carbon and its compound by Gagan prasad

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carbon and its compound by Gagan prasad

  1. 1. I, Gagan prasad of class x -B, completed this power point presentation about CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS under the guidance and supervision of Miss .ANSHU with a lots of useful and valuable for organic chemistry or carbon and its compound
  2. 2. What Is Carbon ? CARBON is the chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. There are three naturally occurring isotopes, with 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is radioactive
  3. 3. Factors that determine the properties of a hydrocarbon are: The number of carbon atoms How the atoms are arranged: 1. Straight chain 2. Branched chain 3. Ring Or Cyclic
  4. 4. SATURATED HYDROCARBON UNSATURATED HYDROCARBON
  5. 5. A Hydrocarbon is an organic compound that contains only the elements hydrogen and carbon. In a saturated hydrocarbon, all the bonds are single bonds. Alkane is another name for a saturated hydrocarbon.
  6. 6. NO. OF CARBON ATOMS NAME FORMULA 1 METHANE CH4 2 ETHANE C2H6 3 PROPANE C3H8 4 BUTANE C4H10 5 PENTANE C5H12 6 HEXANE C6H14 STRUCTURE
  7. 7. A hydrocarbon can contain one carbon atom, as in methane or thousands of carbon atoms, as in cellulose.
  8. 8. Carbon has an ability to form branches with other carbon atoms. Simple branched alkanes often have a common name using a prefix to distinguish them from linear alkanes, for example npentane, isopentane, and neopentane. IUPAC naming conventions can be used to produce a systematic name.
  9. 9. Carbons can be arranged in the form of a ring or cyclic, such as cyclobutane , Benzene etc .
  10. 10. Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, known as allotropes of these elements. Allotropes are different structural modifications of an element; the element's atoms are bonded together in a different manner. For Example -- GRAPHITE DIAMOND FULLERENE
  11. 11. This is also a form of carbon allotrope. The first one to be identified was C-60 which has carbon arranged in the shape of a football. As it resembled to the geodesic dome designed by US architect Buckminster Fuller , So the molecule was named fullerene.
  12. 12. In diamond, each carbon atom is tetra headedly attached to four other carbon atoms forming a rigid three dimensional structure. Thus it is the hardest substance known.
  13. 13. In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reaction(s) regardless of the size of the molecule it is a part of.
  14. 14. SOME FUNCTIONAL GROUPS FUNCTIONAL GOUPS SUFFIX / PREFIX & SYMBOLS ALDEHYDE ALCOHOL KETONE Suff – ‘al’ Suff – ‘ol’ Suff–‘one’ CARBOXYLIC ACID Suff – ‘oic acid’ HALOGEN Pref – chloro , bromo, floro, iodo

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