Chronostratigraphic Isopach
mapping of sequences of the
 Arabian Plate: Product and
          Process
         By Walter H...
•   StartExp is a group of independent consultants with more than 80
    years of combined hydrocarbon exploration and pro...
Problems and Talk Objectives
• Point out selected new discoveries in stratigraphic context
• Mapping across nomenclature c...
Talk Organization
•   Preliminary View of Products
•   Scale and Database
•   Surface Geology Constraint
•   Queries
    –...
Comparison of scale
  of Arabian Plate
       versus
      lower 48




                ST ART EX P
            http:// S ...
Map distribution
                                                 Of
                                             Database...
Database
• 2819 wells
   – mappable
   – 2 or more tops in well
• 46,911 tops records
   – mappable
• 481 unique ages
• ~ ...
Assigning Ages to Tops
• The process begins with assigning a 9 digit code
  to stratigraphic names.
    – Attempt to have ...
A               B           C           D           E           F
         Well          Formation     Depth     Sequence ...
Spreadsheet - Database Cycle
  for correcting superposition problems


                                                   ...
Graph of
      Stratigraphic
    Database showing
     Number of Well
    cuts through each
           age:
      Arabian ...
Using Surface Geology to
         constrain mapping
• A grid of points has been run through each
  surface geology polygon...
Database of Surface Geology Points created to
   enable constraint of isopach zero edges




                             ...
Query (RED)
                 (RED)
 for wells that spud in sub crop
• Query out wells that have a minimum age
  older than...
Query to find wells that spud below interval:
Plotted as red symbols given value of -10 for
                  gridding



...
Query (WHITE)
    for wells missing tops from the
        interval to be mapped
• For wells that have records older and yo...
Query to find wells with subsurface pinch outs:
 Plotted as white symbols given value of -5 for
                    griddi...
Dual Query System:
     First Thickness Calculation
• From the set of wells that have records younger
  and older than the...
Dual Query System:
   Second Thickness Calculation
• From the set of wells that have records above and
  below the interva...
Dual Query System for Sequence Thickness

        Query 1            Query 2
                                             ...
Stratigraphic Thickness Elevation Plot for Upper and
                   Middle Jurassic




                              ...
Penetration wells:
           GRAY & YELLOW
• Wells that do not penetrate entire sequence
• Find by query.
• Adjust for :
...
Query to find wells with penetrations that impact
interpretation: Plotted as value of penetration and given
   yellow symb...
Composite
 Sub-crop               Table for                        Surface
  Wells                   Grid                 ...
Contrast of Maps showing thickness
 constraints only with system used in this
Study : Upper and Middle Jurassic example


...
Quality Control
• Superposition and age assignment
• Step Plots
• Dual thickness query
• Laying on map for comparison (fiv...
Begin Slide Show of Maps


   We have posted some interesting
   new wells and discoveries in RED
   on specific maps




...
Slide Show of sequences of the
         Arabian Plate
      The show is a series of maps each preceded
     by a slide whi...
Importance of Neogene

• Evaporite Seal for Zagros Dezful and Northern
  Iraq
• Subsidence-Driven Maturation along the
  N...
Neogene
Isopach




http:// S tartexp.com
Importance of Oligocene

• BIG OIL: Provides major reservoir (Asmari)
  for Zagros and Iraq.
• Note restricted distributio...
Oligocene
 Isopach




 http:// S tartexp.com
Importance of Paleocene-Eocene
              Paleocene-
  ● Tawke-1
    Tawke-    ● Shakal-1
                Shakal-


• B...
Eocene and
● Tawke-1
  Tawke-         Paleocene
                  Isopach
   ● Shakal-1
     Shakal-




                h...
Importance of Upper Cretaceous
 ● Tawke-1 ● Bina-Bawi-1 ● Miran West-1
   Tawke-    Bina-Bawi-          West-

• Many indi...
Upper
● Tawke-1
  Tawke-            Cretaceous
  ● Bina-Bawi-1
    Bina-Bawi-       Isopach
   ● Miran West-1
           W...
Importance of Middle Cretaceous

