Pursuit of coherenceVision towards more compact and cohesive regional spatial development. Case of KaunasDelft University ...
P2 report                                             Studio Coplex Cities and Regions in Transformations   Key words:    ...
PrefaceThis report including thesis plan is written withinthe framework of the graduation Studio ComplexCities and Regions...
4
Table of contents1. Introduction	                    7     3. Kaunas region	 531.1 Motivation			9                        3...
“Spot master plans” near Kaunas city    Source: http://www.bing.com/maps/#6
1. Introduction                  7
8
Motivation                                                                                                                ...
Former East Block coutries     Central and Eastern Europe                                  Scheme of the main transportati...
Context                                                                                                                   ...
Past two decades have marked significant political,     socio-economic, spatial and cultural changes in     Lithuania as w...
Problem field                                                                                                             ...
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20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
20130123 v gailiute p2 report
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20130123 v gailiute p2 report

  1. 1. Pursuit of coherenceVision towards more compact and cohesive regional spatial development. Case of KaunasDelft University of TechnologyP2 reportViktorija Gailiūtė4187601victoria.gailiute@gmail.com23 January 2013
  2. 2. P2 report Studio Coplex Cities and Regions in Transformations Key words: Date: 23 January 2013 Studio supervisors: Prof Vincent Nadin, Francisco Regional spatial strategy, compact development, Delft University of Technology Colombo, Dr Akkelies van Nes, Dr Qu Lei, Dr Stephen rural areas, economic, social and environmental Faculty of Architecture Read, Dr Roberto Rocco, Dr Diego Sepulveda sustainability Department of Urbanism Chair of Spatial Planning and Strategy Contact: Studio Complex Cities and Regions in Transformation Dr. D.A. Sepulveda Carmona T: +31 (0)15 27 87919 Author E: D.A.SepulvedaCarmona@tudelft.nl Viktorija Gailiūtė Dr. S.A. Read 4187601 T: +31 (0)15 27 88859 victoria.gailiute@gmail.com E: S.A.Read@tudelft.nl Mentor team Chair: Spatial Planning and Strategy 1st mentor: dr Roberto Rocco R.C.Rocco@tudelft.nl Chair: Cultural History and Design 2nd mentor: Prof. Eric Luiten E.A.J.Luiten@tudelft.nl urbanism Image on the front cover by author2
  3. 3. PrefaceThis report including thesis plan is written withinthe framework of the graduation Studio ComplexCities and Regions in Transformation in the TechnicalUniversity Delft, Faculty of Architecture, departmentof Urbanism in MSc 3 and MSc 4. This documentexplains the framework for the development ofthe research and analysis which will lead to thegraduation project. It will be used as a guidance forthe graduation track in direction to the Master thesis.This document is intended for the examination (P2) ofthe graduation track. 3
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  5. 5. Table of contents1. Introduction 7 3. Kaunas region 531.1 Motivation 9 3.1 Introduction 551.2 Context 11 3.2 Green structure 561.3 Problem field 13 3.3 Ecological network 571.4 Aim and goal of the project 21 3.4 Traffic network 581.5 Research questions 22 3.5 Economic network 591.6 Societal and academic relevance 23 3.6 Daily urban system 611.7 Theoretical framework 25 3.7 Work framework for the strategy 621.8 Involved disciplines 26 3.8 Regional planning in Lithuania 631.9 Methodology 27 3.9 Rural development policies 641.10 Time schedule 28 3.10 Rural development policies1.11 Preliminary literature 29 in Lithuania 652. Research 33 4. Rural definition 672.1 Introduction 35 4.1 Transformation of typologies in Eu 692.2 Spatial transformations during 4.2 Classification at national level 73socialism 37 4.3 Current rural definition in LT 752.3 New challenges for a country 412.4 Democracy and new planningsystem 422.5 Free-market economy 472.6 Demographic peocesses 50 Left Impression showing alternative functions in the village. Source: Image by author 5
  6. 6. “Spot master plans” near Kaunas city Source: http://www.bing.com/maps/#6
  7. 7. 1. Introduction 7
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  9. 9. Motivation 1.1“Traditionally cities were at the core of their hinterland The motivation for this thesis is two fold. Firstly it Why spatial planning?regions, linked to smaller towns and settlements originates from a desire to understand the effects of Rural and urban areas become complex andthrough a pattern of radial routes and a hierarchy of spatial transformations taken place after regained diverse systems with growing economic, social andcentres revolving in a centripetal fashion around the independency in Lithuania and possible methods for spatial interrelations. Separated urban and ruralregional core. Place effects were experienced through addressing them. Secondly, it arises from a belief, that development cannot ensure coherent region growthdimension of physical proximity. The closer were two if urban and rural development was more integrated, anymore, therefore integrated strategic spatialphenomena in actual space, the greater their impact it could provide better accessibility of services and planning becomes an important tool to organiseon each other. The city centre was seen as the site of amenities for the rural society and ensure economic the city regions and to ensure economic, spatial andgreatest synergy, and the periphery site of greatest vitality of rural areas while sustaining more cohesive environment sustainability.isolation. In recent years, however, a new regional economic, spatial and social growth of the regions in As Healey describes, the term “spatial planning” refersgeography has developed to explore the dynamic Lithuania. to:complexity of various relational webs which transect self-conscious collective efforts to re-imagineurban areas.” (Healey, 2007) Choice: Complex Cities a city, urban region or wider territory and to Until recently spatial policies and strategies had translate the result into priorities for areaUrbanization accelerates at increasing speed, when envisioned urban and rural development as separate investment, conservation measures, strategicrural turns urban at the pace it is hard to imagine. spatial entities, where