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Electronic Commerce Eighth Edition Chapter 2 Technology Infrastructure: The Internet and the World Wide Web
Learning Objectives <ul><li>In this chapter, you will learn about: </li></ul><ul><li>The origin, growth, and current struc...
Learning Objectives (cont’d.) <ul><li>How HTML tags and links work on the World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>The differences...
The Internet and the World Wide Web <ul><li>Computer network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology allowing people to connect c...
Origins of the Internet <ul><li>Early 1960s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense Department nuclear attack concerns </li></ul></u...
New Uses for the Internet <ul><li>Defense Department network use was original goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control weapons s...
New Uses for the Internet (cont’d.) <ul><li>Game-playing software created </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Internet use </li></ul...
Commercial Use of the Internet <ul><li>National Science Foundation (NSF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided funding </li></ul>...
Growth of the Internet <ul><li>1991  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Further easing of commercial Internet activity restrictions </l...
Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
Growth of the Internet (cont’d.) <ul><li>Internet hosts: directly connected computers </li></ul><ul><li>Internet growth </...
Emergence of the World Wide Web <ul><li>Web  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software running on Internet-connected computers </li><...
Emergence of the World Wide Web (cont’d.) <ul><li>The development of hypertext </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1945: Vannevar Bush: ...
Emergence of the World Wide Web (cont’d.) <ul><li>The development of hypertext (cont’d.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1989: Tim B...
Emergence of the World Wide Web (cont’d.) <ul><li>The development of hypertext (cont’d.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HTML </li><...
Emergence of the World Wide Web (cont’d.) <ul><li>Graphical interfaces for hypertext </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web browser </l...
Emergence of the World Wide Web (cont’d.) <ul><li>The World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Berners-Lee’s system of hyperli...
Emergence of the World Wide Web (cont’d.) <ul><li>The World Wide Web (cont’d.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy way to access In...
<ul><li>Estimates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 140 million Web sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 30 billion in...
Packet-Switched Networks <ul><li>Local area network (LAN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network of computers located close togethe...
Packet-Switched Networks (cont’d.) <ul><li>Circuit switching  (cont’d.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Works well for telephone cal...
Packet-Switched Networks (cont’d.) <ul><li>Packet-switched  network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Packets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Routing Packets <ul><li>Routing computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide how best to forward each packet </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Routing Packets (cont’d.) <ul><li>Routing algorithms applied to routing table information </li></ul><ul><li>Routing tables...
<ul><li>Internet backbone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet routers handle packet traffic along main connecting points ( back...
Internet Protocols <ul><li>ARPANET:  Network Control Protocol (NCP) </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol : collection of network dat...
TCP/IP <ul><li>Internet protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
IP Addressing <ul><li>Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for past 20 years </li></ul></ul><ul><...
IP Addressing (cont’d.) <ul><li>Dotted decimal  notation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP numbers (addresses) </li></ul></ul><ul><...
IP Addressing (cont’d.) <ul><li>High demand for IP addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Subnetting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use reserv...
IP Addressing (cont’d.) <ul><li>Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace IPv4 (future) </li></ul><...
Domain Names <ul><li>Dotted decimal notation difficult to remember </li></ul><ul><li>Domain names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Se...
Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
Web Page Request and Delivery Protocols <ul><li>Web client computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web client software (Web browse...
Web Page Request and Delivery Protocols (cont’d.) <ul><li>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interne...
Electronic Mail Protocols <ul><li>Electronic mail (e-mail) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formatted according to common set of rule...
Electronic Mail Protocols (cont’d.) <ul><li>Two common protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP...
Electronic Mail Protocols (cont’d.) <ul><li>Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of rule...
Unsolicited Commercial E-Mail  (UCE, Spam) <ul><li>Spam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsolicited commercial e-mail (UCE) </li></u...
Markup Languages and the Web <ul><li>Text markup language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifies tag set inserted into text </li>...
Markup Languages and the Web (cont’d.) <ul><li>Extensible Markup Language (XML) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derived from SGML </...
Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
Standard Generalized Markup Language <ul><li>Generalized Markup Language (GML) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates standard elec...
