Motivation
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Motivation

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    Motivation Motivation Presentation Transcript

    • PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF GOAL SETTING Research on Expectancy Theory EXPANDING THE CONCEPT OF EQUITY THEORY
    • DYNAMICS OF PERCEIVED INEQUITY EQUITY THEORY OF MOTIVATION dependent on comparing own ratio of A person (P) Compares input/output with ratios of 'referent‘ others and perceives with certain his/her inputs (I) and input/outcome receiving certain ratio to reference outcomes (O) EQUITY SENSITIVITY person’s (RP) inputs (I) and outcomes (O) BENEVOLENTS OP ORP = IP IRP Equity OP < ORP IP IRP Negative Inequity OP > ORP IP IRP Positive Inequity What I put into my job:the person What I get from my job: pay, salary, IP: Inputs of time, effort, ability, loyalty, hard work, tolerance, bonus and ENTITLEDS commission, perks, OP: Outcomes of the person flexibility, integrity, commitment, benefits, job security, promotion, reliability, heart and soul, personal IRP: Inputs of reference person recognition, interest, development, sacrifice, trust in our superiors, reputation, praise, REDUCING INEQUITY responsibility, enjoyment, sense of achievement and support to the colleagues, etcreference person ORP: Outcomes of advancement, etc inputs outputs People become demotivated, reduce input and/or seek change/improvement whenever they feel their inputs are not being fairly rewarded. Fairness is based on perceived market norms. Back
    • PRACTICAL LESSONSCONCEPT OFTHEORY EXPANDING THE FROM EQUITY EQUITY Give employees the opportunity to Provides explanation of how appeal decisions that affects beliefs & attitude affect their DISTRIBUTIVE Treating performance employees inequitably can welfare JUSTICE lead to litigation & costly rework Employees are more likely to Paying attention toorganizational accept and support employee’s PROCEDURAL JUSTICE perceptions of what is fair & change if it is fairly implemented equitable and produces equitable outcomes Managers need to pay attention to the organization’s climate per justice INTERACTIONAL Allowing employees to participate Managers can promote cooperation JUSTICE in making decisions about &teamwork among group members by important work equitably treating them outcomes Back
    • INSTRUMENTALITY The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way VALENCE depends on the strength of Theexpectancyreward an value of a that the act will be followed by a given consequence & on the value or attractiveness of that consequence EFFORT = PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION Represents a person’s belief that a particular outcome is contingent on a specific level of performance Back
    • Some workers value interesting work and recognition more than money Extrinsic rewards can lose their motivating properties overtime and many undermine intrinsic motivation Research On Expectancy Theory Monetary rewards must be large enough to generate motivation Four Prerequisites to Linking Performance & Rewards Managers need to determine the relative Managers should use develop and Managers need to the performance valid and accurate mix of individual versus team contribution performance ratings with which to compare communicate performance standards to ratings to differentially allocate rewards to performance and then reward accordingly among employees employees employees Back
    • Four Management Insights From Motivational Goal Setting by Objectives Research Mechanisms Goals Direct Attention Goal Difficulty Goals Regulate Effort Goal Specificity Feedback Enhances the Effect of Goals Increase Persistence Specific Goals Goals Foster the Development & Participative goals, assigned Application of Task Strategies & Action goals& self set goals Goal Commitment Back
    • What individual is trying to accomplish
    • Managerial Actions for Enhancing Goal Commitment Practical Application of Goal Setting Break a Long term goal into short Provide valued sub goals for goal term outcomes accomplishment Have Raise employee’s a public commitment employees make self efficacy to the goal Ensure that inspiring vision & explain how Communicate anemployees have the resources required to accomplish the individual goals relate to accomplishing the vision Provide Support and goal Feedback Allow employees to participate in setting the goals Promote Goal Commitment Behave supportively rather than punitively Set Goals