the cities were surrounded infrastructure investments and principles ofThough this process is almost finished in Europe, by green, open landscape and rural development land use regulation. The term “spatial” bringsstill a considerable amount of population lives in the was bound to the agriculture activities (Hidding and into focus the “where of things”, whether theareas, which are called “rural”. Moreover after many Teunissen, 2002; Korf and Oughton, 2006; Terluin, static or in the movement; the protection ofdecades of urban expansion, a growth of the rural 2003). However as current dynamics of the network special “places” and sites; the interrelationsareas re-appears (Clark, 2003) as a consequence of society and growing complexity of spatial organization between different activities and networksspatial processes of globalization. Rural areas are not within and between urban-rural regions indicates - in an area; and significant intersections andplace of production anymore; instead, they became as “rural development is no longer the ‘monopoly of the nodes in an area which are physically co-complex as urban systems, dealing with interrelated farmers’” (Korf and Oughton, 2006, p. 278). Instead, located (Healey, 2004, p. 46).issues of social well-being, economic growth, ecology according to Gallent et al. (2008) rural spaces becomeand sustainable growth, energy production and many “increasingly important to regional economies and toothers. environmental quality and liveability”(p. 28).LeftImpresion showing alternative future for the villageas science and research centre.Source: Image by author 9
  10. 10. Former East Block coutries Central and Eastern Europe Scheme of the main transportation axes in Lithuania. Bowth of them crosses Kaunas region. Source: Lietuvos keliu direkcija www.lra.lt Map of Europe: Central and Eastern Europen countries source: Cartographic Research Lab University of Alabama; The Regional Environmental Centre for Central and Eastern Europe, 2010 drawing by Vytas Buinevicius10
  11. 11. Context 1.2Geographical context PlanningLithuania is a country in the North-East Europe. It is a The new planning system was introduced in 1995part of The Baltic Sea Region and the southernmost - during the period of developing marker andcountry of the Baltic states, situated on the eastern democracy and it is still being shaped.side of the Baltic sea. With the position on the edge of Due to considerably new urban planning andthe central Europe Lithuania holds a strategic location management system, spatial patterns in Lithuaniain the region, functioning as the transition south- changes rapidly. Similarly to many cities of Central andnorth and east-west directions. Eastern Europe, urbanisation level increases despite the fact that already nearly 70% of inhabitants live inDemography the cities.With the population of 3 043 000 inhabitants and areaof 65 300 km2 Lithuania is the largest of the Factsheet:Baltic States. However since the last decade total Lithuania [Lietuva]number of inhabitants in Lithuania is shrinking. language: LithuanianAccording to Eurostat prognosis, only 2.5 million capital: Vilniusinhabitants will live in this country by the year 2060. population: 3 043 429 inh.Furthermore predictions show that the number of area: 65 300 km2elderly people of retiring age has greatly grown up density: 46.6 inh/km2(dependence on the factor will increase three times)and the possibility to use public funds for infrastructure source: Department of Statistics, www.stat.gov.ltdevelopment will be continuously decreasing. (2010)Political-economical contextOn March 11, 1990 Lithuania re-established theindependent state declaring independence from theUSSR. In the political- economical context of the post-communist countries Lithuania is regarded as a Centraland Eastern European Country (CEE), not as FormerSoviet Union (FSU) country as not being a memberof Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Since2004 Lithuania is also a member of European Union(EU) and NATO. 11
  12. 12. Past two decades have marked significant political, socio-economic, spatial and cultural changes in Lithuania as well as in other post-socialist countries (Kay, Shubin, & Thelen, 2012). Yet despite the historical legacy, on-going spatial transformations in the urban and rural areas in Lithuania are similar to the processes occurring in many capitalist based countries. Driven by free-market economy, increasing importance of networks and competition for global attention, economic growth concentrates in urban regions while creating vacuum in the periphery, thus economic and social disparities between urban and rural areas become even greater now than during the socialist regime (Tsenkova, 2006). Moreover lack of public planning, individual pursue of fast economic profit, dependency on private transportation, societal norms and increasing life standards result in rapid suburban expansion around previously compact cities and increasing tension between urban and rural areas.12
  13. 13. Problem field 1.3 Backwardness of remote rural areasOn the one hand locations with highest concentrationof population, skilled labour, capital and accessto global communication- the capital and the fewlargest urban centres attracts people, concentratesurban activities and experience economic growth(Stanilov, 2007). Whereas development of the ruralareas is largely dependent on their proximity to theurban centre: remote rural areas experience economicand social backwardness comparing to urban regions,underinvestment and decay or even desertion of ruralsettlements due to extreme rural population loses. Income differences between growing regions and peripheral rural ares indicates the increasing gap Foreign direct investment per district shows even between economic development as well. higher disparities between economic growth between Source: Department of Statistics, www.stat.gov.lt the regions. (2010) Source: Department of Statistics, www.stat.gov.ltAttractive regions (2010) Rural Rural-urban UrbanUnattractive regions Rural Rural-urban UrbanThis scheme above shows the most attractive andunattractive regions. Mapping is based on netomigration saldo from and to the region for 2006-2008.Attractive regions that have population growth, arethose in the vicinity of urban centre. The rest regionsin most cases looses population. Previous pageSource: Lithuanian Institute of Agrarian Economics, Abandoned village. Some rights reserved by2010 cindy47452, source: www.flickr.com 13
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