Hypertext Markup Language <ul><li>Hypertext elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text elements related to each other </li></ul><...
Hypertext Markup Language (cont’d.) <ul><li>HTML tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpreted by Web browser </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Hypertext Markup Language (cont’d.) <ul><li>One-sided tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Require opening tag only </li></ul></ul><...
Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
Hypertext Markup Language (cont’d.) <ul><li>HTML links </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperlinks form interlinked pages that form a...
Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
Hypertext Markup Language (cont’d.) <ul><li>Scripting languages and style sheets </li></ul><ul><li>HTML version released (...
Extensible Markup Language (XML) <ul><li>Web design tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages contain large amounts of data, li...
Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
<ul><li>Figures 2-12 and 2-13 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages of XML list presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mor...
Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
Extensible Markup Language (XML) (cont’d.) <ul><li>Strength of XML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows users to define their own ...
Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
HTML and XML Editors <ul><li>HTML document creation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General-purpose text editor or word processor </...
Intranets and Extranets <ul><li>internets (small “i”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnected networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Intranets <ul><li>Distribute internal corporate information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-cost, efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Extranets <ul><li>Connects company with suppliers, business partners, other authorized users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Databas...
Public and Private Networks <ul><li>Public network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public availability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Privat...
Virtual Private Network (VPN) <ul><li>Extranet using public networks and protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sends sensitive d...
<ul><li>Leased lines not required </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure required outside company’s intranet </li></ul><ul><li>E...
Internet Connection Options <ul><li>Internet  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of interconnected networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>...
Connectivity Overview <ul><li>Common connection options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice-grade telephone lines, various types o...
Connectivity Overview (cont’d.) <ul><li>Asymmetric connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide different bandwidths for each...
Voice-Grade Telephone Connections <ul><li>Local telephone service provider </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common way for an in...
Broadband Connections <ul><li>Connection speeds greater than 200 Kbps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asymmetric digital subscriber ...
Leased-Line Connections <ul><li>More expensive technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classified by equivalent number of telep...
Leased-Line Connections (cont’d.) <ul><li>NAPs and Internet backbone use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame relay </li></ul></ul...
Wireless Connections <ul><li>Satellite sent microwave transmissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Download speeds (500 Kbps) </li>...
Wireless Connections (cont’d.) <ul><li>Bluetooth and Ultra Wideband (UWB) </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth  design for use over...
Wireless Connections (cont’d.) <ul><li>Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi (wireless Ethernet, 802.11b) ...
Wireless Connections (cont’d.) <ul><li>Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi)   (cont’d.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11n:  “Draft-N” (30...
Wireless Connections (cont’d.) <ul><li>Fixed-point wireless </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System of repeaters </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Wireless Connections (cont’d.) <ul><li>Cellular telephone networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast signals to (receive sig...
Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
Internet2 and the Semantic Web <ul><li>Internet2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacement for original ARPANET laboratory </li></...
Internet2 and the Semantic Web (cont’d.) <ul><li>Semantic Web  project (next-generation Web) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus <...
Summary <ul><li>In this chapter, you were introduced to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History of the Internet and Web  </li></ul>...
Summary (cont’d.) <ul><ul><li>Networking technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internets, intranets, and extranets <...
