaying reasons whe oposite to the development trends and in some casessuburbanisation flourishes in Lithuania. it would wise to revise extreme urbanisation plans, it is not an easy task to reject the foreseen “hyper –1. Some outhors name privatization as a driving force development”, largely because of the landowners whofor suburban expansion (Stanilov, 2007; Tsenkova, think that it is their “legal expectation” (Bardauskienė,2006). and Pakalnis, 2012). The insufficient investigation into the demographic2. Other authors (Bardauskienė, and Pakalnis, trend, overreacted expectations of municipality2012) claim that national planning system creates authorities and citizens pursue to have as manythe backbone for sprawling development. This territories as they want for their bare land investmentclaim in general is true: as of the year 2009, not all do not contribute to sustainable growth of the region.municipalities had comprehensive development Instead they pushes environment of the region to theplans while longer term strategies and visions can further found just for a few cities (Vilnius region, Kaunas,Klaipeda and few others). 3. Moreover, intention to use the land for constructionThe development after 1990s was driven merely by is being considered as the perfect investment inprivately developed detailed plans, where citizens or comparison with the agricultural use. Pursue of fastinvestors had their parcels and their own vision. economic profit is considered as one of the drivingEven now due to lack of motivation for a long-term forces of suburbanisation.planning, most of the master plans in municipalitiesforesee extreme suburbanization. On the other hand 4. Rapid increase in automobile ownership and Areas, where according to master plans, land usesociety shows no interesting in changing that as decrease in public transport uses are among the the change to residential use is possiblea private estate in a countryside is a part of a social most important suburban development reasons as Source: image by author, based on master plans’mentality. well. analysis 45
  • 46. Due to insufficient civic planning perspective, today Lastly suburban sprawl not only changes rural Not only suburban growth has direct effect on land rural areas around the biggest Lithuanian cities are landscape around the cities but also strongly affects fragmentation and provision of public services in fragmented by hectic urban development without the inner city as well. Social mix, achieved due to Lithuania, it affects rural society as well. any urban infrastructure, public spaces or any other socialist regime, decreases as richer and more mobile amenities. people exchange the city life to the suburban dream Firstly as the focus of development is concentrated These suburban areas are extremely mono-functional leaving weaker social class in the inner city. Secondly to serve the needs of the newly emerging upper and with little physical, economic and social diversity and as the inner city depopulates, its residential areas start middle class inhabitants, investments are concentrated activities. decaying, thus making the city even less attractive to in certain, more prestigious places (Stanilov, 2007). stay. This leads to spatial and social stratification of the Another issue related with suburban growth The graph below shows that major growth between rural areas where segmented individuals replace rural is provision of public services. Maintenance of 1959 - 1989 and 2001-2009 was in the cities, while communities. infrastructure, public transportation and social later growth is orientied only in the suburbs. Secondly significant decrease of public transportation services in suburbs become less effective and more Recent official statistical data shows that only one services pushes marginal rural communities further costly for a city, thus increasing demand for private city - capital Vilnius manages to hold unchanging down the edge: those, who cannot afford a private transportation furthermore. number of residents. The rest of the cities experience transport, encounter difficulties accessing and using population loses. Kaunas among them experience social services. considerable loss of inhabitants - between 2001-2009 decrease of population in Kaunas was 17%. It is nearly 67 400 inhabitants. The large amount of this migration ends in the suburban areas around Kaunas. -17% + 8.7% Source: Department of Statistics, (2010) Author: Vytas Buinevicius Left Urban and suburban growth before and after independency Above Source: Department of Statistics, Author: Tadas Jonauskis (2010)46
  • 47. Free-market economy 2.5Lithuania today has service-based economy where The last few decades’ technological progress andthe service sector accounts for more than a half of the production intensification allowed agricultural sector Agriculture andregions’ GDP. The shift from industrial towards service employing less rural inhabitants while increasing industry economybased economic activities affected regions in the economic growth. Emerging excess of rural workforcecountry differently: rural areas have more difficulties was a relevant stimulus for rural economy to be Service basedduring this change than the urban ones. On the one diversified, to offer new services for increasing social economyhand, as Tsenkova (2006) concludes the ideas of Adair al. (1999), General Council for St Petersburg (1998) However, differently from the western democracies,and Ghanbari-Parsa and Moatazed-Keivani (1999): rural areas in Lithuania experience some issues in the transition to service based rural economy. For Within the service economy, the capital cities example, instead of experiencing economic growth, Polycentric across the region are regaining their position as less skilled and less flexible rural society (compared to development financial, business and administrative centres the urban one) experiences growth of unemployment of the nation-state. Some (Prague, Budapest, and income polarization, where few residents involved Network Warsaw, Vilnius) clearly state their ambitions in agricultural activities have higher incomes than based model to become the springboard for international urban inhabitants, while at the same time large part investors; others market themselves as the of rural inhabitants not involved in agriculture gain regional centres of command and control only half of income of those in cities (Department of for head offices and servicing operations in Statistics, 2005). This trend is shown in a table below. Planned resource-rich countries and other regional sub- markets (p. 33). 1200 economy Income, in Litas 1000 MarketOn the other hand, until recent years rural areas inLithuania were dependent on primary economic 800 economy 600 Urban residentssector, such as agriculture, forestry and fishery 400(Vanagas et al., 2002). In the context of increasing Farmers 200demand for services, economic state, based on Rural residentsprimary sector, became a halt forutilizing economic Years 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008potential of an area. Source: Lithuanian Institute of Agrarian Economics, 2010 47
