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DeWitte's Middle Ages Powerpoint

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  • 1. The Medieval Era 1066 - 14856
  • 2. The Norman Conquest
    • Led by William, Duke of Normandy, the Normans (from France) invaded in the year 1066. The King of England was killed in the Battle of Hastings, and William emerged victorious.
    • During the next several centuries, the Old English language and culture merged with Old French. They continued to be two separate languages, but many French words and customs were incorporated into the English way of life.
    O. E. + O. Fr.  Middle English
  • 3. The Feudal System
  • 4. Other influences: language/learning
    • 1454 Johann Gutenberg – the printing press
    • 1476 William Caxton – the first English printing press
    Result: literature no longer needed to be hand-copied by church scribes.
  • 5. Literature of the Middle Ages
    • the first true dramas emerged
    • the poet Geoffrey Chaucer wrote The Canterbury Tales
    • romances portrayed the deeds of knights
    • balladeers sang of love and deeds of outlaws
  • 6. Medieval Drama
    • church sponsored plays as part of religious services
    • plays gradually moved into the marketplace
    • miracle plays or mystery plays – retold stories from the Bible / lives of saints
    • morality plays – depicted lives of ordinary people and taught moral lessons
  • 7. Romances, Lyrics, and Ballads
    • Medieval romances
    • tales describing the adventures of knights
    • many about the Arthurian legend
    • Lyrical poetry
    • poets often strummed lyres (a harplike instrument) as they recited their verse
    • led to lyrical poetry
    • Ballads
    • folk song that tells a story
    • many were about the hero Robin Hood
  • 8. Geoffrey Chaucer (1343? – 1400)
    • grew up amid the bustle of a successful international business (his dad was a wine merchant)
    • he served the nobility as an administrator  his position in society gave him a perfect vantage point for observing all types of people
    • well-respected in his own day
    • a.k.a “the Father of English Poetry”
    • buried in the Poet’s Corner of Westminster Abbey
  • 9. The Poet’s Corner
    • The Poets Corner of Westminster Abbey was established around the tomb of Chaucer. It is also the resting place for other British literary greats such as William Shakespeare and Charles Dickens.
  • 10. Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales
    • written in Middle English
    • frame story – a story w/in a story
    • shows a cross section of medieval society, from the nobility all the way down to the degraded lower class
    • written in heroic couplets - a pair of rhyming lines w/ 5 stressed syllables each
    Whan that aprill with his shoures soote The droghte of march hath perced to the roote, And bathed every veyne in swich licour Of which vertu engendred is the flour; Whan zephirus eek with his sweete breeth Inspired hath in every holt and heeth Tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne Hath in the ram his halve cours yronne, And smale foweles maken melodye, That slepen al the nyght with open ye (so priketh hem nature in hir corages); Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages,
  • 11. Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales
    • planned as an exchange of tales among pilgrims journeying to the shrine of martyr Thomas Becket at Canterbury, England
    • 30 pilgrims tell 2 stories each down from London to Canterbury and 2 stories on the return trip = 60 stories down + 60 on the return = 120 stories each
    • Chaucer only wrote the Prologue
    • (the frame) and 24 tales, but it is
    • considered a complete work
  • 12. Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales
    • The tales are divided into different types (genres) of stories:
    • romances – tales of chivalry / courtly love
    • fabliaux - short, bawdy, humorous stories
    • sermons – stories of saints
    • fables – a story that uses talking animals & teaches a moral or lesson
    • Each pilgrim tells a type of tale consistent with his / her own character (for example, the Knight tells a romance, etc).
  • 13. Literary Terms
    • Direct characterization
    • Indirect characterization
    • Heroic couplet
    • Ballad
    • Folk tale
    • Medieval romance
    • Miracle plays
    • Morality plays
    • Frame story
    • Legend
  • 14. Other Terms
    • Feudalism
    • Baron
    • Peasant/serf
    • Martyr
    • Chivalry
    • pilgrimage