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  1. 1. Electronic Commerce Eighth Edition Chapter 2 Technology Infrastructure: The Internet and the World Wide Web
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>In this chapter, you will learn about: </li></ul><ul><li>The origin, growth, and current structure of the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>How packet-switched networks are combined to form the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>How Internet protocols and Internet addressing work </li></ul><ul><li>The history and use of markup languages on the Web, including SGML, HTML, and XML </li></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  3. 3. Learning Objectives (cont’d.) <ul><li>How HTML tags and links work on the World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>The differences among internets, intranets, and extranets </li></ul><ul><li>Options for connecting to the Internet, including cost and bandwidth factors </li></ul><ul><li>Internet2 and the Semantic Web </li></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  4. 4. The Internet and the World Wide Web <ul><li>Computer network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology allowing people to connect computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnected global computer networks (large) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic technology structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer networks and the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlies e-commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World Wide Web (Web) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subset of Internet computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contents easily accessible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes easy-to-use interfaces </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  5. 5. Origins of the Internet <ul><li>Early 1960s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense Department nuclear attack concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used powerful computers (large mainframes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used leased telephone company lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single connection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single connection risk solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate using multiple channels (packets) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1969 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Packet network connected four computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ARPANET: earliest network (became the Internet) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Academic research use (1970s and 1980s) </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  6. 6. New Uses for the Internet <ul><li>Defense Department network use was original goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control weapons systems, transfer research files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1970s: other uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail (1972) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remote file transfer and computer access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mailing lists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail address forwards message to subscribed users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1979 Usenet (User’s News Network) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read and post articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsgroups (topic areas) </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  7. 7. New Uses for the Internet (cont’d.) <ul><li>Game-playing software created </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Internet use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research and academic communities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1979 – 1989 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network applications improved and tested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense Department’s networking software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gained wider academic and research institution use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common communications network benefit recognized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security problems recognized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1980s: personal computer use explosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic and research networks merged </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  8. 8. Commercial Use of the Internet <ul><li>National Science Foundation (NSF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibited commercial network traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business turned to commercial e-mail providers </li></ul><ul><li>Larger firms built networks (leased telephone lines) </li></ul><ul><li>1989: NSF permitted two commercial e-mail services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MCI Mail and CompuServe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial enterprises could send e-mail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research, education communities sent e-mail directly to MCI Mail and CompuServe </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  9. 9. Growth of the Internet <ul><li>1991 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Further easing of commercial Internet activity restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1995: privatization of the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations turned over to privately owned companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet based on four network access points (NAPs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Network access providers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sell Internet access rights directly to larger customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Internet service providers (ISPs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sell to smaller firms and individuals </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  10. 10. Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  11. 11. Growth of the Internet (cont’d.) <ul><li>Internet hosts: directly connected computers </li></ul><ul><li>Internet growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological and social accomplishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by millions of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thousands of different software packages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Billions of dollars change hands yearly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to World Wide Web </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  12. 12. Emergence of the World Wide Web <ul><li>Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software running on Internet-connected computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generates Internet traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web software: largest single traffic category </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outpaces: e-mail, file transfers, other data transmission traffic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New way of thinking about information storage and retrieval </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web history important innovations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertext </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphical user interfaces </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  13. 13. Emergence of the World Wide Web (cont’d.) <ul><li>The development of hypertext </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1945: Vannevar Bush: The Atlantic Monthly article </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visionary ideas: future technology uses (Memex) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1960s: Ted Nelson described hypertext </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Page-linking system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Douglas Engelbart: experimental hypertext system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1987: Nelson published Literary Machines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outlined project Xanadu global system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Online hypertext publishing and commerce </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  14. 14. Emergence of the World Wide Web (cont’d.) <ul><li>The development of hypertext (cont’d.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1989: Tim Berners-Lee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed hypertext development project </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provided data-sharing functionality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developed hypertext server program code </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertext server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stores Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) files </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computers connect and read files </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web servers (today) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertext servers used on the Web </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  15. 15. Emergence of the World Wide Web (cont’d.) <ul><li>The development of hypertext (cont’d.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HTML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set of codes (tags) attached to text </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describes relationships among text elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertext link (hyperlink) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Points to another location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same or another HTML document </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  16. 