  • 48. Despite the historical legacy, on-going economic Remote rural areas experience economic and social transformations in the urban and rural areas in backwardness (comparing to urban regions or the Lithuania are similar to the processes occurring in regions that are proximate to major transport and many capitalist based countries. Driven by free- economic flows), underinvestment and decay or even market economy, increasing importance of networks desertion of rural settlements due to extreme rural and competition for global attention, economic population loses. growth concentrates in urban regions while creating vacuum in the periphery, thus economic and social disparities between urban and rural areas become even greater now than during the socialist regime (Tsenkova, 2006). Increasing importance of networks is visible not only in traffic flows in the transport networks, but also in different economic growth rates between areas. Attractive regions Rural Foreign direct investment per district shows even Rural-urban higher disparities between economic growth Urban Unattractive regions between the regions. Rural Rural-urban Source: Department of Statistics, Urban (2010) The scheme above shows the most attractive and unattractive regions. Mapping is based on neto migration saldo from and to the region for 2006-2008. Attractive regions that have population growth, are those in the vicinity of urban centre. The rest regions in most cases looses population. Source: Lithuanian Institute of Agrarian Economics, 2010 Right Income differences between growing regions and peripheral rural ares indicates the increasing gap Scheme of the main transportation axes in Lithuania. between economic development as well. Bowth of them crosses Kaunas region. Source: Department of Statistics, Source: Lietuvos keliu direkcija (2010)48
  • 49. 2.5 home C C Secon- daryOn the other hand, due to a vicinity of an urban C Secon- dary Culturcentre or major networks, other rural areas experience home Primary school Primary Primary Secon- High Secon- school school dary dary school High C Voca- tional school Cgrowth and increasing use of a landscapes through Secon- dary Primary school C Highspatial and economic development. school C Cultur home Secon- dary Cultur home Kinder gardenHowever proximity of urban centre has negative effects Secon- dary C Secon- dary Cultur Secon- home dary Secon- dary Primary C school C Con economic rural development as well: due to sparse Secon- dary C High school C Primary school Secon- daryrural population and better-developed service sector Kinder garden Cultur Primary home school C C Kinder High Secon- Cultur C Primary garden school school dary homein the cities, services in adjacent rural areas encounter C C Primary school Primary Primary Secon- High school school dary High school school Primary C Voca- school U tional Secon- Kinder Primary school Cultur home Primary school Cdifficulties to sustain. Vicinity of urban centre creates dary garden Voca- Kinder Cultur tional garden Primary home Primary school Secon- High Voca- High C school dary Sana school tional school torium C Secon- C Secon- C dary darydependency on the city for employment, accessibilityof commercial and social services and cultural Secon- dary Primary Primary school school C Kinder garden C Secon- dary Cultur Secon- home dary Kinder Kinder garden garden C High schoolactivities thus increasing homogeneity in rural areas. C Primary school C High Kinder Kinder garden school garden Kinder Primary Primary Primary garden school school school Voca- Kinder High C Co High tional garden Kinder school school C High C C Secon- garden school C C daryKaunas District Development Strategy (2008) states Kinder Secon- Primary Primary High Secon- Secon- Primary Primary High garden dary school school dary dary school school High school school school Sana High High High High High Secon- Secon- High High High Secon- C Secon- dary dary dary torium school school school school school school school school dary Kinder garden Co High Primary Primary High High Secon- Kinder High High High dary school school school school school school school school CCo garden High High High Primary Secon- Secon- Secon- Primary Secon- school school dary dary dary school dary school school C High CHigh High Co High school U school school Primarythat already 42 per cent of towns can be counted as school Secon- C C school dary U High U school High High High Kinder school school school Primary garden school school Co school U High High Secon- High dary U Primary High school Secon- school C school Primary High dary High school C High school school Kinder Sana garden school High torium C Primary school school Primary High Primary Primary Secon- High Primarysatellite cities –sleeping areas of Kaunas. school dary school school school Secon- school school Sana dary High Voca- C torium High Secon- dary school tional school U Co Kinder Secon- Secon- garden Primary High dary dary school school Primary Primary school Co C school Kinder garden High school C Secon- Secon- dary U dary C Secon- dary High school Primary school C HighAs map on the closer right indicates, these sattelite school Primary school Primary school C High Primary school school C Secon- dary C Primarycities are located on the highest accessibility routes school Secon- n- Secon- dary Cultur home dary C C High school High school C Secon- High C dary school Secon-- highways, or in the beautiful environment - near dary C Secon- dary Secon- daryrivers, lakes, yet still close to the city. High Cultur school home Secon- dary Secon- dary Secon- dary C Secon- dary C Secon- dary Secon- High dary school Secon- Voca- tional C dary Secon- dary Sana torium Secon- dary C C C High school C Secon- High dary school Secon- dary Secon- dary Above The map above shows organisation of health care, location of settlements that developed high educational and cultural services in Kaunas region. dependency on the city. Bigger settlement and cities can provide these Source: image by author activities, however many dispersed household are quite remote from them. Source: image by author 49
  • 50. Demographic processes2.6 On 1 March 2011, the population of Lithuania totalled Growing 3 million 43 thousand. The highest population was in the urban and peri-urban regions, while the lowest - in population remote rural areas. Shrinking According to the 2011 Census data, two-thirds of the population country’s population (66.7 per cent) lived in urban areas, out of which 40.2 per cent – in the major cities. Over the decade, the population decreased by 12.6 per cent (440.6 thousand). The urban population Relocaction decreased by 300.9 thousand, while rural – by 139.7 of rural thousand. population Migration caused 77 per cent of total population loss. Internal migration rates, 2008 Out migration During the last few years migration tends to stabilise, Source: Department of Statistics, however the majority of immigrated people chooses (2011) to reside in urban areas. It means that in case of population growth, number of rural inhabitants will Growing remain stable or even decreases further. population Aging population Urban and rural population, 1959–2011 Population density Source: Department of Statistics, Source: Department of Statistics, (2011) (2011)50