• BIG OIL: Burgan, Safaniya Sandstone
  Reservoirs
• Source Rock
• Important carbonate re...
Middle
Cretaceous
 Isopach




http:// S tartexp.com
Importance of Lower Cretaceous

• BIG OIL: Zubair sandstone reservoirs,
  Shuaiba carbonate reservoirs, Thamama
  carbonat...
Lower
Cretaceous
 Isopach




http:// S tartexp.com
Importance of Upper and Middle
            Jurassic
  ● Shaikan-1
    Shaikan-    perhaps most important recent discovery ...
Upper and
              Middle Jurassic
● Shaikan-1
  Shaikan-
                 Isopach




                 http:// S tar...
Importance of Lias and Triassic
  ● Bina-Bawi-1
    Bina-Bawi-    non commercial gas test and Shaikan-1 oil test?
        ...
Lias and
                   Triassic
● Shaikan-1
  Shaikan-
  ● Bina-Bawi-1
    Bina-Bawi-     Isopach




               ...
Importance of Permian

• BIG GAS: North Dome, North Pars, South
  Pars, etc. carbonate reservoirs, anhydrite
  seals. See ...
Permian
Isopach




http:// S tartexp.com
Importance of Carboniferous

•   Almost restricted to Syria
•   Significant gas reservoirs
•   Possible gas source: coals
...
Carboniferous
   Isopach




  http:// S tartexp.com
Importance of Devonian

• Major Gas reserves in deep Ghawar could
  become a major gas and oil play on the
  Arabian Plate...
Devonian
   Isopach




http:// S tartexp.com
Importance of Silurian
  ● Arpatepe-1
    Arpatepe-    ●   Akkas-
                     Akkas-1


• Major Source rock inter...
● Arpatepe-1
        Arpatepe-            Silurian
                             Isopach
      ●   Akkas-
          Akkas-1...
Importance of Ordovician
    ● Arpatepe-1
      Arpatepe-    ●   Akkas-
                       Akkas-1

•   Frontier
•   G...
● Arpatepe-1
       Arpatepe-
                     Ordovician
                      Isopach

      ●   Akkas-
          Ak...
Importance of Cambrian

• Late Precambrian
• Oman
• Source rock (very rich and thick, Salt, salt-
  related trapping and s...
Cambrian
 Isopach




http:// S tartexp.com
Importance of Precambrian
• Infracambrian
  – Hormuz salt “structure maker”
  – Huqf Group source rocks (silicilyte
    fa...
Subsurface
                                   Precambrian in
                                       yellow,
              ...
Basement Play in Yemen




Schlumberger
The End

                          PostScript:
                   If you would like a file of
the narrative to go with the...
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Arabian Plate Chronostratigrahic Maps

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Arabian Plate Chronostratigrahic Maps