16. Emergence of the World Wide Web (cont’d.) <ul><li>Graphical interfaces for hypertext </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web browser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software interface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Users read (browse) HTML documents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Move from one HTML document to another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Text formatted with hypertext link tags in file </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HTML document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No specification of text element appearance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphical user interface (GUI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presents program control functions, output to users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures, icons, other graphical elements </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  17. 17. Emergence of the World Wide Web (cont’d.) <ul><li>The World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Berners-Lee’s system of hyperlinked HTML documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick acceptance in scientific research community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1993: first GUI program (Mosaic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read HTML </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used HTML hyperlinks for page-to-page navigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First Web browser widely available for personal computers </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  18. 18. Emergence of the World Wide Web (cont’d.) <ul><li>The World Wide Web (cont’d.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy way to access Internet information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provided by functional system of pages connected by hypertext links </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Profit-making potential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Netscape Communications founded in 1994 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Netscape Navigator Web browser (based on Mosaic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft: Internet Explorer (most widely used) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mozilla Firefox: Netscape Navigator descendant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Web sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More rapid growth than the Internet itself </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  19. 19. <ul><li>Estimates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 140 million Web sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 30 billion individual Web pages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial business Web use increasing </li></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  20. 20. Packet-Switched Networks <ul><li>Local area network (LAN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network of computers located close together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wide area networks (WANs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Networks of computers connected over greater distances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circuit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of telephone lines and closed switches that connect them to each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circuit switching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centrally controlled, single-connection model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single electrical path between caller and receiver </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  21. 21. Packet-Switched Networks (cont’d.) <ul><li>Circuit switching (cont’d.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Works well for telephone calls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not work as well for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sending data across large WAN, interconnected network (Internet) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Circuit-switched network problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected circuit failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes interrupted connection, data loss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Packet switching: move data between two points </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  22. 22. Packet-Switched Networks (cont’d.) <ul><li>Packet-switched network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Packets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small pieces labeled electronically (origin, sequence, destination address) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Travel along interconnected networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can take different paths </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May arrive out of order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destination computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collects packets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reassembles original file or e-mail message </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  23. 23. Routing Packets <ul><li>Routing computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide how best to forward each packet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Router computers , routers , gateway computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gateway from LAN (WAN to the Internet) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Border routers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between organization and the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Routing algorithms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programs on router computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determine best path for packet </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  24. 24. Routing Packets (cont’d.) <ul><li>Routing algorithms applied to routing table information </li></ul><ul><li>Routing tables (configuration tables) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain lists of connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain rules that: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specify connection to use first </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Handle heavy packet traffic and network congestion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Variety rules and standards for creating packets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must translate packets into standard format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routers perform translation function </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  25. 25. <ul><li>Internet backbone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet routers handle packet traffic along main connecting points ( backbone routers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three billion packets per second </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  26. 26. Internet Protocols <ul><li>ARPANET: Network Control Protocol (NCP) </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol : collection of network data rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes transmission rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers must use same protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proprietary architecture (closed architecture) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturer creates own protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open architecture (Internet core) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses common protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four key message-handling rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributed to the Internet’s success </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  27. 27. TCP/IP <ul><li>Internet protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controls message, file disassembly into packets before Internet transmission </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controls packet reassembly into original formats at destinations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Protocol (IP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specifies addressing details for each packet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labels packet with origination and destination addresses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP refers to both protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used today (replaced ARPANET NCP) </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  28. 28. IP Addressing <ul><li>Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for past 20 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IP address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>32-bit number identifying computers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Base 2 ( binary ) number system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers use for internal calculations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digit: 0 or a 1 (on or off condition) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Byte (8-bit number) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Octet (networking applications) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Binary values: 00000000 to 11111111 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decimal equivalents: 0 to 255 </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  29. 29. IP Addressing (cont’d.) <ul><li>Dotted decimal notation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP numbers (addresses) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Four numbers separated by periods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Four parts range from 0 to 255 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP addresses range: 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three organizations assign IP addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Whois server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Returns IP address list owned by an organization </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  30. 30. IP Addressing (cont’d.) <ul><li>High demand for IP addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Subnetting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use reserved private IP LAN (WAN) addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide additional address space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Private IP addresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP numbers not permitted on Internet packets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network Address Translation (NAT) device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Converts private IP addresses into normal IP addresses </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  31. 