  • 51. 2.6The map below shows saldo migration between j Kedainiu raj age group change 2001-2011, Raseiniu rajregions in Lithuania. It is visible that the only growing -7% -5% percent from total populationregions are close to the urban centre. Largely it is +3% +6% 0-15caused by suburbanisation as immigration to the +2% +1% 16-45country is yet not increasing. Jurbarko raj > 45 -6.5%The scheme on the right shows more detailed analysison demographic changes in Kaunas region in the +5% Kauno raj -5%last 10 years. Kaunas district municipality, which +1.5% -4%surrounds Kaunas city, is the only growing district in Sakiu raj +4% +1.5%this region.This happens due to growing suburban -7% +3.5% 0 Kauno mexpansion around the city. +7.5% -4% -0.5% 0The general trend in the region is shrinking Kazlu rudos raj -5.5%population, especially decreasing is the youngest age -6.6% +4% +6.%group. Working age people increases in all parts, while +5.5% -1%senior group increases in all districts except few. 0 Total inhabitants 2001 2011 Kauno apskritis 702 090 600 363 -6% Birstono sav. 5 458 4 542 Jonavos r. sav. 52 258 45 775The tendency that this scheme shows is that if the +7% Kaisiadoriu r. sav. 37 632 33 425 Kauno m. sav. 379 706 311 148general demographic trends in Lithuania will not Birstono raj Kauno r. sav. 81 373 86 200 -1% Kedainiu r. sav. 65 717 52 997change in the near future, region will experience -8% Prienu r. sav. 35 769 29 391 Raseiniu r. sav. 44 177 36 885shrinking and rapidly aging population. +6% Skuodo r. sav. Kazlu Rudos sav. 25 637 14 934 20 164 13 039 Sakiu r. sav. 38 788 32 052 +2% Jurbarko r. sav. 37 795 29 693This process will alter region development, especiallyhuge challenge can be maintaining social servicesand social safety net. Furthermore aging society willincrease a demand for health care facilities. This bringsattention to alternative regional development modelsince current suburban development pattern cannot Scheme showing demographic changes in the regionensure proper accessibility of services for seniors. Source: Image by author 51
  • 52. Both pages The Kaunas Free Economic Zone (FEZ) - a 534 ha industrial development area which provides tax incentives. Source: business-oppurtunities/kaunas-free-economic-zone/52
  • 53. 3. Kaunas region 53
  • 54. 54
  • 55. KedainiaiIntroduction 3.1Kaunas region is one of the most important regions inLithuania, consisting of administrative centre Kaunasand region sub-centres of Raseiniai, Kėdainiai, Jonava,Kaišiadorys, Prienai and Birštonas town.The region is home to 600 000 people. Kaunas districtwith sub-centres are considerably dense, e.g. Kaunascity - 2 000 inh./km2, however density in the whole Jonavaregion berely excedes 75 inh./km2. Kaunas Kaisiadorys Prienai 55 Birstonas
  • 56. Green structure3.2 Kaunas region is located on the confluence of the two largest rivers in Lithuania - Nemunas and Neris. In 1960 hydropower plant was built and Nemunas river was dammed. 20 villages in the west of Kaunas had to be relocated due to the the formation of Kaunas lagoon. Today Kaunas Lagoon is among the protected environments in Kaunas region. Forests cover nearly two third of the whole land, the second largest group is agricultural land. The land productivity rate is one of the highest, therefore level of land use in Kaunas region is one of the most intensive in the country. 6 % urban and industry Other Water bodies Forests Agriculture 94 % rural56
  • 57. Ecological network 3.3River habitats in Kaunas region belongs to nationalecological frame.They also serve as migration corridors for the birds.Confluence of two largest rivers in LithuaniaAuthor: Giedriusok, source: www.efoto.ltDubrius river entering Kauno marios. Dubrava forest,vilage and forest enterprise were named after thename of this riverAuthor: Pliura A., Source: 57
  • 58. Traffic network3.4 Two international multimodal transport corridors cross Kaunas region. Via Baltica, crosses the Region from north to south and serves as a connection between Nordic countries and Central and Western Europe. Corridor No. 9B is the main corridor crossing the Region from east to west (Kiev - Klaipeda). Moreover, two roads of TEN-T road network (Kaunas- Daugavpils and Vilnius-Marijampole) cross the Region. Kaunas region has a highly developed railway infrastructure. There is a local waterway Kaunas-Birstonas and one of the most important waterways connecting Kaunas with sea port. However water network is reletively underused. Kaunas International Airport is the biggest cargo airport in the Baltics. It can serve practically all types of aircraft and has passenger air connections to major cities in Europe. There are also several local airports that are widely used for aerial tourism (Pociunai Airport in Prienai district, Darius and Girenas Airport in Kaunas city).58
  • 59. Economic network 3.5The main economic sectors (input to GDP) in Kaunasregion are:Agriculture 4%Industry and Construction 34,5%Services 60,2%Region produces one fifth of Lithuanian GDP.The most important products are: furniture, yarn,pharmaceuticals, meat and its products, milkproduction, flour, combined fodder, sulphuric andphosphoric acids, lasting food products, buildingbricks, industrial wood, peat, paper, beer and non-alcoholic drinks, firewater and liqueur products,textile, mineral waters.Kaunas has concentration of manufacturers; Kėdainiaidistrict has well developed canning industry; thelargest fertilizer producer is in Jonava and Kaišiadoryshas well developed meat production.Only 7 per cent of region’s population is employedin agriculture. Main production consists of livestock,horticulture and agriculture, however primary sectoradds only four per cent to regions GDP – one of thelowest values in the country. 59
  • 60. commuting zone/ car commuting zone commuting zone/ public tr commuting zone/ public transport intensive intensive intensive intensive extensive extensive extensive extensive commuting zone/ public tr commuting cars to urban buses intensive last city bus stop centre, per day microbuses extensive train station > 8 000 public transport frequency, development plan per day buses expansion zone > 60 microbuses highest real estate value disparities trains apartments 6 000 - 8 000 40 public transport frequency, houses per day commercial > 60 industrial 4 000 - 6 000 20 40 combined influence zone 2 000 - 4 000 20 2 highest real estate value last city bus stop 2 apartments houses commercial industrial60