  1. 1. Chronostratigraphic Isopach mapping of sequences of the Arabian Plate: Product and Process By Walter H. Pierce And Everett Rutherford Of STARTEXP October 2009
  2. 2. • StartExp is a group of independent consultants with more than 80 years of combined hydrocarbon exploration and production experience. We have worked in most parts of the world, with particular emphasis on Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia. • We provide products and consulting services that form an integrated technical framework for improving decision making in selecting acreage for hydrocarbon exploration. While our current databases and initiatives are not designed for the individual prospect scale, our methods are scale-independent and can be applied on whatever level available data allows. • Our principal tools include potential fields data, remote images, surface geology, basin modeling, and a variety of in-house regional surface and subsurface data sets. Additional data may be contributed by the client. All project elements are assembled in a GIS framework designed to assist exploration ventures. • For more information please visit: http://startexp.com/ STARTEXP HTTP :// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  3. 3. Problems and Talk Objectives • Point out selected new discoveries in stratigraphic context • Mapping across nomenclature changes and country boundaries. • Mapping chronostratigraphic sequences versus Formations. • Pay attention to zero-edge accuracy – maps will be used for sub crop, worm’s eye, subsidence • Process that is updateable and adaptable. • Show process and “bag of tricks bag tricks.” • Show products STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  4. 4. Talk Organization • Preliminary View of Products • Scale and Database • Surface Geology Constraint • Queries – wells spudding in sub crop (Red Red) – wells with interval missing in subsurface (White) – Wells with thicknesses (Black) – Wells with penetrations (Gray and Yellow) • Construction of Composite Table for Mapping • Quality Control • Review of Products and importance of specific maps STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  5. 5. Comparison of scale of Arabian Plate versus lower 48 ST ART EX P http:// S tartex p.c om W alter H. Pierc e and Everett Rutherf ord
  6. 6. Map distribution Of Database STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  7. 7. Database • 2819 wells – mappable – 2 or more tops in well • 46,911 tops records – mappable • 481 unique ages • ~ 600 unique lithostratigraphic units. STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  8. 8. Assigning Ages to Tops • The process begins with assigning a 9 digit code to stratigraphic names. – Attempt to have the code relate to age and superposition. • A spreadsheet - database cycle focuses on code superposition problems. • Repeat cycle, adjust, repeat .. And so on... until codes obey superposition. • Finally 9 digit codes are converted to absolute ages. STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  9. 9. A B C D E F Well Formation Depth Sequence Shifted Subtract Code Sequence E from D Code 1 Dukhan 1 Dammam 0 201000000 2 Dukhan 1 Umm Er Raduma 300 202000000 201000000 1000000 3 Dukhan 1 Simsima 500 301000000 202000000 99000000 4 Dukhan 1 Mishrif 1000 304000000 301000000 3000000 5 Dukhan 1 Ahmadi 2000 305000000 304000000 1000000 6 Dukhan 1 Nahr Umr 4000 307000000 305000000 2000000 7 Dukhan 1 Shuaiba 4500 401000000 307000000 94000000 8 Dammam 1 Rus 0 203000000 401000000 -198000000 9 Dammam 1 Umm Er Raduma 200 202000000 203000000 -1000000 10 Dammam 1 Simsima 600 301000000 202000000 99000000 11 Dammam 1 Mishrif 1000 304000000 301000000 3000000 12 Dammam 1 Ahmadi 2000 305000000 304000000 1000000 13 Khurais 1 Dammam 0 201000000 305000000 -104000000 14 Khurais 1 Rus 100 203000000 201000000 2000000 15 Khurais 1 Umm Er Raduma 300 202000000 203000000 -1000000 16 Khurais 1 Simsima 1000 301000000 202000000 99000000 17 Khurais 1 Mishrif 2000 304000000 301000000 3000000 18 Khurais 1 Ahmadi 4000 305000000 304000000 1000000 19 Khurais 1 Nahr Umr 3500 307000000 305000000 2000000 307000000
  10. 10. Spreadsheet - Database Cycle for correcting superposition problems 2 1 Use Database to Shift and Subtract Query out smaller Sequence Code Negatives to find in Spreadsheet Superposition Up To Problems 6 cycles 3 Prioritize and Adjust Sequence Codes STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  11. 11. Graph of Stratigraphic Database showing Number of Well cuts through each age: Arabian Plate STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  12. 12. Using Surface Geology to constrain mapping • A grid of points has been run through each surface geology polygon. • By putting the grids into a database we make composites of sub crop geology at System level to constrain isopach mapping. STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  13. 13. Database of Surface Geology Points created to enable constraint of isopach zero edges STARTEXP Based on USGS geology http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  14. 14. Query (RED) (RED) for wells that spud in sub crop • Query out wells that have a minimum age older than the earliest age of the interval to be mapped. • Give these wells a thickness value of -11 STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  15. 