31. IP Addressing (cont’d.) <ul><li>Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace IPv4 (future) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not directly compatible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>128-bit number for addresses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(2 28 ): 34 followed by 37 zeros </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Packet format change eliminates unnecessary fields </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adds fields for security, other optional information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorthand notation system for expressing addresses (complex eight groups of 16 bits) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group expressed as four hexadecimal digits separated by colons </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  32. 32. Domain Names <ul><li>Dotted decimal notation difficult to remember </li></ul><ul><li>Domain names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sets of words assigned to specific IP addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: www.sandiego.edu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains three parts separated by periods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top-level domain (TLD) : rightmost part </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generic top-level domains (gTLDs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sponsored top-level domains (sTLD) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility: managing non-sTLD </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  33. 33. Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  34. 34. Web Page Request and Delivery Protocols <ul><li>Web client computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web client software (Web browser software) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sends Web page file requests to other computers (Web servers) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Web server computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web server software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receives requests from many different Web clients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Client/server architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination: client computers, server computers </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  35. 35. Web Page Request and Delivery Protocols (cont’d.) <ul><li>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Web page file delivery rules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web page request using Web browser </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of protocol name followed by “//:” before domain name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniform Resource Locator (URL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combination: protocol name, domain name </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Locate resource (Web page) on another computer (Web server) </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  36. 36. Electronic Mail Protocols <ul><li>Electronic mail (e-mail) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formatted according to common set of rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client/server structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E-mail server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer devoted to e-mail handling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores, forwards e-mail messages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E-mail client software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read and send e-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates with e-mail server software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standardization and rules very important </li></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  37. 37. Electronic Mail Protocols (cont’d.) <ul><li>Two common protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specifies mail message format </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describes mail administration e-mail server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describes mail transmission on the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post Office Protocol (POP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sends mail to user’s computer, deletes from server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sends mail to user’s computer, does not delete </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asks if new mail arrived </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  38. 38. Electronic Mail Protocols (cont’d.) <ul><li>Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of rules for handling binary files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactive Mail Access Protocol (IMAP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newer e-mail protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same basic POP functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes additional features </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  39. 39. Unsolicited Commercial E-Mail (UCE, Spam) <ul><li>Spam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsolicited commercial e-mail (UCE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulk mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic junk mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wastes people’s time and computer disk space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consumes large amounts of Internet capacity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distracts employees </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  40. 40. Markup Languages and the Web <ul><li>Text markup language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifies tag set inserted into text </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Markup tags (tags) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formatting instructions Web client understands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HTML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web markup language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most commonly used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) subset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Older, more complex text markup language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meta language: used to define other languages </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  41. 41. Markup Languages and the Web (cont’d.) <ul><li>Extensible Markup Language (XML) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derived from SGML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mark up shared information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meta language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates markup elements extending XML usefulness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains Web standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HTML version 4.0 reformulation as XML application </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  42. 42. Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  43. 43. Standard Generalized Markup Language <ul><li>Generalized Markup Language (GML) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates standard electronic document formatting styles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International Organization for Standardization (ISO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted version of GML (SGML) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System of marking up documents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software application independent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonproprietary, platform independent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offers user-defined tags </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not suited to rapid Web page development </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  44. 44. Hypertext Markup Language <ul><li>Hypertext elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text elements related to each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HTML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevalent markup language to create Web documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>W3C HTML Working Group page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed HTML versions, related topic information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>HTML extensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Features that work in specific Web browsers </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  45. 45. Hypertext Markup Language (cont’d.) <ul><li>HTML tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpreted by Web browser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Format text display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enclosed in angle brackets (<>) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opening tag and closing tag </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Format text between them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Closing tag </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preceded by slash within angle brackets (</>) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User may customize tag interpretations </li></ul><ul><li>Tags: lowercase or uppercase letters </li></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  46. 46. Hypertext Markup Language (cont’d.) <ul><li>One-sided tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Require opening tag only </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two-sided tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optional closing tag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closing tag position very important </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opening tag may contain one or more property modifiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Further refine tag operation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other frequently used HTML tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics and tables </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  47. 47. Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  48. 48. Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  49. 