  • 61. Daily urban system 3.6One of the major intentions while analysing Kaunasregion was to understand what commuting patternsexist, do they consist Daily Urban System (DUS) forthe whole region or whether the region is largelymonocentric with Kaunas as the main centre.The findings of this research helps to understandto what extent regional strategy can influencedevelopment in the region: combined influence zoneindicates approximate area in which the commutingflows are the highest. Conclusion can be drawn thatthis zone is preferred by inhabitants as still closeto the city and has the highest potential for newdevelopment. It also means that the impact of theregional strategy is likely to be the largest inside thisarea, because the pressure for the land is highest here.This analysis was carried out using methodology of commuting zone/ carUbarevičienė, Burneika and Kriaučiūnas (2011) where commuting zone commuting zone/ public tr intensive intensive intensive“city functional region, is treated as functionally extensiveunited spatial system, where capital city is one of the extensive extensivemain factors of development of the area and vice commuting zone/ public tr commuting cars to urban buses intensive centre, per dayversa.” (p.98). microbuses extensive > 8 000 public transport frequency, development plan per day expansion zone > 60 highest real estate value disparities apartments 6 000 - 8 000 40 houses commercial industrial 4 000 - 6 000 20 combined influence zone 2 000 - 4 000 2 highest real estate value apartments last city bus stop houses 61 commercial industrial
  • 62. Work framework for the strategy3.7 Urban network Kaunas region Landscape architecture development approach analysis approach Analysis of areas for urban Analysis of the landscape assets in development in relation to: relation to: - connectivity (physical access) - ecological network - access to public transport - production network (agriculture, - access to social services forestry, industry, energy) - proximity to other settlements - consumption network (recreation, - landscape assets tourism, herritage) Types of urban development Areas with different urbanisation with different set of rules: impact on the landscape: - highest level of urbanisation - no negative impact on the allowed (in relation to density, landscape (a) height, built up area percent) (1) - priority to the landscape and urban - moderate urban development equal (urbanisation can be used to (lower density, adittional improve the landscape) (b) investment for public services, - priority to the landscape (urban landscape from developers) (2) development has largest negative - low level of urbanisation (low effect) (c) density, priority to landscape) (3) Matrix of combined types of areas from urban and landscape approach maximum urban largest conflict between landscape types programme space use a b c a1 c1 urban types 1 a1 b1 c1 2 a2 b2 c2 3 a3 b3 c3 c3 a3 restricted urbanisation no conflict for space use62
  • 63. Regional planning in Lithuania 3.8Until 1990 regional planning in Lithuania was based Legal basis There are two main policy tools in Lithuania at theon planned economy model, which considered Regional planing in Lithuania is based on the moment:development to be adequate to the whole country. Comprehensive plan of the territory of the Republic of Lithuania issued in 2002. The document presents 1. From EU perspective: Structural EU regional policy.After 1990, 10 Counties were formed (culturally the main solutions of the territory in the following Lithuania reaches only 55 per cent of EU averageterritory of Lithuania consists of 4 ethnic sub-regions). main directions: GDP per person (EU27, 2010). The main tool to raise - common territorial structures; the level of socio-economic development is throughFrom 2000 Regional Development Law was issued - specialised territorial structures; Structural Funds (Cohesion policy implementationand Regional Development Councils were formed to - spatial integration of the development of the through State investments).each County. These were delegated from Municipal teritory of the state;councils, not directly elected. - reserving the territories for the common needs of 2. From national perspective: regional development the state. policy.In 2010 July Administrative reform was held. With the issue of Regional Development Law in 2000Administrations of Counties Governor were cancelled. “The Comprehensive plan: increasing disparities of development level withinFunctions from County Governor’s administration - is obligatory for state governmental institutions the country were recognized (for example Taurage(which do not involve EU funding, for example health taking decisions on national level related to the reaches 49 per cent of LT average GDP, while Vilnius -care, education) delegated to local – municipal level. use, management and protection of the territory of 153 per cent) and policy was aimed at reducing them.Other functions (land reform, coordination of EU the country, forming regional policy;support at regional level) are transfered to central - forms planning conditions for national level special Kaunas Regional Development Plan 2003 – 2013;level - ministries. plans, long term programmes and strategies and 2014-2020 (under preparations, 2012); for regional level comprehensive and special plans. Strategy of tourism development in Kaunas Region 2007 – 2013; All development strategies of economy sectors, Strategy of Kaunas Region Image (2007-2013). other strategic plans and programmes of state Strategic development plans for separate institutions have to rest upon the Comprehensive municipalities and areas (Jonava District, Rukla, plan of the territory of the Republic of Lithuania.” Kaišiadorys District, etc.) (Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Lithuania, 2004, p.68). 63
  • 64. Rural development policies3.9 Rural development in Europe has undergone several objectives; • Improving the quality of life in rural areas and reforms since the common market Treaty, established e. strengthening rural development, allowing encouraging diversification of the rural economy; in Rome in 1958. The underlying reasons for this the creation of additional income and jobs in • Building local capacity for employment and treaty arose from instability of agricultural market agriculture and contributing to the economic and diversification (Leader programme). and were to control agricultural supply, provide price social cohesion of the Union; Following these guidelines, Member States has guarantees and assure income support for the farmers. f. increasing the EU’s negotiating position during developed their own national or regional rural For agricultural production to be included in the free World Trade Organisation (WTO) talks; development programmes for 2007-2013 based on movement of goods, suitable national intervention g. simplifying administrative provisions relating key actions for each axis. Since this project eventually mechanisms were to be established in EU member to market management and payments made to will concentrate on dealing with spatial planning and states through common agricultural policy (CAP) producers; design, the emphasis in the analysis will be given to (European Communities, 2009). h. incorporating the agricultural sectors of the new spatial issues. Initial objectives of CAP, laid in the Treaty: Member States into the single market. a. to increase agricultural productivity by Generally aim of new CAP, also known as the Second promoting technical progress and ensuring the Pillar of the CAP, was “to establish a model for optimum use of the factors of production, in European agriculture that would be closely linked particular labour; to the balanced development of rural land, which b. to ensure a fair standard of living for farmers; covers 90% of the Community’s