15. Query to find wells that spud below interval: Plotted as red symbols given value of -10 for gridding STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  16. 16. Query (WHITE) for wells missing tops from the interval to be mapped • For wells that have records older and younger than the interval. • Remove records that are younger or older than interval to be mapped. • Count remaining records for each well. • Assign thickness value of -5 to wells that have no records. • Plot these wells as white dots. STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  17. 17. Query to find wells with subsurface pinch outs: Plotted as white symbols given value of -5 for gridding STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  18. 18. Dual Query System: First Thickness Calculation • From the set of wells that have records younger and older than the interval. • Find the maximum and minimum depth record for each well within the interval and subtract the minimum depth from the maximum depth. Then store this result as a table. STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  19. 19. Dual Query System: Second Thickness Calculation • From the set of wells that have records above and below the interval. • From well top records with ages within the interval, find the minimum depth for each well. • From a set of well top records with ages older than the interval find the minimum depth. • Subtract the smaller depth from the larger depth. STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  20. 20. Dual Query System for Sequence Thickness Query 1 Query 2 TOP 1) Match depths to time. 2) Calculate thickness TIME for Query 1 and Query 2. 3) Subtract for error checking 4) Filter out problem wells. 5) Take maximum thickness. STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  21. 21. Stratigraphic Thickness Elevation Plot for Upper and Middle Jurassic STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  22. 22. Penetration wells: GRAY & YELLOW • Wells that do not penetrate entire sequence • Find by query. • Adjust for : – Zero edge extension – Depocenters STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  23. 23. Query to find wells with penetrations that impact interpretation: Plotted as value of penetration and given yellow symbol. Gray symbol designates wells that penetrate but do not impact interpretation. STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  24. 24. Composite Sub-crop Table for Surface Wells Grid Outcrop Missing in Subsurface Wells Thickness Calculation Wells Penetration Penetration Wells Action Wells Two Judgments STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  25. 25. Contrast of Maps showing thickness constraints only with system used in this Study : Upper and Middle Jurassic example STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  26. 26. Quality Control • Superposition and age assignment • Step Plots • Dual thickness query • Laying on map for comparison (five query products) – surface map sub crop – wells spudding in sub crop – interval missing in subsurface – wells with thickness calculation (Dual Query) – wells with penetration and taking selective action – mapping result • Filters – 1) data quality and 2) structural repeats STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  27. 27. Begin Slide Show of Maps We have posted some interesting new wells and discoveries in RED on specific maps STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com Walter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  28. 28. Slide Show of sequences of the Arabian Plate The show is a series of maps each preceded by a slide which gives my “cliff note” version of what is important in so far as hydrocarbon geology concerning each chronostratigraphic sequence. The progression is down-section. Watch control. Remember: Black = thickness = variable Dusky Red area = sub crop outcrop = -10 White = subsurface missing = -5 Red = well sub crop spud = -11 Gray = well penetration Yellow = well penetration with action = variable STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  29. 29. Importance of Neogene • Evaporite Seal for Zagros Dezful and Northern Iraq • Subsidence-Driven Maturation along the Northwest boundary of Arabian Plate STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  30. 30. Neogene Isopach http:// S tartexp.com
  31. 31. Importance of Oligocene • BIG OIL: Provides major reservoir (Asmari) for Zagros and Iraq. • Note restricted distribution sandwiched between Neogene above and Paleocene- Eocene below. • Where will the first major stratigraphic discovery be made? STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  32. 32. Oligocene Isopach http:// S tartexp.com
  33. 33. Importance of Paleocene-Eocene Paleocene- ● Tawke-1 Tawke- ● Shakal-1 Shakal- • Broad regional subsidence brings vast area to regional threshold of maturation. • Source of gas and oil in northern Dezful embayment of Iran. • Behaves as vertical carrier system – Note isopach thin in area of Kirkuk, northern Iraq may have aided focusing of carrier system STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  34. 34. Eocene and ● Tawke-1 Tawke- Paleocene Isopach ● Shakal-1 Shakal- http:// S tartexp.com