49. Hypertext Markup Language (cont’d.) <ul><li>HTML links </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperlinks form interlinked pages that form a “web” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linear hyperlink structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read Web page in serial fashion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for when customer fills out form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical hyperlink structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introductory page ( home page, start page) links to other pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads customers from general to specific topics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hybrid designs combine linear and hierarchical structures </li></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  50. 50. Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  51. 51. Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  52. 52. Hypertext Markup Language (cont’d.) <ul><li>Scripting languages and style sheets </li></ul><ul><li>HTML version released (after 1997) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Object tag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Embeds scripting language code on HTML pages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Client-side scripting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More control over displayed page format </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Style sheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instructions stored in separate file </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Referenced using HTML style tag </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May be included in Web page’s HTML file </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  53. 53. Extensible Markup Language (XML) <ul><li>Web design tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages contain large amounts of data, lists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Includes data-management capabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HTML cannot provide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>See Figures 2-10 and 2-11 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrate HTML shortcomings in presenting lists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>XML different from HTML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XML is not a markup language with defined tags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XML tags do not specify text appearance on page </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  54. 54. Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  55. 55. Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  56. 56. <ul><li>Figures 2-12 and 2-13 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages of XML list presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More effectively communicate the meaning of data </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  57. 57. Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  58. 58. Extensible Markup Language (XML) (cont’d.) <ul><li>Strength of XML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows users to define their own tags (weakness as well) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solution to user tag definitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common XML tags standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data-type definitions (DTDs) or XML schemas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2001: W3C released set of rules for XML documents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>XML files not intended to display in browser </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains formatting instructions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XML parsers: format XML file for device screen </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  59. 59. Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  60. 60. HTML and XML Editors <ul><li>HTML document creation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General-purpose text editor or word processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special-purpose HTML editors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freeware, shareware, commercial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web site design tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create and manage complete Web sites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upload entire site from PC to Web server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Adobe Dreamweaver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>XML files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created with text editor or programs </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  61. 61. Intranets and Extranets <ul><li>internets (small “i”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnected networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not extend beyond organizational boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intranet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnected network (or internet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses TCP/IP protocol set </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not extend beyond creating organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Extranet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intranet extended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes specific entities outside organization boundaries </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  62. 62. Intranets <ul><li>Distribute internal corporate information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-cost, efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Client/server model-based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requests work same way as on the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web browsers, Internet-based protocols used </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces software maintenance, update costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees’ computer workstations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Script used to update workstations automatically </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  63. 63. Extranets <ul><li>Connects company with suppliers, business partners, other authorized users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database access, files, other information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Set up through the Internet or separate network </li></ul><ul><li>Some extranets start as intranets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select Internet users’ data access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: FedEx package-tracking software </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  64. 64. Public and Private Networks <ul><li>Public network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public availability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Private network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private, leased-line connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physically connects intranets to one another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leased line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent telephone connection between two points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage: security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawback: costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scaling problem: adding companies </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  65. 65. Virtual Private Network (VPN) <ul><li>Extranet using public networks and protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sends sensitive data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses IP tunneling (encapsulation) system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private passageway through public Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secure transmission: one computer to another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encapsulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of creating virtual passageway VPN software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encrypts packet content, places inside another packet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IP wrapper: outer packet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VPN software installed on both computers </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  66. 66. <ul><li>Leased lines not required </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure required outside company’s intranet </li></ul><ul><li>Extranets sometimes confused with VPNs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VPN is an extranet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extranet not necessarily a VPN </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  67. 67. Internet Connection Options <ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of interconnected networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizations connect computers using a network </li></ul><ul><li>Internet access providers (IAPs) or ISPs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide Internet access to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals, businesses, other organizations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer several connection options </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  68. 68. Connectivity Overview <ul><li>Common connection options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice-grade telephone lines, various types of broadband connections, leased lines, wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distinguishing factor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of data traveling through communication line per unit of time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Net bandwidth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual speed information travels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symmetric connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide same bandwidth in both directions </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  69. 