territory” (European c. to stabilize markets; Communities, 2009). Cohesive and sustainable future d. to assure the availability of supplies; of rural areas is based on agricultural multifunctionality e. to ensure reasonable prices for consumers. – “the ability of the rural economy to create new Though these objectives are still valid today, following income and employment whilst conserving the CAP reforms, particularly the 2003 mid-term review, culture, environment and heritage of rural areas” adapted different mechanisms to attain those (European Communities, 2009). goals more successfully and introduced some new Since the enlargement of European Union in 2004, objectives into CAP (European Communities, 2009): scale and intensity of rural development in EU had a. improving competitiveness by gearing changed; therefore new strategic guidelines were set agriculture more to the market; up for the upcoming period starting 2007. European b. producing safe, good quality food in line with Rural Development Policy for 2007 to 2013 focuses the expectations and needs of society; on four themes (known as “thematic axes”) (Council, c. stabilising farmers’ incomes while covering 2006): budgetary costs; • Improving the competitiveness of the agricultural d. maintaining a sustainable agricultural sector, and forestry sector;
 incorporating environmental and planning • Improving the environment and the countryside;
  • 65. Rural development policies in Lithuania 3.10The Rural Development Programme 2007-2013 of the rural economy. Though these issues are not(RDP) of Lithuania is prepared following the National directly related with spatial problems, the latter onesStrategy Plan of Lithuania for the period 2007-2013, greatly depend on socio-economic conditions of thewhich subsequently is based on a set of measures in area, therefore improving these conditions can helpaccordance with aforementioned axes of the European increase the physical quality of the space.Rural Development Policy 2007-2013. Mid-term evaluation carried out in 2010 emphasizesThe main (in the RDP referred as “global”) objective for that though measures related with agriculturerural development in Lithuania is “to ensure growth competitiveness and modernisation absorbed thethrough improving the competitiveness of agrifood assistance of EU funds, no funds were distributed inand forestry sectors as well as creating possibilities for the areas such as “village renewal and development”diversification of economic activities and improving the or “implementation of local development strategies”quality of live in rural areas meanwhile enhancing the (European Commission, 2010). In addition, over a 1000human, environmental and other countryside values jobs were created or preserved in agricultural, forestryand reducing disparities between rural and urban areas and food sector while only 13 jobs were created in non-as well as separate regions” (Ministry of Agriculture, agriculture area. Evaluation concludes that impacts2007, p. 52). of the RDP were smaller than planned, both due toThis, in general a very broad objective, is a repetition the exogenous factors (economic crisis) and internalof European Rural Development Policy 2007-2013 reasons (underrated demand for certain actions). It iswith no individual adaptation for the case of Lithuania. also stated that the Rural Development ProgrammeHowever the following more specific objectives are “is likely to have a positive impact on increasingbased on concrete problems of the country. The competitiveness of the Lithuanian agriculture, afundamental issues concerning spatial development positive effect on changes in the number and structureof rural areas are related with improvement of the of rural inhabitants, employment, income” (Europeanenvironment, both natural and man-made. Threat Commission, 2010, p. 5)towards the environmental and cultural heritage, This brings to the conclusion that nonetheless RDPunused agricultural land, quality of drinking water in the enables economic growth of agricultural sector; itdug wells, decline of biodiversity and need to combat does not contribute to the spatial development andclimate change are among the key priorities while increasing physical quality of the rural areas. Neitherimproving the environment of the countryside (Ministry it contributes to the diversification of activities: “noof Agriculture, 2007). Overdependence on agriculture, impact on employment growth in the non-agriculturalinsufficient social and physical infrastructure and need sector” (European Commission, 2010, p. 3).to preserve rural heritage are listed as priority issuesregarding quality of life in rural areas and diversification 65
  • 66. 66
  • 67. One of the tools in policy making and its evaluation A typology can be understood as territorial More accurate definition of typology is useful foris spatial pattern typologies (Meredith & Salas classification based on scientifically sound and researchers to identify other areas in Europe thatOlmedo, 2012). Therefore definition of term “rural” is politically relevant indicators (Ulied, Biosca, & Rodrigo, are similar to those that they are studying and tofundamental when talking about rural development 2010). Such indicators can be social, economic, avoid overlapping work if a research is undertakenand strategies related to it (Nordregio, 2011). However environmental variables, ecological processes, etc. already within similar social, spatial, economic or“rural” does not have obsolete definition; it varies Identification of individual area units that bear similar environmental contexts (Meredith & Salas Olmedo,from country to country and even within one nation. characteristics allows more accurate evaluation of the 2012).Distinctive areas may be classified as being equal due areas. Besides it helps to identify areas confronting The following few pages gives a brief literature reviewto mismatch of the definition, e.g. area with 3000 similar challenges and opportunities and to support of “rural” definition transformations in Europeaninhabitants in Lithuania has different socio-spatial design and evaluation of territorial targeted policies scale. Later the overview of current rural classificationcharacteristics from the area with 3000 inhabitants (Andersen, Elbersen, Godeschalk, & Verhoog, 2007) existing in various countries will be the Netherlands, though they both are classified (Copus, Psaltopoulos, Skuras, Terluin, & Weingarten,as rural. Therefore it is crucial to understand, identify 2008).and classify similarities and differences between areasin both national and local scales (Meredith & SalasOlmedo, 2012). 4. Rural definition 67
  • 68. OECD 1994 ESPON 1.1.2, 200468