  35. 35. Importance of Upper Cretaceous ● Tawke-1 ● Bina-Bawi-1 ● Miran West-1 Tawke- Bina-Bawi- West- • Many individual Basins differentiated, for example the Euphrates Graben. • Major OIL: Majnoon • Three or more distinctly aged source units. • Difficult to correlate. • Under-explored. STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  36. 36. Upper ● Tawke-1 Tawke- Cretaceous ● Bina-Bawi-1 Bina-Bawi- Isopach ● Miran West-1 West- http:// S tartexp.com
  37. 37. Importance of Middle Cretaceous • BIG OIL: Burgan, Safaniya Sandstone Reservoirs • Source Rock • Important carbonate reservoirs STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  38. 38. Middle Cretaceous Isopach http:// S tartexp.com
  39. 39. Importance of Lower Cretaceous • BIG OIL: Zubair sandstone reservoirs, Shuaiba carbonate reservoirs, Thamama carbonate reservoirs. • Sleeper Sequence: overlooked carbonate reservoirs and source rock • Problem: producing multiple thin reservoirs STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  40. 40. Lower Cretaceous Isopach http:// S tartexp.com
  41. 41. Importance of Upper and Middle Jurassic ● Shaikan-1 Shaikan- perhaps most important recent discovery because It establishes Jurassic reservoir rock in Iraq • BIG OIL: Ghawar and other Saudi fields, carbonate reservoirs • source rock, reservoirs, seals • At just the right burial depth for a large part of Basin STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  42. 42. Upper and Middle Jurassic ● Shaikan-1 Shaikan- Isopach http:// S tartexp.com
  43. 43. Importance of Lias and Triassic ● Bina-Bawi-1 Bina-Bawi- non commercial gas test and Shaikan-1 oil test? Shaikan- • Immature exploration except for Syria and Northern Iraq. • Oil and gas reservoirs, carbonate • Further potential in Turkey, Jordan, and Israel – potential for small companies • Source rock, seals, and reservoirs • Frontier STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  44. 44. Lias and Triassic ● Shaikan-1 Shaikan- ● Bina-Bawi-1 Bina-Bawi- Isopach http:// S tartexp.com
  45. 45. Importance of Permian • BIG GAS: North Dome, North Pars, South Pars, etc. carbonate reservoirs, anhydrite seals. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Iran_Gas_Fields_Location.GIF) • Basal sandstone reservoirs in Saudi Arabia and Oman oil play, red bed seals • Sourced from below: Silurian and late Precambrian and Cambrian, across unconformity STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  46. 46. Permian Isopach http:// S tartexp.com
  47. 47. Importance of Carboniferous • Almost restricted to Syria • Significant gas reservoirs • Possible gas source: coals • Observe impact of Hercynian erosion or non- deposition on isopach distribution of Carboniferous, Devonian, Silurian, and Ordovician. STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  48. 48. Carboniferous Isopach http:// S tartexp.com
  49. 49. Importance of Devonian • Major Gas reserves in deep Ghawar could become a major gas and oil play on the Arabian Plate • Definitely “Frontier” • Near shore marine sand and carbonate reservoirs. STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  50. 50. Devonian Isopach http:// S tartexp.com
  51. 51. Importance of Silurian ● Arpatepe-1 Arpatepe- ● Akkas- Akkas-1 • Major Source rock interval – multiple intervals, wide spread • Source of both oil and gas • Sandstone reservoirs at Akkaz, western Iraq • Seal sequence with potential underlying Ordovician sandstone reservoirs. STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  52. 52. ● Arpatepe-1 Arpatepe- Silurian Isopach ● Akkas- Akkas-1 ● Risha- Risha-1 http:// S tartexp.com
  53. 53. Importance of Ordovician ● Arpatepe-1 Arpatepe- ● Akkas- Akkas-1 • Frontier • Gas Production at Risha in western Jordan • Shows of oil and gas in Turkey • Facies: sandy in south grading to more fine- grained to north. STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  54. 54. ● Arpatepe-1 Arpatepe- Ordovician Isopach ● Akkas- Akkas-1 ● Risha- Risha-1 http:// S tartexp.com
  55. 55. Importance of Cambrian • Late Precambrian • Oman • Source rock (very rich and thick, Salt, salt- related trapping and salt tectonics • See “Half Graben” on isopach STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  56. 56. Cambrian Isopach http:// S tartexp.com
  57. 57. Importance of Precambrian • Infracambrian – Hormuz salt “structure maker” – Huqf Group source rocks (silicilyte facies) • “Basement” Reservoirs – Yemen • Large oil columns and reserves • Multiple fields and prospects – Egypt STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford
  58. 58. Subsurface Precambrian in yellow, Precambrian outcrop in dark brown, young oceanic crust in blue, young Egypt/GOS volcanic in basement magenta discoveries Yemen Basement discoveries Precambrian http:// S tartexp.com
  59. 59. Basement Play in Yemen Schlumberger
  60. 60. The End PostScript: If you would like a file of the narrative to go with these slides send and email request to walterhpierce@startexp.com STARTEXP http:// S tartexp.com W alter H. Pierce and Everett Rutherford

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