69. Connectivity Overview (cont’d.) <ul><li>Asymmetric connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide different bandwidths for each direction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Upstream bandwidth (upload bandwidth) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of information from user to the Internet in a given amount of time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Downstream bandwidth ( download, downlink bandwidth) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of information from the Internet to user in a given amount of time </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  70. 70. Voice-Grade Telephone Connections <ul><li>Local telephone service provider </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common way for an individual to connect to ISP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plain old telephone service (POTS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses existing telephone lines, analog modem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth between 28 and 56 Kbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher grade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use DSL modem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First technology developed using DSL protocol suite </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  71. 71. Broadband Connections <ul><li>Connection speeds greater than 200 Kbps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DSL protocol providing broadband range service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-speed DSL (HDSL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More than 768 Kbps symmetric bandwidth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable modems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission speeds: 300 Kbps to 1 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connection bandwidths vary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subscribers compete for shared resource </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSL: Private line with no competing traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rural connection option issues </li></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  72. 72. Leased-Line Connections <ul><li>More expensive technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classified by equivalent number of telephone lines included </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DS0 (digital signal zero) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries one digital signal (56 Kbps) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T1 line (DS1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries 24 DS0 lines (1.544 Mbps) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fractional T1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>128 Kbps and upward in 128-Kbps increments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T3 (DS3): 44.736 Mbps </li></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  73. 73. Leased-Line Connections (cont’d.) <ul><li>NAPs and Internet backbone use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame relay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical fiber (instead of copper wire) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth determined by fiber-optic cable class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OC3 (optical carrier 3): 156 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OC12: 622 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OC48: 2.5 Gbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OC192: 10 Gbps </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  74. 74. Wireless Connections <ul><li>Satellite sent microwave transmissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Download speeds (500 Kbps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upload handled by POTS modem connection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Today, companies use microwave transmitter (150 Kbps) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs, accuracy improving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POTS modem upload connection not required </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>34 percent of Internet users use wireless devices </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  75. 75. Wireless Connections (cont’d.) <ul><li>Bluetooth and Ultra Wideband (UWB) </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth design for use over short distances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-bandwidth technology (722 Kbps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal area networks (PANs) or piconets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small Bluetooth networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage: consumes very little power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ultra Wideband (UWB) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>480 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connections over short distances (30 to 100 feet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future personal area networking applications </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  76. 76. Wireless Connections (cont’d.) <ul><li>Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi (wireless Ethernet, 802.11b) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless access point (WAP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transmits packets between Wi-Fi-equipped computers and other devices within range </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11b (11 Mbps): range of about 300 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11a (54 Mbps): not 802.11b compatible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11g (54 Mbps): 802.11b compatible </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  77. 77. Wireless Connections (cont’d.) <ul><li>Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi) (cont’d.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11n: “Draft-N” (300 to 450 Mbps range) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small office home office (SOHO) market </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finalized specification: 2009 or 2010 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shifting from one WAP to another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No user intervention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot spots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WAPs open to public </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  78. 78. Wireless Connections (cont’d.) <ul><li>Fixed-point wireless </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System of repeaters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forward radio signal from ISP to customers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeaters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transmitter-receiver devices ( transceivers ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses mesh routing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directly transmits Wi-Fi packets through short-range transceivers (hundreds or thousands) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Located close to each other </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  79. 79. Wireless Connections (cont’d.) <ul><li>Cellular telephone networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast signals to (receive signals from) antennas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three miles apart in grid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Original design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voice communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third-generation ( 3G ) cell phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combine latest technologies available today </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short message service ( SMS ) protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Send and receive short text messages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell phones may include tiny Web browsers </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  80. 80. Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  81. 81. Internet2 and the Semantic Web <ul><li>Internet2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacement for original ARPANET laboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental networking technologies test bed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High end of the bandwidth spectrum (10 GB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universities, medical schools, CERN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly technology development </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  82. 82. Internet2 and the Semantic Web (cont’d.) <ul><li>Semantic Web project (next-generation Web) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blending technologies and information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses software agents (intelligent programs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read XML tags </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determine meaning of words in their contexts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource description framework (RDF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set of XML syntax standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of Semantic Web will take many years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Start with ontologies for specific subjects </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  83. 83. Summary <ul><li>In this chapter, you were introduced to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History of the Internet and Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware and software technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make electronic commerce possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How the Internet and World Wide Web work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technologies supporting the Internet, the Web, electronic commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protocols, programs, languages, architectures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TCP/IP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HTML, SGML, XML </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
  84. 84. Summary (cont’d.) <ul><ul><li>Networking technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internets, intranets, and extranets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of Internet connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Web project </li></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce, Eighth Edition
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