  • 69. Transformation of typologies in Europe 4.1 1. DGRegio. 2nd and 4th reports on social and 4. SPESP (2000) Study program on European 5. ESPON 1.1.2 (2004) proposal based on economic cohesion. Need to establish typologies Spatial Planning. A specific typology developed urban influence and human intervention. to differentiate rural areas (Ulied, Biosca, & for the European territory, based on urbanization Typology provided by ESPON 1.1.2 in 2004 for Rodrigo, 2010) (Ulied, Biosca, & Rodrigo, 2010) rate; rural population density; the degree of better understanding the diversity of European 2. Green Paper on territorial cohesion. It contrast in the distribution of settlement size; regions. Degree of urban influence (two classes) identifies three specific types of region having average distance to any urban settlement; the and degree of human intervention (three classes) particular development challenges: 1) mountain primacy of the largest city; and the size of the creates a base for this typology (Ulied, Biosca, & regions, 2) island regions and 3) sparsely largest centre (Ulied, Biosca, & Rodrigo, 2010). Rodrigo, 2010). Mixed six-type model has main populated regions, all rural and almost all border two divisions of high and low urban influence, regions. which accordingly have three sub-divisions of 3. OECD (1994). Proposal of a classification high, medium and low human interventions: between urban, intermediate and rural regions • High urban influence + high human based on density of population living in rural intervention; local units (OECD, 1994). Rural local units are local • High urban influence + medium human administrative units with a population density intervention; below 150 inhabitants/km2: • High urban influence + low human • Rural regions, more than 50% live in rural intervention; local units; • Low urban influence + high human • Intermediate regions, between 15% and intervention; 50% live in rural local units; • Low urban influence + medium human • Urban regions, less than 15% live in rural intervention; local units. • Low urban influence + low human However, some unexpected results occurred intervention. due to delimitation of communal boundaries, Unexpected results were uneven distribution of particularly in large, heterogeneous NUTS3 units: regions across the six classes. Nearly 700 NUTS rural area may be classified as intermediate or areas were identified as high urban influence and intermediate area as urban (if has urban centre high human intervention. within boundaries) (Ulied, Biosca, & Rodrigo, 2010), which made classification unreliable in some cases. 69
  • 70. Urban-rural typology Guadeloupe (FR) Martinique (FR) A new urban-rural typology Guadeloupe (FR) Martinique (FR) of NUTS3 regions for NUTS 3 regions (1) Predominantly urban regions Predominantly urban regions; rural population Intermediate rural regions, close to a city less than 20 % of total population 0 25 0 20 0 25 0 20 Intermediate rural, remote regions Intermediate regions; rural population Guyane (FR) Réunion (FR) Predominantly rural regions, close to a city Guyane (FR) Réunion (FR) between 20 and 50 % of total population Predominantly rural, remote regions Predominantly rural regions; rural population Data not available is 50 % or more of total population Data not available 0 100 0 20 0 100 0 20 Close to a city: at least 50% of the population of the regions lives Açores (PT) Açores (PT) Madeira (PT) at less than 45 minutes travel by road to a city of at least 50 000 Madeira (PT) © EuroGeographics Association, for the administrative boundaries inhabitants Cartography: Eurostat — GISCO, 03/2010 0 600 km 0 100 0 20 0 100 0 20 Data source: Eurostat Canarias (ES) Malta © EuroGeographics Association, for the administrative boundaries Canarias (ES) Malta Cartography: Eurostat — GISCO, 01/2009 0 600 km 0 100 0 10 0 100 0 10 Ísland Ísland 0 100 0 100 (1) This typology is based on a definition of urban and rural 1 km² grid cells. Urban grid cells fulfil two conditions: 1) a population density of at least 300 inhabitants per km² and 2) a minimum population of 5 000 inhabitants in contiguous cells above the density threshold. The other cells are considered rural. OECD classification (2008) based on L.Dijkstra, Thresholds for the typology: 50% and 20% of the regional population in rural grid cells. H.Poelman remoteness indicator OECD, 201070
  • 71. 4.1 more diversified (Ulied, Biosca, & Rodrigo, 2010).6. Dijkstra and Poelman (2008) based on Agricultural regions are classified as:combined OECD and remoteness classifications • Semi-subsistence;to propose alternative typology. Remoteness • Para-productivists;classification is based on driving time to the • Peri-productivists.closest city. “Close to the city” implies that at least Diversified regions are divided into:50 per cent of the population can reach a city • “New Rural Economy”;with 50 000 inhabitants in less than 45 minutes • “Declining Fordist” regions.(Ulied, Biosca, & Rodrigo, 2010). OECD classifiesregions into predominantly urban, intermediate To sum up, most typologies developed atand predominantly rural: European scale are based on regions (NUTS2) or• Predominantly urban regions; sub-regions (NUTS3) provided by OECD at the• Intermediate regions, close to a city; early 90s. However, classification at NUTS3 levels• Intermediate, remote regions; in many cases is too vague and either thinner sub-• Predominantly rural regions, close to a city; division or more various classification aspects are• Predominantly rural, remote regions. necessary in order to better identify rural areas7. ESPON - EDORA (2010) based on “Grand (Pizzoli & Gong, 2007).Narrative” – narratives, developed by research The first approach can be illustrated with a workteam to explain occurring trends in the Europe. of EUROSTAT, where modified OECD definitionNarratives focus on agriculture, urban – rural is applied on EU grid cells (Wirthmann, 2006).relations and globalisation issues. In this Another method is visible when more complexproposal on new rural – urban typology, Grand factors, such as degree of human interventionNarratives plays an important background role. or remoteness, are taken into consideration.The typology is elaboration of aforementioned However classification at European scale in mostDijksta – Poelman classification “representing cases is too vague and not applicable in rurala range of rural socio-economic environments development policies at national or regionalwhich act as starting points for individual highly levels, therefore more into depth research is donedifferentiated pathways of change” (Ulied, Biosca, to understand definition at national scale.& Rodrigo, 2010).Rural regions are first distinguished from urban,then “depleting” regions from “accumulating”,and lastly those in which the primary sector is stillimportant are separated from those, which are 71
  • 72. 7243 2 1 Population 2. Land use by “rurality” 3. Remoteness Postal codes/km2 1.Economic activity Regions classification Rural classification by: Population density, inh/km2 (Statistics Canada, 2007) (Derkzen & Wiskerke, 2008)the rest of the data (Clark, 2003) “Rural and small town” (subtotal) 3 Strong Metropolitan Influenced Zone (Strong MIZ) Moderate Metropolitan Influenced Zone (Moderate MIZ) Canada <400 Weak Metropolitan Influenced Zone (Weak MIZ) <1 0001 No Metropolitan Influenced Zone (No MIZ) Lietuvos Respublikos Teritoriju Istatymas, 1994 Non-urbanised (<500 post c/km2) Hardly urbanised (500-1000 post c/km2)Moderately urbanised The (1000–1500 post c/km2) Netherlands <1 0002 <30 000 Highly urbanised (1500-2500 post c/km2) Extremely highly urbanised (>2500 p.s./km2) Statistical Area Classification, 1996 in (Statistics Canada, 2007) United Kingdom <1 000 <25% in market t. Village (no attribute of city or town) Town (500-1000 inh, 1/2 works in ind/service) City: (>3000inh, 2/3 works in ind/service) Lithuania service <3 0004 industry/ 1. <2/3 in France <2 000 >200m 3. distance between houses Switzerland suburbs <10 000 Including Denmark/ <200 Iceland Places with some form of local authority South Africa Places with municipal corporation, town committee or Pakistan cantonment
  • 73. Classification at national level 4.2Rural regions in Europe differ in the degree of population is inaccurate and does not reflect specific planning to meet the growing demand of newaccessibility, natural resources and human capital, the conditions of these places, such as occupation of agriculture non-related rural inhabitants (Vidickienė,socioeconomic structure, networking capacity and inhabitants, use of land and other aspects. Melninkienė, Gedminaitė-Raudonė, & Ribašauskienė,land use patterns (Meredith & Salas Olmedo, 2012). Population plus additional criteria 2012).According to Racher et al. (2004) “rural” definitions fall More accurately-defined classification of rural – urban • Organization of functions. This criterioninto four categories: 1) descriptions, 2) dichotomies is made when population is combined with additional refers to the level and number of services available(emphasising the urban-rural divide or having or criteria, such as minimum distance between houses in in the area. Since it is not always easy to find andnot urban centre), 3) typologies (definite ones) or 4) urban areas (e.g. not more than 200m in France), share count proper variables for this aspect, some authorsindexes (showing the different shades of “rurality”). of population involved in agricultural activities (e.g. (Wirthmann, 2006) (Plessis, Beshiri, & Bollman, 2001)Classification of urban – rural areas at national level in Lithuania, more than two thirds of urban residents suggesting this approach applies alternative solutions,usually falls into dichotomy or typology categories work in industry/service sector) or density (e.g. urban e.g. distances from key services, services available perand is defined e.g. by land use, population, density, areas has to have more than 400 inhabitants per square kilometre or per capita.economic activity, etc. Most common of these square kilometre in Canada). • Availability of jobs within the settlement.definitions can be grouped threefold: based only on There is a tendency for every discipline as well as This aspect analyses both the commuting patternspopulation; on population plus additional criteria or every country to outline its own definition of “rural”. / flows and the level of inhabitants’ activity in jobon legal, administrative governmental criteria. Construction of rural definition to address particular searches. It is largely useful in socio-economicLegal, administrative governmental criteria purpose becomes more and more favourable policies dealing with unemployment/poverty andTo start with, definition on legal or governmental instead of the all-purpose definition (Halfacree, other negative socio-economic issues (Vidickienė,criteria is the least objective as it identifies urban – rural 1993). Therefore even more precise classification Melninkienė, Gedminaitė-Raudonė, & Ribašauskienė,dichotomy based on boundaries of administrative of rural areas can be achieved when size, density of 2012).centres (Clark, 2003). Therefore it is omitted from population and additional characteristics are adjusted • Remoteness. Integration of this criterionfurther analysis as irrelevant for this project. and applied according to specific issues. In some cases (based on driving less than 45 minutes to the closestPopulation criteria definition might need to reflect social capital of the city of at least 50 000 inhabitants (Ulied, Biosca, &Though initially definition based on population rural area, while in the others – geographical division Rodrigo, 2010)), allows policies to ensure accessibilityintends to be the most suitable indicator whether is more important. There are several criteria that could of services for those living in remote areas.area is urban or rural, however some inadequacies be applied to rural areas in order to achieve tailored • Natural characteristics. Example of thisoccur. First of all, countries vary greatly in a size of classification as following: criterion is European Joint Research Centre (JRC)population that is considered as urban: starting from • Having/not having urban centre. This study in territorial classification that considers land200 in Iceland up to 10 000 inhabitants in Switzerland. criterion constructs a typology according to the cover profilesSecondly area with considerable share of commuters number of inhabitants in the largest urban centre inmay be counted as urban though the actual number of the region. Taking into account peri-urban areas aspeople who reside there might be much lower (Clark, well, where most of the transformations take place2003). Defining rural areas based merely on number of (Tötzer, 2008), this aspect can adjust the regional 73
  • 74. (arable, forest, etc.), topographic roughness (mountain, o Settlements functional links with the urban hill, plain) as the leading features of rural areas. The centre; study argues that natural environment influence o Functional links within settlements and human opportunities and behaviour resulting in o Functional links with other regions. high differences between urban (favourable for human activities) and rural (disadvantaged for human The last of the additional criteria – functional links - is activities) areas (Pizzoli & Gong, 2007). one of the most relevant for this analysis. Interaction • Symbolic assets. Cultural heritage or special between urban and rural is visible not only in properties are important while perceiving the identity economic activities, employment and commuting, of a place. Therefore these characteristics can help to but also in leisure activities, real estate markets and classify rural areas as well. many other variables. As urban and rural cannot be • Attractiveness of the area. Basically, it seen as entirely separate entities, so the definition defines the areas as either attractive or not as a living of rural cannot ignore continuous interaction space for inhabitants. This criterion is rather subjective, between settlements or urban centres. Consequently because it is difficult to evaluate attractiveness typologies of rural areas can reflect the degree or the using scientifically sound measures. Surveys and level of aforementioned socio-economic interaction. interviews provide the necessary knowledge for the The most important issue is to understand both assessment, however net migration can determine the uniqueness of place and the linkages between the attractiveness of the areas as well. Though different areas and communities (Gallent, Juntti, Kidd, typology based on subjective judgement is not largely & Shaw, 2008). adaptable for policies and strategies, attractiveness The level at which the area is classified as “rural” has expressed through net migration is useful while implications for the application of each definition evaluating effectiveness of regional strategies. (Plessis, Beshiri, & Bollman, 2001). This is especially • The degree of social and economic relevant in policies and strategies, as each rural issue integration and interaction with the urban centre is addressed at different scale. E.g. definition based (Plessis, Beshiri, & Bollman, 2001). It determines the on organization of functions can be more useful in function of the area or, in other words, the way space is regional and national context, while a strategy on used. Furthermore functional relationships in the area community – local scale can adapt definition based can be classified threefold (Vidickienė, Melninkienė, on natural, cultural and attractiveness assets. Gedminaitė-Raudonė, & Ribašauskienė, 2012):74
  • 75. Current rural definition in Lithuania 4.3Currently there is no differentiation in urban or express social, economic, spatial and environmentalrural regions in Lithuania. Law on the Territorial differences among the regions. Last but not the leastAdministrative Units of Lithuania, issued in 1994 weakness of current typology is ignorance of on-determines dichotomy between urban - rural by going socio-economic changes in urban pattern thatsettlement types. Accordingly cities with more than cause and supports disparities in the first place.3 000 inhabitants of which two thirds are employed This results in rural development policy trying toin non-agricultural sector are considered urban, while improve old paradigms instead of fundamentallythe rest of the area is called rural. In latter category changing the attitude towards the challenges offall both towns (having 500 - 3 000 inhabitants of post-industrial society. Multiple issues concerningwhich two thirds are employed in non-agricultural rural development are addressed by introducingsector), villages (less than 500 inhabitants) and all area sub-objectives in existing agricultural developmentin-between. Definition used in Rural Development (Vidickienė, Melninkienė, Gedminaitė-Raudonė,Programme 2007-2013 describes rural area as village, & Ribašauskienė, 2012). On the one hand it keepstown or city having less than 6 000 inhabitants that agricultural sector dominant and integral centre ofdoes not function as administration centre. the policy. On the other hand other rural developmentBoth of these definitions used in Lithuania at issues becomes only a small part of an agriculturalthe moment are considerably similar and fail to development policy. Such approach preventsmeet current situation of rural areas (Vidickienė, understanding rural region as a whole; thereforeMelninkienė, Gedminaitė-Raudonė, & Ribašauskienė, part of the issues in rural areas, especially concerning2012). Firstly, rural definition is not applicable for spatial quality, lacks proper attention from policy-public policy implementation and its performance makers.evaluation. The urban-rural profile based on settlementtypes is relevant for distribution of resources and New rural typologies for Lithuaniapublic infrastructure only while analysing the large Lithuanian Institute of Agrarian Economics (2012)cities. Secondly agriculture sector is not characteristic recently issued a study on alternative rural typologiesfeature of rural areas anymore, moreover since 2006 in Lithuania. According to this research municipalitiesmore than half of rural population became employed are the most suitable territorial units to identifyin service industry and this is shift is irreversible - differences in the region, as they are the smallestcharacterizing areas as rural or urban according to the units that contains independent budget and regionalshare of population employed in agriculture sector management functions.has no meaning anymore (Vidickienė, Melninkienė,Gedminaitė-Raudonė, & Ribašauskienė, 2012). Thirdlydichotomy-based typology classification does not 75
  • 76. First of all, study analyses regions whether they have Secondly, municipalities are divided according to Dijkstra and Poelman (2008) suggested classification urban centre or not, which allows indicate urban the density of population. Those having more than method where areas are perceived as urban, peri- areas. Urban centre here is considered a city having 150 inh/km2 are considered as urban; between urban or rural according to the distance to the nearest more that 50 000 inhabitants with the exception of 35 - 150 inh/km2 as peri-rural and less than 35 inh/ large urban centre. The study on Lithuanian region Palanga city (summer resort with 18 000 permanent km2 - rural. Urban areas remain the same as in the typologies adjusted this classification to Lithuania’s inhabitants). Region is considered as peri-rural region first classification, yet some differentiation occurs in case: in the first step, instead of using the minimum if the number of the inhabitants in the centre of peri-rural division. This classification has the same number of inhabitants, researchers listed cities municipality varies between 16 000 and 50 000. Rural issue of identifying influence of a large urban centre meeting the following requirements: having the regions are those with less than 15 000 inhabitants in to the area, therefore third organization is added university and a hospital and providing bank, legal the centre of municipality. However when using only differentiating areas according to the remoteness. advice and specialized services. Six cities suited this this classification, regions that are close to the urban large city category: Vilnius, Kaunas, Klaipėda, Šiauliai, centre are considered as rural, though due to the Panevėžys ir Telšiai. Driving distance is prolonged influence of large city and functional links with it they respectively to 45, 75 and 90 minutes as well. If at do not act as purely rural areas. least 50 per cent of area’s population can reach large urban centre in less than 45 minutes, it is a city region. In case driving time varies between 45 – 75 minutes for at least 50 per cent of the population the region is considered as peri-rural. When driving time exceedes 90 minutes – area is rural.76
  • 77. 4.3The fourth typology in this study analyses direction of Result of this study provides elaborated classificationon-going socio-economic processes translated into of rural areas that takes into account threedemographic growth of rural and urban areas in the aforementioned criteria: size of urban centre;region. If the net growth ratio in rural areas is higher density of population and remoteness. Regionsthat in urban ones, region is considered as growing; if that are addressed as rural in all three categories arethe growth ratio in urban areas exceeds rural – region considered as strong rural; those meeting two of theis weakening. The rest non-urban regions are stable criteria are categorised as intermediate rural, while(ratio is equal to 1). areas that fall only into one set – slightly rural. Eight officially rural municipalities did not fall into any of these categories, therefore they are considered as peri-urban areas. All images on this and on previous page: Source: Lithuanian Institute of Agrarian Economics, 2010 77